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inflicted by this judgment spread irresistibly over the coun- | that was in the dungeon; and all the first-born of cattle : and try, the Egyptians not only suffered a severe loss, but also when Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, beheld their deities and their representatives sink before the and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypi": God of the Hebrews.

for there was not a house where there was not one dead! 6. As the Egyptians were celebrated for their medical skill, and their physicians were held in the highest repute, the sixth plague,-the infliction of boils accompanied with blains (Exod. ix. 8–12.), which neither their deities could

SECTION IV. avert, nor the art of man alleviate, would further show the vanity of their gods. Aaron and Moses were ordered to take

ON THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS. ashes of the furnace, and to scatter them towards heaven, that they might be wafted over the face of the country. This I. Title, author, and date.-II. Scope.III. Synopsis of its was a significant command. The ashes were to be taken

contents. from that fiery furnace, which in the Scripture was used as a type of the slavery of the Israelites, and of the cruelty I. The third book of the Pentateuch (by the Jews termed which they experienced in Egypt. (Deut. iv. 20.) The App Va-VIKRA, and he called, from its initial word) is in the process has still a further allusion to an idolatrous and cruel Septuagint styled Eritikon, and in our version Leviticus, rite, which was common among the Egyptians, and to or the Levitical book, because it principally contains the which it is opposed as a contrast. They had several cities laws concerning the religion of the Israelites, which chiefly styled Typhonian, such as Heliopolis, Idythia, Abaris, and consisted of various sacrifices; the charge of which was Busiris. In these, at particular seasons, they sacrificed men. committed to Aaron the Levite (as he is termed in Exod. iv. The objects thus destined, were persons with bright hair, 14.) and to his sons, who alone held the priestly office in the and a particular complexion, such as were seldom to be tribe of Levi ; which St. Paul therefore calls a " Levitical found among the native Egyptians. Hence, we may infer priesthood.” (Heb. vii. 11.). In the Babylonish Talmud it that they were foreigners; and it is probable, that whilst is called the law of the priests, which appellation is retained the Israelites resided in Egypt, they were chosen from their in the Arabic and Syriac versions. body. They were burnt alive upon a high altar, and thus The author of this book, it is universally admitted, was sacrificed for the good of the people. At the close of the Moses; and it is cited as his production in several books of sacrifice, the priests gathered together the ashes of these Scripture. By comparing Exod. xl. 17. with Num. i. 1. we victims, and scattered them upwards in the air, with the learn that this book contains the history of one month, viz. view, probably, that where any atom of this dust was car- from the erection of the tabernacle to the numbering of the ried, a blessing might be entailed. The like was, therefore, people who were fit for war, that is, from the beginning of done by Moses, though with a different intention, and to a the second year after Israel's departure from Egypt to the more certain effect.

beginning of the second month of the same year, which was 7. The plague of hail, rain, and fire (Exod. ix. 13–35.), in the year of the world 2514, and before Christ 1490. demonstrated that neither Osiris, who presided over fire, nor The laws prescribed upon other subjects than sacrifices Isis, who presided over water, could protect the fields and have no chronological marks by which we can judge of the the climate of Egypt from the thunder, the rain, and the times when they were given. hail of Jehovah. "These phenomena were of extremely rare

II. The general Scope of this book is, to make known to occurrence, at any period of the year: they now fell at a the Israelites the Levitical laws, sacrifices, and ordinances, time when the air was most calm and serene.

and by those " shadows of good things to come,” to lead the 8. Of the severity of the ravages, caused by the plague Israelites to the Messiah (Heb. x. 1. with Gal. iii. 24.) : of locusts, (Exod. x. 1–20.) some idea may be conceived and it appears from the argument of Saint Paul, that they from the account of those insects in this volume, p. 39. had some idea of the spiritual meaning of these various inThe Egyptians had gods, in whom they trusted to deliver stitutions. (1 Cor. x. 1—4.). their country from these terrible invaders. They trusted This book is of great use in explaining

numerous passages much to the fecundity of their soil, and to the deities, Isis of the New Testament, especially the Epistle to the Heand Serapis, who were the conservators of all plenty. But brews, which, in fact, would be unintelligible without it. by this judgment they were taught that it was impossible In considering, however, the spiritual tendency of Leviticus, to stand before Moses the servant of God. The very winds, care must be taken not to apply the types too extensively: which they venerated, were made the instruments of their the observation of Jerome as to its spiritual import is undestruction; and the sea, which they regarded as their de- doubtedly very pious and just, but few persons will acquiesce fence against the locusts, could not afford them any pro- in his remark, that almost every syllable in this book breathes tection.

a spiritual sacrament.''3 9. The ninth plague consisted in three days' darkness over III. Leviticus is divided by the Jews into nine paraschioth, all the land of Egypt. (Exod. x. 21–27.) "The Egyptians which in our Bibles form twenty-seven chapters: it consists considered light and fire, the purest of elements, to be pro- of four leading topics ; comprising per types of God. They regarded the sun, the great fountain Part I. The Laws concerning Sacrifices, in which the diff r. of light, as an emblem of his glory and salutary influence ent kinds of sacrifices are enumerated, together with their on the world. The sun was esteemed the soul of the world, concomitant rites ; as, and was supposed with the moon to rule all things: and not

Szct. 1. The Burnt Offering (Lev. i.), which prefigured the only to be the conservators, but the creators of all things.

full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice of Christ, " to put away Accordingly, they worshipped them, as well as night and darkness. This miraculous darkness would, therefore, con

sin;" and who, by his “one offering hath perfected for ever firm still further (if further confirmation were wanting) the

them that are sanctified.” (Heb. ix. 26. x. 14. 1 John i. 7.)

