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În Psal. xxviii. 1. cxliii. 7. and Prov. i. 12. the grave is also, was the grave in which the body of our Lord was derepresented as a pit or cavern, into which a descent is neces- posited. Joseph of Arimathea, a person of distinction, by sary; containing dormitories or separate cells for receiving St. Mark called an honourable counsellor”. (Mark xv. 43.), the dead (Isa. xiv. 15. Ezek. xxxii. 23.), so that each person or member of the sanhedrin,“ mindful of his mortality, had may be said to lie in his own house (Isa. xiv. 18.), and to hewn out of the rock in his garden a sepulchre, in which he rest in his own bed. (Isa. lvii. 2.) These sepulchral vaults intended his own remains should be reposited. Now in the seem to have been excavated for the use of the persons of place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the high rank and their families. The vanity of Shebna, who garden a new sepulchre, wherein was no man yet laid. When was reproved for it by Isaiah, is set forth by his being so Joseph, therefore, had taken the body of Jesus, and wrapped studious and careful to have his sepulchre on high, in a lofty it in a clean linen cloth, he carried it into the tomb which he vault, and, probably, in an elevated situation, that it might had lately hollowed out of the rock; and rolled a great stone be the more conspicuous. (Isa. xxii. 16.)? Of this kind of to the low door of the sepulchre, effectually to block up the sepulchres there are remains still extant at Jerusalem, some entrance, and secure the sacred corpse of the deceased, both of which are reported to be the sepulchres of the kings of from the indignities of his foes, and the officiousness of his Judah, and others, those of the Judges.3

friends. Sometimes, also, they buried their dead in fields, The following description of the Tombs of the Kings (as over whom the opulent and families of distinction raised they are termed), which are situated near the village of superb and ostentatious monuments, on which they lavished Gournou, on the west bank of the river Nile, will illustrate great splendour and magnificence, and which they so relithe nature of the ancient sepulchres, which were excavated giously maintained from time to time in their pristine beauty out of the mountains. “Further in the recesses of the and glory."6 To this custom our Saviour alludes in the fol. mountains, are the more magnificent Tombs of the Kings; lowing apt comparison : Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, each consisting of many chambers, adorned with hierogly- hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which in phics. The scene brings many allusions of Scripture to the deed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead mind; such as Mark v. 2, 3. 5., but particularly Isaiah xxii. men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly 16. Thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that hew- appear righteous to men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy eth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth a habitation and iniquity. (Matt. xxiii. 27.) But though the sepulchres for himself in a rock; for many of the smaller sepulchres of the rich were thus beautified, the graves of the poor were are excavated nearly halfway up the mountain, which is oftentimes so neglected, that if the stones by which they very high. The kings have their magnificent abodes nearer were marked happened to fall, they were not set up again, the foot of the mountain; and seem, according to Isaiah xiv. by which means the graves themselves did not appear; they 18., to have taken a pride in resting as magnificently in death were adance, that is, not obvious to the sight, so that men as they had done in lifeAll the kings of the nations, even all might tread on them inadvertently. (Luke xi. 44.)8 From of them, lie in glory; every one in his own house. The stuc- Jer. xxvi. 23. we may collect that the populace of the lowest coed walls within are covered with hieroglyphics. They order (Heb. sons or children of the people) were buried in a cannot be better described than in the words of Ezekiel, viii. public cemetery, having no distinct sepulchre to themselves, 8–10. Then said he unto me, Son of man, dig now in the as all persons of rank and character, and especially of só wall; and when I had digged in the wall, behold a door. And honourable an order as that of the prophets, used to have.9 He said unto me, go in;

and behold the wicked abominations After the deceased had been committed to the tomb, it was that they do here. So I went in, and saw; and behold every customary among the Greeks and Romans, to put the tears form of creeping things, and abominable beasts, and all the shed by the surviving relatives and friends into lachrymatory idols of the house of Israel portrayed upon the wall round about. urns, and place these on the sepulchres, as a memorial of The Israelites were but copyists: the master-sketches are to their distress and affection. From Psal. lvi. 8. it should seem be seen in all the ancient temples and tombs of Egypt.”4 that this custom was still more anciently in use among the