SECT. 2. The Meat Offerings. (Lev. ii.) vanity of their idol-deities. 10. The infliction of the tenth and last plague—the de

Sect. 3. The Peace Offering (Lev. ii.), which represented

both Christ's oblation of himself, whereby he became our struction of the first-born (Exod. xi. 1–8. xii. 29, 30.) was most equitable; because, after the Egyptians had been pre

peace and salvation (Eph. ii. 14—16. Acts xiii. 47. Heb. served by one of the Israelitish family, they had (contrary

v. 9. ix. 28.) and also our oblation of praise, thanksgiving, to all right, and in defiance of the stipulation originally

and prayer to God. made with the Israelites when they first went into Egypt,

Sect. 4. The Offering made for sins of ignorance (Lev. iv. enslaved the people to whom they had been so much in

v.), which, being consumed without the camp, signified debted; had murdered their children, and made their bonda

Christ's suffering

" without the gate, that he might sanctify age intolerable. We learn from Herodotus, that it was the people with his own blood.” (Heb. xiii. 11–13.) the custom of the Egyptians to rush from the house into the Sect. 5. The Trespass Offering for sins knowingly comstreet, to bewail the dead with loud and bitter outcries : and mitted (Lev. vi. vii.), in which sacrifice the gailt was conevery member of the family united in the bitter expressions sidered as being transferred to the animal offered up to Jeof sorrow. How great, then, must their terror and their hovah, and the person offering it, as redeemed from the grief have been, when, at midnight, the Lord smote all the first-born of the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pha- 3 "Singula sacrificia, immo singulæ pene syllabæ, et vestes Aaron, et raoh that sat on his throne, unto the first-born of the captive totus Prido Leviticus spirant cælestia sacramenta."--Epist.

ad Paulinun,

to the collection them, which is prefixed to the Frankfort edition of the Plutarch, Is. ct Osir. v. I. p. 380. D.

2 Lib. ii. cc. 85, 85. Latin Vulgate. (1826. Svo )

penalty of sin. Thus Jesus Christ is said to have made his | Almighty over the Israelites, during their wanderings in the

soul an offering for sin. (Isa. liii. 10. with 2 Cor. v. 21.) wilderness, and the temptations and murmurings there by PART II. The Institution of the Priesthood, in which the con- which they provoked and offended their Heavenly Protector;

secration of Aaron and his sons to the sacred office is related, so that, at length, he sware in his wrath that they should not together with the punishment of Nadab and" Abihu. (Lev. enter into his rest. (Psal. xcv. 11.) St. Paul, warning the

converted Hebrews, expressly states that they could not enter PART III, The Laws concerning Purifications both of the peo- 19.); and in 1 Cor. x. 1.–11, he states that all these things

into the land of Canaan because of their unbelief (Heb. iii. ple and the Priests. (Lev. xi-xxii.) Among these, the regulations concerning leprosy (xiii.) as re- admonition. The method. pursued in this book is precisely presenting the universal taint of sin, and those concerning that which would be adopted by the writer of an itinerary'; the scape-goat and the great day of atonement (xvi.), de- the respective stations are noted;

and the principal occurmand particular attention; as typifying the death and resurrection of Christ, and the atonement made thereby (Heb. such as are of comparatively less importance. This circum

rences that took place at each station are related, omitting ix. 7–12. 24—27.); while they at the same time inculcate stance is an additional internal proof that Moses was the the hatefulness of sin, and the necessity of internal purity author of the Book of Numbers, which is cited as his work Chapters xviii

. and xix. contain various cautions to the Is- in many parts of Scripture. raelites to avoid the sinful practices of the Egyptians and III. TYPES OF THE Messiah, in this book, are, The Water Canaanites, with laws adapted to the peculiar circumstances that issued from the Rock (Num. xx.with 1 Cor. x. 4.11.); and and situations of the children of Israel, interspersed with the elevation of the Brazen Serpent. (Num. xxi. with John several moral precepts inculcating the duties of humanity ii. 14.) and mercy, and the necessity of strict integrity.

IV. This book contains only one PREDICTION concerning Part IV. The Laws concerning the Sacred Festivals, Vows, the Messiah, viz. Numbers xxiv. 17. 19. which, Rosenmüller Things devoted, and Tithes.

and some other eminent biblical critics have contended, Chapter xxiii. treats of the seven great festivals, viz. the Sab- cannot apply to Jesus Christ. This passage, it is true, in its bath, the passover, the feast of first-fruits,

the feast of Pente primary and literal meaning, intimates that from the people cost, the feast of trumpets, the great day of atonement, and of Israel should arise a mighty prince, who would obtain an the feast of tabernacles. The celebration of these solemn Edom: and it was fulfilled in David, for it is expressly

entire conquest and bear rule over the kingdoms of Moab and festivals was of singular use for maintaining the system of recorded of him, that he finally subdued those nations. divine worship among the Israelites ; for distinguishing them (2 Sam. viii. 2. 14.) But, in its full import, it has invariably from all other people ; for the solemn commemoration of the been considered as referring to that illustrious personage, of many and great benefits conferred on them by Jehovah; for whom David was a type and a progenitor : and is, in fact, a the preservation and continuance of the public ministry; splendid prediction of the final and universal sway of the for preserving purity and unity in divine worship; and, Messiah, when the middle wall of partition shall be broken lastly, for prefiguring the manifold and great blessings be down, and both Jews and Gentiles shall become one fold stowed on mankind by the Messiah. In chap. xxiv. vari- under one shepherd. This explanation is perfectly consonant ous ceremonial and judicial rites are enjoined: and in chap. to many other prophecies concerning the Saviour ; which, in xxv. is recapitulated the law respecting the sabbatical year similar" language, describe him as acquiring dominion over which had before been given (see Exod. xxiii

. 10, 11.) ; the heathen countries, and destroying the enemies of his church: observance of the jubilee is enjoined, with various precepts and it is observable, that, in several of these ancient predicrespecting mercy, benevolence, &c. The jubilee was typi- tions, some particular opposers, as the Moabites and Edomcal of the great time of release, the Gospel-dispensation. ites, are put for the "adversaries of the Lord,” in general. (See Isa. Ixi. 1-3. with Luke iv. 19.) Chap. xxvi. presents (See Psal. ii. 8. lxxii. 8. cx. 6. Isa. xi. 14. and xxv. 10.)' various prophetic promises and threatenings which have In this passage, an eminent critic observes, that Balaam, signally been fulfilled among the Jews. (Compare v. 22. in prophetic vision, descries the remote coming of Shiloh, with Num. xxi. 6. 2 Kings ii. 24. and xvii. 25. with Ezek. under the imagery of a star and a sceptre, or an illustrious v. 17.) The preservation of the Jews to this day, as a dis- prince. Though it was foretold that “ the sceptre should tinct people, is a living comment on v. 44. The twenty- depart from Judah” at his coming, this prophecy confirms to seventh and last chapter comprises regulations concerning him a proper sceptre of his own: and our Lord claimed it vows, and things devoted, as well as the tithes which were when he avowed himself a “King” to Pilate, but declared to be dedicated to the service of the tabernacle.

that his "kingdom was not of this world.” (John xviii. 36, 37.) This branch of the prophecy was fulfilled about 1600 years after ; when, at the birth of Christ, “the Magi from the East" (who are supposed by Theophylact to have been

the posterity of Balaam) came to Jerusalem, saying, “Where SECTION V.

is the [true] born king of the Jews ? for we have seen his

star at its rising, and are come to worship him. "2' (Matt. ii. ON THE BOOK OF NUMBERS.

V. The book of Numbers contains a history of the Israel1. Title, author, date, and argument.—II. Scope.—III. Types ites, from the beginning of the second month of the second

of the Messiah.—IV. Prediction of the Messiah.—V. Chro- year after their departure from Egypt, to the beginning of nology.-VI. Synopsis of its contents.—VII. Observations on the eleventh month of the fortieth year of their journeyings, the books of the wars of the Lord, mentioned in Numbers – that is, a period of thirty-eight years and nine or ten months. xxi. 14.

(Compare Num. i. and xxxvi. 13. with Deut. i. 3.) Most

of the transactions here recorded took place in the second and I. In conformity with the Hebrew custom, this fourth book thirty-eighth years: the dates of the facts related in the middle of Moses is usually termed -27', va-Jedabar, and he spake, of the book cannot be precisely ascertained. because it commences with that word in the original text: it is also called apa, BemidBar, “ In the Desert,” which is the Writ contains ten paraschioth or chapters; in our Bibles it

VI. According to the Jewish division, this portion of Holy fifth word in the first verse, because it relates the transactions of the Israelites in the wilderness. By the Alexandrian 1 Robinson's Scripture Characters, vol. i. p. 480 - The same author adds translators it was entitled APIOMOI, which appellation was ing Star, which, through the tender mercy of our God, hath visited us? adopted by the Greek fathers; and by the Latin translators (Luke 1:78. Rev. xxii. 16.); and to him also the sceptre of universal goit was termed Numeri, Numbers, whence our English title is vernment is committed. He shall have dominion ; for he must reign till derived; because it contains an account of the numbering of he hath put all enemies under his feet.” (1 Cor. xv. 5. Balaam

looked for the children of Israel, related in chapters i.-iii. and xxvi. "the latter days: and concerning him, he said, I shall see him, but not It appears from xxxvi. 13. to have been written by Moses in now; I shall behold him, but not nigh; which might intimate, that his apthe plains of Moab. Besides the numeration and marshalling pearance was far removed, and that he should see him only by the spirit of of the Israelites for their journey, several laws in addition to indeed both Balaam and every despiser of his grace shall see him in his those delivered in Exodus and Leviticus, and likewise several glory, shall behold him, but not nigh:' for they shall be driven out from remarkable events, are recorded in this book.

him with shame and confusion, and be punished with everlasting destruc II. The Scope of the Book of Numbers is, to transmit to tion from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power." posterity, for a perpetual example, the providential care of the 2 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 229.