Farther," it appears from the Scriptures, that the Jews eastern nations, especially the Hebrews. These vessels were had family sepulchres in places contiguous to their own of different materials, and were moulded into different forms. houses, and generally in their gardens :" and the same usage Some were of glass, and some were of earthenware, 10 being obtained among the Romans and other nations.5 “Such diminutive in size and of delicate workmanship. was the place in which Lazarus was interred; and such, In order to do honour to the memory of the dead, their

sepulchres were sometimes distinguished by monuments. interred, will perform a subterraneous journey into Palestine, in order that they may participate in the resurrection. S. Jarchi on Gen. xlvii.--Alber, 6 Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 139. 141, 142. The sepulchres, Inst. Herm. Test. tom. I. p. 319.

described and delineated by Mr. Emerson, completely elucidate the form i Bp. Lowth on Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 120. 170. 328, 329.

of the Jewish tombs. Letters from the Ægean, vol. ii. pp. 55–59. 2 "Above half a mile from the wall” of Jerusalem, "are the Tombs of * The following passage from Dr. Shaw's Travels affords a striking illustrathe Kings. In midst of a hollow, rocky and adorned with a few trees, is the tion of Matt. xxiii. 27. If we except a few persons, who are buried within entrance. You then find a large apartment, above fifty feet long, at the the precincts of the sanctuaries of their Marabutts, the rest are carried side of which a low door leads into a series of small chambers, hewn out out at a smaller distance from their cities and villages, where a great extent of the rock, of the size of the human body. There are six or seven of of ground is allotted for the purpose. Each family has a particular part these low and dark apartments, in which are hewn recesses of different of it walled in, like a garden, where the bones of their ancestors have shapes for the reception of bodies." (Carne's Letters from the East, p. remained for many generations. For in these enclosures the graves are 291. Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 75.)

all distinct and separated, each of them having a stone placed upright both 3 The "Sepulchres of the Judges, so called, are situated in a wild spot, at the head and feet, inscribed with the name and title of the deceased; about two miles from the city. They bear much resemblance to those of the while the intermediate space is either planted with flowers, bordered round Kings, but are not so handsome or spacious." (Carne's Letters from the with stones, or paved with tiles. The graves of the principal citizens are East, p. 294.) "No shadow, not even of a rock, is spread over

these long further distinguished, by having cupolas or vaulted chambers of three, four enduring relics, in which tradition has placed the ashes of the rulers of or more square yards built over them: and as these very frequently lie Israel. They consist of several divisions, each containing two or three open, and occasionally shelter us from the inclemency of the weather, the apartments cut out of the solid rock, and entablatures are carved with demoniac (Mark v. 5.) might with propriety enough have had his dwelling some skill over the entrance. No richly carved relics, or fragments of among the tombs: and others are said (Isa. Ixv. 4.) to remain among the sarcophagi remain here, as in the tombs of the kings; and their only use graves and to lodge in the monuments (mountains). And as all these dif: is to shelter the wandering passenger or the benighted traveller, who finds ferent sorts of tombs and sepulchres, with the very walls likewise of their no other resting place in the wild around.” (Carne's Recollections of the respective cupolas and enclosures, are constantly kept clean, whitewashed, East, pp. 135, 136.)

and beautified, they continue to illustrate those expressions of our Saviour Jowett's Researches in the Mediterranean, p. 133.