1, 2.)

consists of thirty-six chapters, which comprise four principal --50.) The miraculous budding of Aaron's rod among the parts or sections.

rods of the tribes, as a confirmation of his priesthood, and Part I. The Census of the Israelites, comprising,

as a monument against the rebels (xvii.) ; which was sucSect. 1. The enumeration of the twelve tribes, and the mar

ceeded by some directions concerning the dignity and supeshalling of them into a regular camp; "each tribe by itself

riority of the priestly office over that of the Levites, and under its own captain or chief, distinguished by its own

respecting the maintenance of both (xviii.), together with peculiar standard.” (Num. i. ii.)

regulations concerning the water of separation made with

the ashes of a red heifer, and its use for the purification of The standards or banners of the tribes are not men- those who were unclean. (xix.) tioned by Moses (ii. 2.); but they seem to be pointed out by Rev. iv. 7. with which the tradition of the Jews agrees.

Sect. 7. Their Murmuring in the Desert of Zin for Water, The standard of Judah is a lion; of Reuben, a man; of

the unbelief of Moses, the perfidy of the Edomites, and

Aaron's death. (xx.) Ephraim, an ox; of Dan, an eagle. This agrees with the vision of the cherubic figures in Ezekiel i. 10.1

Sect. 8. Their Murmuring, as they journeyed to compass Sect. 2. The sacred or ecclesiastical census of the Levites;

the land of Edom," when the soul of the people was disthe designation of them to the sacred office, and the appoint

couraged because of the length of the way," and also their ment of them to various services in the tabernacle. (iii. iv.)

loathing of manna, by them contemptuously termed“ light

bread," for which they were punished with fiery serpents, Besides the conveniency which would naturally result

but on repentance were healed by looking at a brazen serfrom the numeration and marshalling of the tribes, this

pent. (xxi.) census would demonstrate to the Israelites (as it does to us), how faithful God had been to the promise made to the pa

Part IV. A History of the Transactions which took place

in the Plains of Moab (xxii.—xxxvi.); including, triarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, of multiplying and preserving their posterity. By this, also, they were preserved

Şect. 1. The machinations of their enemies against them, their from all intermixture with their vicious and idolatrous neigh- frustration, and the prophecies of Balaam respecting the bours; each true-born Israelite being obliged and enabled to Jews and their enemies, the ensnaring of the Israelites to deliver a clear account of the tribe, and even the family,

commit idolatry by the Moabites, with their consequent from which he was descended; which was of still higher

punishment. (xxii.—xxv.) and more special importance for preserving the certain and Sect. 2. A second enumeration of the people (xxvi.); in unexceptionable genealogy of Christ the Messiah, who was which are displayed “the singular providence of God, and to be born of this nation, according to original and repeated the further accomplishment of his promise to the patriarchs, promise.2

in multiplying the people of Israel so exceedingly, that in Part II. The Institution of various Legal Ceremonies,—as,

all the tribes there were only 61,020 men" less than at the

first census, “notwithstanding the whole of that murmuring Sect. 1. The purification of the camp, by the removal of all

generation” (with the exception of Joshua, Caleb, and a unclean persons from it, and the trial of the suspected adulteress by the waters of jealousy. (Num. v.)

few others) “ perished in the wilderness. "i Sect. 2. The institution of the Nazareate. (vi.)

Sect. 3. The remaining chapters relate the appointment of

Joshua to be the successor of Moses, and various regulaSect. 3. An account of the oblations made to the tabernacle

tions concerning sacrifices, and the partition of the proby the princes or heads of tribes. (vii.)

mised land. (xxvii.-xxxvi.) The thirty-third chapter conSect. 4. The consecration of the Levites. (viii.)

tains a recapitulation of the several stages of the journeySect 5. The celebration of the passover. (ix.)

ings of the Israelites. As the best elucidation of this subject,

the reader is referred to the accompanying Map, together Sect. 6. Regulations concerning the moving or resting of the

with the table on the following page. camp of Israel during their progress. (x.) Part III. The History of their Journey from Mount Sinai to (Heb. ii. 17.) “Does not He, while the pestilence of sin is raging in the the Land of Moab, comprising an Account of their Fight world at large, or in the bodies

of individuals, stand between us and sin Murmurings in the Way.

with the incense of his intercession, and the offering of his blood, and

make an atonement and stay the plague, and death eternal, to all who havo Sect. 1. The first Murmuring of the People on account of a lively faith in Him? He is able to save them unto the uttermost that

the length of the way; which was punished by fire at come unto God by him, seeing he erer liveth to make intercession for them. Taberah. (xi. 1-3.)

(Heb. vii. 25.)" "Pluinptre's Popular Commentary on the Bible, vol. i. Sect. 2. Their Loathing of Manna, and Murmuring for consult Bishop Newton's Dissertations, vol. 1. diss. v. and the Dissertation

, Flesh, punished by the sending of quails and a pestilence. sur les Prophéties de Balaain, in the Bible

de Vence, tom. iii. pp. 274–313. (xi. 4—35.)

“Though God had probably rejected Balaain as an apostate prophet, he Sect. 3. The Murmuring of Aaron and Miriam at Moses, oracles ; to illustrate the impotency of the heathen arts, and to deroonstrate

deigned to employ him on this signal occasion as the herald of the divine for which Miriam was smitten with a leprosy, but was healed the power and foreknowledge of the Divine Spirit.” (Bp. Gray.) Bishop at the intercession of Moses. (xii.)

Butler has a fine discourse on the character of Balaain, Works, vol. i. Sect. 4. The instructions given to the spies who were sent to 5 Roberts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 26. The following comparative stateexplore the promised land, and their “evil report” of it. mene will show how much some of the tribes had increased, and others

had diminished, since the first enumeration :(xiii.) The Murmuring of the People at Kadesh-Barnea ; for which all of them, who were twenty years old and up

Ch. i. Ch. xxvi. ward, were deprived of entering into Canaan: and the men Reuben 46,500 43,730

2,770 decrease Simeon 59,300

22,200 37,100 decrease that brought up the evil report of the land died by the

45,650

5,150 decrease plague,” excepting Joshua and Caleb. In ch. xv. some or

1,900 increase dinances are given for conducting the worship of Jehovah

57,400 60,500

3,100 increase in the land of Canaan.

Manasseh 32,200 52,700 20,500 increase
Ephraim 40,500 32,500

8,000 decrease Sect. 5. The Murmuring and Rebellion of Korah, Dathan,

Benjamin 35,400 45,600 10,200 increase and Abiram, and their followers, with their punishment.

62,700
64,400

1,700 increase (xvi. 1-40.)

41,500 53,400 11,900 increase

Naphtali 53,400 45,400 8,000 decrease
Sect. 6. The Murmuring of the People against Moses and
Aaron, on account of their preceding judgment, and their

Total 603,550 601,730 1,820 decrease on the

whole in 3 years. punishment, with Aaron's intercession for them. (xvi. 41

Decrease in all 61,020. Increase in all 59,020 1 Reeves's edition of the Bible, vol. i. on Num. ii. 2.

Levites 2 Pyle's Paraphrase, &c. on the Old Test. vol. ii. p. 150.

22,300
23,300

increase 1,000 • In Aaron making intercession for the rebel Israelites, we behold a

Mr. Reeves's edition of the Bible with Notes, on Num. xxvi. 62 lively type of Jesus Christ, who is a merciful and faithful high-priest, in

Dr. A. Clarke on Num. xxvi. 51. things pertaining to God, to make intercession for the sins of the people. • Roberts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 26. $ 4.

p. 253.

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TABLE OF THE STATIONS OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE

YM.' D.

Water from the rock Num. xx.
WILDERNESS.1

13.

Meribah !(From Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, Vol. I. pp.395–400.)

Moses and Aaron offend

xxvii. 14.

39. Mount Hor, or Seir, on Y.M.D.

22. Num.xxxiii. 37 1.1.15. 1. Rameses, near Cairo. Exod. xij. 37. Num.xxxiii. 3.

the edge of Edom
Aaron's Death

23.
2. Succoth
xii.

xxxiii. 38.
37.
xxxiii. 3.

40 5.
3. Etham, or Adsjerud
xiii.

King Arad attacks the
20.
xxxiii. 5.

xxi. 1.

Israelites. 4. Pihahiroth, or Valley of

xiv. 1.
Bedea

xxxiii. 7.
40. Kibroth Hatataavah, or

Deut. i.

1. 5. Shur ;-Ain Musa

Tophel, again 6. Desert of Shur, or

41. Zalınonah, or Hashmoxxxiii. 8.

xxxiii. 41. Etham

nah, again 7. Marah," bitter;

The People bitten by wa

XV. 23. ters healed

xxxiii. 8.

fiery Serpents

The Brazen Serpent Num. xxi.
8. Elim, Valley of Corondell

27.
xxxiii. 9.

8.

erected 9. Encampment by the

xxxiii. 10.

42. Punon Red Sea

xxxiii. 42. 13. Oboth.

xxi. 10. L. 2. 15. 10. Desert of Sin, Valley of

xxxiji. 43. xvi. 1. Baharan

xxxiii. 11.

44. Jim, or Jie Abarim in
the border of Moab.

xxxiii. 44
Manna, for forty years
xyi. 13.
15. The valley and brook

12.
Quails, for a day
xvi. 35.

Zered

Deut. ii. 13.
Sabbath renewed, or
xvi. 23.