where he mentions the garnishing of sepulchres, and compares the scribes, Thus, the Mausoleum of Augustus was erected in a garden. Dr. Mun. Pharisees, and hypocrites to whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beauter bas collected numerous classical inscriptions, which attest the applica- tiful outward, but within were full of dead men's bones and all unclean. tion of gardens to sepulchral purposes. (Symbolæ ad Interpretationem ness.” Shaw's Travels, vol. i. Pp: 395, 396. Evangelii Johannis ex Marmoribus, pp. 29, 36.) The modern inbabitants 8 Macknight's Harmony, sect. 87. vol. ii. p. 473. of Mount Lebanon have their sepulchres in gardens. The Rev. Mr. Jowett, 9 Dr. Blaney's Jeremiah, p. 349. during his visit to Deir-el-Kamar, the capital of the Druses on that moun- 10 Dr. Chandler's Life of David, vol. i. p. 106. Among the valuable re. tain, says, that while walking out one evening a few fields' distance with mains of ancient art collected by Dr. E.'D. Clarke among the ruins of the son of his host, to see a detached garden belonging to his father, the Sicyon, in the Peloponnesus, were lachrymatories of more ancient form young man pointed out to him near it a small solid stone building, very and materials than any thing he had ever before observed of the saine solemnly adding, " Kabbar Beity—the

sepulchre of our family.” It had kind; "the lachrymatory phials, in which the Sicyonians treasured up neither door nor window. “He then” (adds Mr. J.) " directed my atten their tears, deserve rather the name of botlles; they are nine inches long, tion to a considerable number of similar buildings at a distance; which

to two inches in diameter, and contains as much fluid as would fill a phial of the eye are exactly like houses, but which are, in fact, family mansions for three ounces; consisting of the coarsest materials, a heavy blue clay or the dead. They have a most melancholy appearance, which made him marle.... Sometimes the vessels found in ancient sepulchres are of suc shudder while he explained their use."...."Perhaps this custom, which diminutive size, that they are only capable of holding a few

drops of fluid prevails particularly at Deir-el-Kamar, and in the lonely neighbouring parts in these instances there seems to be no other use for which they were of the mountain, may have been of great antiquity, and may serve to ex- fitted. Small lachrymal phials of glass have been found in the tombs of the plain some Scripture phrases. The prophet Sainuel was buried in his Romans in Great Britain, and the evident allusion to this practice in the house at Rumah (1 Sam. xxv. I.); it could hardly be in his dwelling.house. Sacred Scriptures-Put those my tears into thy bottle (Psal. lvi. 8.)-seems Joab was buried in his own house in the wilderness. (1 Kings ii. 34.)" decisive as to the purpose for which these vessels

were designed.” Tra. Jowett's Christian Researches in Palestine, p. 280.

vels in various Countries of Europe, &c. vol. vi. pp. 541, 542. VOL. II.