46. Arnon

Num. xxi. revived

12. 17. Beer, or Beer Elim

xxi. 16. 11. Dopkah..

xxxiii. 12.

Isaiah xv.

8.
12. Aluth

xxxiii. 13.
48. Jahaz

Num. xxi. 23.
13. Rephidiin

xvii. 1.
xxxiji. 11.

19. Heshbon
Water, from the rock

xxi.
xvii. 6.

Sihon defeated
Massah

50. Jaazar.

xxi.

32.
Amalekites defeated
xvii. 13.

51. Edrei

xxi.

33. Jethro's visit

xviii. 5. Judges appointed

Og defeated. xviii. 25.

52. Dibon Gad 1. 3. 15. 14. Mount Sinai, or Horeb

xix. 1.
xxxiii. 15.

53. Alipon Diblathaim Ezek. vi.
The Decalogue given

14. 1.

xxxiii. 45 51. Mattanah.

Num. xxi 18.
The Covenant made
xxiv. 7.

xxxiii. 46. 55. Mahiliel

xxi. 19.
The Golden Calf
xxxii. 6.

56. Bamoth

xxi. 19. Neh. ix.

57. Pisgah.

xxj. 20. 1. 6. The Covenant renewed Exod. xxxiv. 27. The first Muster, or xxxviii. 26.

59: Shittim, or Abel shit.} Num. xxv. Numbering

tim

. xxxjii. 47 2. The Tabernacle erected xl. 17.

In the Plains of Moab Josh. iii. 1.
Aaron consecrated and

xxxiii. 48. Lev. viii. 6.

Idolatry of Baal Peor .

Num. xxv.

3. his sons

Midianites punished
2. 1. 8.
ix.

XXV
Sacrifices of Atonement

1.
The third Muster.

2. 14. The second Passover.

xxvi. Num. ix. 5.

40. u. 1. Last exhortation of Moses Deut. i. 2. 1. The second Muster

i.
3.
40. 12. 1. Joshua appointed his Num. xxvii.

18.
Nadab and Abihu de.
iii. 4.2

successor

Deut. xxxiv.

9.
stroyed
Lev. x.

Death of Moses

5. i. S

xxxiv.

A Month's Mourning
Num. x.

xxxiv.
2. 2. 20. 15. Desert of Paran
12.

8.

41. 1. 1. 60. Joshua sends two Spies Josh. ii. 1.
16. Taberah

X. 33
Murmuring of the peo

41. 1. 10. Passage of the river

iv. 29.
xi. 3.

Jordan
ple
17. Kibroth Hattaavah, or

xi.
Tophel
.3

xxxiii. 16.
Deut. i. 1. S

VII. Few passages in the Pentateuch have more exercised Quails, for a month.

the ingenuity of biblical critics, than the Book of the Wurs of Plague of the People

the Lord mentioned in Num. xxi. 14. Aben-Ezra, HottinCouncil of LXX. ap

ger, and others, are of opinion that it refers to this book of
pointed
18. Hazeroth

Num. xi.
35.

the Pentateuch, because in it are related various battles of the Deut. i. 1.

xxxiii. 17. Israelites with the Amorites: Hezelius, and after him MiMiriam's Leprosy Num. xii. 10.

chaelis, think it was an Amoritish writing, containing tri2. 5. 19. Kadesh Barnea, in Rith

Num. xii. mah, or "ihe De.

16. xxxiii. 18. | umphal songs in honour of the victories obtained by Sihon

xxxii. 8. sert” of Sin, or Paran

king of the Amorites, from which Moses cited the words that Twelve Spies sent

2. 2. 7. 6.

immediately follow. Fonseca and some others refer it to the Their return

xiii. 26.
The people rebel
xiv. 2.

book of Judges. Le Clerc understands it of the wars of the
Sentenced to wander
xiv. 33.

Israelites, who fought under the direction of Jehovah, and, forty years

instead of book, he translates it, with most of the Jewish xxxii. 13. Ten of the Spies de.

doctors, narration, and proposes to render the verse thus : xiv, 37. stroyed

“Wherefore, in the narration of the wars of the Lord, there The People defeated by

xiv. 45.

is (or shall be) mention of what he did in the Red Sea, and the Amalekites Rebellion of Korah, &c. xvi. 1.

in the brooks of Arnon.”—Lastly, Dr. Lightfoot considers Budding of Aaron's Rod xvii. 10.

this book to have been some book of remembrances and direc20. Rimmon Parez

xxxiii. 19. tions written by Moses for Joshua's private instruction, for 21. Libnah, or Leban Deut. i. 1. 22. Rissah

xxxiii

. 21: | the prosecution of the wars after his decease. (See Exod. 23. Kehelathah.

xxxiii

. 22 xvii. 14–16.) This opinion appears to us the most simple, 24. Mount Shaphar

xxxiii. 33. and is, in all probability, the true one. 25. Haradath, or

. Hazar Addar, or Adar Num. xxxiv. 4. 2

Josh. xv.

3. 26. Makeloth

xxxiii. 25. 27. Tahath

xxxiji. 26.

SECTION Vi. 28. Tarath

xxxiii. 27. 29. Mitcah

xxxiii. 28. 30. Hashmonah, or

xxxiii. 29.

ON THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY.
Azmon, or Šelmonah . Num. XX.

Josh. xv.
31. Beeroth

Deut. x.
6.

I. Title, date, and chronology,—II. Scope.-III. Predictions 32. Moseroth, or Mosera

xxxiii. 30.

of the Messiah.—IV. Synopsis of contents.-V. Observa33. Benejaakan, or Banea

xxxiii. 31 34. Horhagidgad, or

xxxiii. 32. tions.Table or harmony of the Mosaic law. Gudgodah

7. 35. Jotbatha, or

xxxiii. 33.

I. THE Jews call this fifth book of Moses dingen obes Etebatha, or Elath

ii. 8. ? 1Kings ix. 26.)

(ALEH HADEBARIM), that is, “These are the words," because the 36.- Ebrona

xxxill

. 34. Original commences with these words : by some rabbins it is 37. Ezion Geber, or

xxxiii. 35. || called in nupp (MisNeH TORAH), or the repetition of the law, Dizahab

Deut. i. 1. 40. 1.

38. Kadesh Barnea again,
after 38 years

while others term it rinsin (SEPHER TUKHHUTH), or the ii. 14. Xxxii. 36.

Book of Reproofs, on account of the numerous reproofs of the
Miriam's Death

INum. xx.
1.

Israelites by Moses. The Greeks and Latins respectively - in the Bible de Vence, tom. iii. pp. 365–405. there is an elaborate Geo-call it SETTEPONOMION, Deuteronomium (whence our graphical Dissertation sur les xlii. Stations des Israelites.

English title Deuteronomy is derived), that is to say, the

34.

xiii.

x.

second law (4U Tepos Nojos), because it contains a second state-, accomplished in the present day :-all these circumstances, ment of the laws which Moses had formerly promulgated to when united, bear ample testimony to the truth and authenthe Israelites. From a comparison of Deut. i. 5. with xxxiv. ticity of this sacred book, and present to our minds a memo1. it appears to have been written by Moses on the plains of rable instance of the divine justice.” Moab, a short time before his death; and this circumstance IV. The Jews divide this book into ten paraschioth or will account for that affectionate earnestness with which he chapters: in our Bibles it consists of thirty-four chapters, the addresses the Israelites. The period of time comprised in this contents of which may be arranged under the four following book is five lunar weeks, or, according to some chronologers, heads :about two months, viz. from the first day of the eleventh Part I. A Repetition of the History related in the preceding month of the fortieth year after the exodus of Israel from Books ; comprising, Egypt, to the eleventh day of the twelfth month of the same year, A. M. 2553, B. C. 1451. From the account of Moses's

Sect. 1. A relation of the events that took place in the wilderdeath recorded in the thirty-fourth chapter of this book, and

ness, from their leaving Mount Horeb until their arrival at the insertion of some explanatory words in other parts of

Kadesh. (Deut. i.) Deuteronomy, it has been insinuated that Moses could not Sect. 2. Their journey from Kadesh till they came to the land have been its author : but the following remark will clearly

of the Amorites, and the defeat of Sihon their king, and of prove this notion to be unfounded. The words of Moses (as Og king of Bashan, together with the division of their terriwe have already had occasion to remark) evidently conclude

tories among the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half with the thirty-third chapter: the thirty-fourth was added to

tribe of Manasseh. (ii. iii.) complete the history, the first eight verses probably imme

Sect. 3. An exhortation to obey the divine law, and to avoid diately after his death by his successor Joshua, the last four idolatry, founded on their past experience of the goodness by some later writer, probably Samuel or Ezra, or some pro

of God. (iv.) phet that succeeded Samuel. Another and equally satisfac- Part II. A Repetition of the Moral, Ceremonial, and Judicial tory solution of this difficulty is the following; viz. that what Law ; containing, now forms the last chapter of Deuteronomy, was formerly the first of Joshua, but was removed thence, and joined to Deu

Sect. 1. A Repetition of the Moral Law or Ten Commandteronomy by way of supplement. This opinion will not

ments (v. 1—22.) and its effect upon the people of Israel appear improbable, when it is considered that sections and

(v. 22–33.) ;-an exposition of the first commandment, other divisions, as well as points and pauses, were invented

with an exhortation to love God with all their hearts (vi.) ;

-an exposition of the second commandment against idolalong since these books were written : for, in those early ages several books were connected together, and followed each

try, prohibiting any intercourse with the idolatrous nations, other on the same roll. The beginning of one book might,

and enjoining the extirpation of the Canaanites and every therefore, be easily transferred to the end of another, and in

vestige of their idolatry (vii.) ;-strong motives to obediprocess of time be considered as its real conclusion, as in the

ence, arising from a review of their past mercies, and from case of Deuteronomy; especially as the supplemental chapter

the consideration that Jehovah was about to conduct them contains an account of the last transactions and death of the

into the promised land, not on account of their own rightgreat author of the Pentateuch.