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The custom of erecting these seems to have obtained even the days of mourning: (Gen. xxvii. 41. and l. 4.) Thus from the patriarchal age. Thus, Jacob erected a pillar upon the Egyptians, who had a great regard for the patriarch the grave of his beloved wife Rachel. (Gen. xxxv. 20.) This Jacob, lamented his death threescore and ten days. (Gen. is the earliest monument mentioned in the Scriptures: it is 1. 3.) The Israelites wept for Moses in the plains of Moab evident from that passage that it was standing when Moses thirty days, (Deut. xxxiv. 8.) Afterwards, among the Jews, wrote; and its site seems to have been known in the time of the funeral mourning was generally confined to seven days. Samuel and Saul. (1 Sam. x. 2.) The monument now shown Hence, besides the mourning for Jacob in Egypt, Joseph in the vicinity of Bethlehem, as Rachel's tomb, is a modern and his company set apart seven days to mourn for his father, and Turkish structure, which may, perhaps, be the true place when they approached the Jordan with his corpse. (Gen. of her interment. In later times, inscriptions appear to have 1. 10.) In the time of Christ, it was customary for the been placed on tombstones, denoting the persons who were nearest relative to visit the grave of the deceased and to there interred. Such was the title or inscription discovered weep there. The Jews, who had come to condole with by Josiah, which proved to be the burial-place of the prophet Mary on the death of her brother Lazarus, on seeing her go who was sent from Judah to denounce the divine judgments out of the house, concluded that she was going to the grave against the altar which Jeroboam had erected more than three to weep there. (John xi. 31.) The Syrian women are still centuries before. Simon Maccabæus built a splendid monu- accustomed, either alone or accompanied by some attendants, ment at Modin in honour of his father and his brethren. to visit the tombs of their relatives, and mourn their loss : (1 Macc. xiii. 25—30.) In the time of Jesus Christ, it appears and the same usage obtains almost throughout the East, that the hypocritical scribes and Pharisees repaired and among Jews as well as Christians and Mohammedans; and adorned the tombs of the prophets whom their ancestors had in Persia, Egypt, Greece, Dalmatia, Bulgaria, Croatia, murdered for their faithfulness, under a sanctimonious ap- Servia, Wallachía, and Illyria. pearance of respect for their memory. The ancient Arabs It does not appear that there was any general mourning raised a heap of stones over the body of the dead (Job xxi. for Saul and his sons, who died in battle: but the national 32. marginal rendering), which was guarded. In the year troubles, which followed upon his death, might have pre1820, Mr. Rae Wilson observed on the plain of Zebulun, not vented it. David, indeed, and his men, on hearing the news far from Cana, piles of stones covering over or marking the of their death, mourned and wept for them until even. place of graves. Similar cairns, also the remains of remote (2 Sam. i. 12.) And the men of Jabesh-Gilead fasted for antiquity, exist both in England and in Scotland. Among themi seven days (1 Sam. xxxi. 13.), which must not be unthe Hebrews, great heaps of stones were raised over those derstood in a strict sense, as if they took no food during that whose death was either infamous, or attended with some very time, but that they lived very abstemiously, ate little, and remarkable circumstances. Such were the heaps raised over that seldom, using a low and spare diet, and drinking water the grave of Achan (Josh. vii. 26.), over that of the king of only. Ai (viii. 29.), and over that of Absalom (2 Sam. xviii. 17.); How long widows mourned for their husbands is nowhere all which were sepulchral monuments to perpetuate the place told us in Scripture. It is recorded, indeed, of Bathsheba, of their interment.

that when she heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she VI. A Funeral Feast commonly succeeded the Jewish mourned for him (2 Sam. xi. 26.); but this could neither be burials. Thus, after Abner's funeral was solemnized, the long nor very sincere. people came to David to eat meat with him, though they

4"A female, with part of her robe drawn over her head, or veiled, was could not persuade him to do so. (2 Sam. iii. 35.) He was

seen seated by the tombs of her relatives on the summit of Mount Morian, the chief mourner, and probably had invited them to this or along its sides, just beneath the walls of Jerusalem.” Carne's Letters, banquet. Of this Jeremiah speaks (xvi. 7.), where he calls p.332.

"We arrived” (at one of the villages of Elephantina, an island in the it the cup of consolation, which they drank for their father or Nile) "just in time to witness a coronagh, or wailing for the dead. A poor their mother; and accordingly the place where this funeral woman of the village had that morning received the melancholy intelligence entertainment was made, is called in the next verse the that her husband had been drowned in the Nile. He had been interred house of feasting. Hosea calls it the bread of mourners. along with several of her female

friends, was paying the unavailing tribute (Hos. ix. 4.) Funeral banquets are still in use among the of lamentation to his departed shade." (Richardson's Travels, vol. I. p. oriental Christians."