cousness, but of his great mercy. (viii

. ix. x. xi.) II. The Scope of the book of Deuteronomy is, to repeat to

Sect. 2. A Repetition of the Ceremonial Law (xii.- xvi.) ; the Israelites, before Moses left them, the chief laws of God -a command to abolish all idolatry, and regulations for the which had been given to them; that those who were not born

worship of God (xii.) ;-laws against false prophets, and at the time when they were originally delivered, or were in- idolatrous cities (xiii.) ;-prohibition against disfiguring capable of understanding them, might be instructed in these themselves in mourning (xiv. 1, 2.) ;-a recapitulation of laws, and excited to attend to them, and, consequently, be the law concerning clean and unclean animals (xiv. 3—21.), better prepared for the promised land upon which they were —and the payment of tithes to the Levites (xiv. 22—29.); entering.' With this view the sacred historian recapitulates -regulations concerning the year of release (xv.) ;-conthe various mercies which God had bestowed upon them and cerning the stated annual feasts, the Passover, Pentecost, their forefathers, from their departure out of Egypt; the vic- and Feast of Tabernacles (xvi. 1–17.) ;-the election of tories which by divine assistance they had obtained over their judges, and administration of justice (xvi. 18—20.) ;-a enemies; their rebellion, ingratitude, and chastisements. The prohibition against planting groves or setting up idols near moral, ceremonial, and judicial laws are repeated with addi- the altar of God. (xvi. 21, 22.) tions and explanations; and the people are urged to obedience Sect. 3. A Repetition and Exposition of the Judicial Law in the most affectionate manner, from the consideration of the (xvii.- xxvi.) ;-a command to put idolaters to death, reguendearing promises made to them by God, which he would lations for determining difficult controversies, and concernassuredly perform, if they did not frustrate his designs of ing the election and qualifications of a king (xvii.) ;-the mercy by their own wilful obstinacy. That no person might maintenance of the priests and Levites (xviii. 1–8.) ;thereafter plead ignorance of the divine law, he commanded

cautions against following the abominations of the Gentile that it should be read to all the people at the end of every nations, especially divination (xviii. 3—14.) ;-a prediction seventh year; and concluded his ministerial labours among

relative to the great prophet that should arise (xviii. 15— the Israelites by a most admirable ode, which he commanded

19.) ;-criteria for distinguishing false prophets from true every one to learn, and by giving his prophetic benediction

ones (xviii. 20—22.) ;-laws relative to the cities of refuge to the twelve tribes. III. This book contains only one PROPHECY RELATIVE TO

(xix. 1–10.), the treatment of murderers (xix. 11–13.), THE Messiah, viz. Deut. xviii. 15. 18, 19., which was ful

and the evidence of witnesses (xix. 15—21.) ;-laws confilled fifteen hundred years after it had been delivered, and is

cerning war and the treatment of the Canaanites (xx.) ;-the

expiation of uncertain murder, marriage with captives, expressly applied to Jesus Christ in Acts iii. 22, 23. and vii. 37. ;? it also comprises several very remarkable predictions

rights of the first-born, punishment of a disobedient son, relative to the Israelites, some of which are fulfilled before

&c. (xxi.) ;-regulations concerning things lost or strayed, our eyes." These prophecies,” it has been justly remarked, 3

the distinguishing of the sexes by their apparel, punishment “become more numerous and distinct towards the close of

of adultery, &c. (xxii.) ;-who may or may not enter into his life. His denunciations with respect to the future state

the congregation-prohibition against all uncleanness of the Israelites; the sufferings, the dispersions, and the de

regulations concerning usury, vows, and trespasses (xxiii.); vastations to which they were to be subject; the prophetic

-of divorces, the privileges of newly married men, pledges, blessings which he pronounced on the different tribes by manstealing, wages, the execution of justice, and gleanings name; the clear foresight which he had of the rapid victories

(xxiv.) ;-concerning lawsuits and punishments, weights of their invaders, and of the extreme miseries which they and measures, &c. (xxv.) ;-ceremonies to be observed in were to experience when besieged; his express predictions

offering first-fruits (xxvi. 1-15.) ;-the covenant between relating to the future condition of the Jews, which we see God and the Israelites. (xxvi. 16–19.)

Part III. The Confirmation of the Law; for which purpose 1 Alexander's Hebrew and English Pentateuch, cite. by Dr. Clarke on the law was to be writlen on stones, and set up on Mount Deut. xxxiv., who is of opinion that this chapter should

constitute the first chapter of the book of Joshua.

Ebal, (xxvii.) ;-prophetic promises to the obedient, and 2 on the accomplishınent of this prediction, see Vol. I. ch. I. Sec.

II. App. curses against the disobedient" (xxviii.);">an exhortation to Bishop Newton's Sixth Dissertation, anu Dr. Jortin's Remarks on Ecclesi.

obedience from a review of their past mercies, and to dedicate astical History, vol. i. pp. 130-149. edit. 1768.

: By Mr. Hewlett, Introd. to Deut. in vol. i. of his Coinmentary on the « On the prophecies contained in this chapter, see Bishop Newton, vol. i Bible, to edit.

diss. vii.

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