355.) "One morning,” says the same intelligent traveller, "when standing

among the ruins of the ancient Syene, on the rocky promontory above the The usual tokens of mourning by which the Jews ex- ferry, I saw a party of thirteen females cross the Nile to perform the lugupressed their grief and concern for the death of their friends brious dirge at the mansions of the dead. They set up a piteous wail on and relations, were by rending their garments, and putting dirty robes of beteen. On landing they wound their way slowly and on sackcloth (Gen. xxxvii. 34.), sprinkling dust on their silently along the outside of the walls of the ancient town, till they arrived heads, wearing of mourning apparel (2 Sam. xiv. 2.), and at their place of destination, when some of them

placed a sprig of flowers covering the face and the head. (2 Sam. xix. 4.) They on the grave, and sat down silently beside it; others cast themselves on were accustomed also in times of public mourning to go uptions, which they continued to repeat at intervals, during the short time to the roofs or platforms of their houses, there to bewail that I witnessed their procedure. (Ibid. vol. i. p. 360.) Mr. Jowett wit

nessed a similar scene at Manfelout, a more remote town of Upper Egypt. their misfortunes, which practice is mentioned in Isaiah xv.

Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, p. 162. Alber, Inst. Herm. 3. and xxii. 1. Anciently, there was a peculiar space of Vet. Test

. tom. i. pp. 311—319. Calmet, Dissertation sur les Funérailles time allotted for lamenting the deceased, which they called des Hébreux. Dissert. tom. i. pp. 290–309. Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica,

pp. 472–477. Jahn, Archæol. Bibl. 88 204-211. Stosch, Compendium

Archæologiæ Economicæ Novi Testamenti, pp. 121–132. Brünings, Com· Maundrell's Journey from Aleppo, p. 117. “It has all the appearance pendium Antiquitatum Græcarum, pp. 388-400.; and his Compendium of one of those tombs often erected to the memory of a Turkish Santon.” Antiquitatum Hebræarum, pp. 257–24. The subject of Hebrew sepulCarne's Letters, p. 277.

chres is very fully discussed by Nicolai, in his treatise De Sepulchris He2 Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, vol. ii. p. 5. third edition. bræorum (Lug. Bat. 1706), which is illustrated with several curious plates, * Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. p. 19.

some of which, however, it must be confessed, are rather fanciful.

ANALYSIS OF SCRIPTURE.

PART V.

ANALYSIS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE PENTATEUCH, OR FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES.

SECTION I.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE PENTATEUCH.

I. Title.-II. Argument of the Pentateuch.—III. Notice of other Writings ascribed to Moses. I. THE PENTATEUCH, by which title the five books of must be applied also to the nine following psalms, is not Moses are collectively designated, is a word of Greek origi- sufficient. The greater part of the titles of the psalms is nal,1 which literally signifies five books, or volumes; by the not original, nor, indeed, very ancient; and some of them Jews it is frequently termed onin (Torah) the Law, or the Law are evidently misplaced: we find also in these psalms the of Moses, because it contains the ecclesiastical and political names of persons, and other marks, which by no means ordinances issued by God to the Israelites. The Pentateuch agree with Moses. forms, to this day, but one roll or volume in the Jewish Further, some of the ancient fathers have thought that manuscripts, being divided only into paraschioth and siderim, Moses was the author of the book of Job : Origen, in his or larger and smaller sections. This collective designation commentary on Job, pretends that Moses translated it out of of the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Syriac into Hebrew; but this opinion is rejected both by Deuteronomy, is of very considerable antiquity, though we Jews and Christians. Besides, if this book had really been have no certain information when it was first introduced. composed by Moses, is it likely that the Jews would have As, however, the names of these books are evidently derived separated it from the Pentateuch ?6 from the Greek, and as the five books of Moses are expressly There are likewise ascribed to Moses several apocryphal mentioned by Josephus, who wrote only a few years after books; as an Apocalypse, or Little Genesis, the Ascension of our Saviour's ascension, we have every reason to believe Moses, the Assumption of Moses, the Testament of Moses, that the appellation of Pentateuch was prefixed to the Sep- and the Mysterious Books of Moses. The principal part of the tuagint version by the Alexandrian translators.

“ Little Genesis” was transferred by Cedrenus into his chroII.

This division of the sacred volume comprises an ac- nological history : it was extant in Hebrew in the fourth cencount of the creation of the world, and of the fall of man, the tury of the Christian æra, for we find it cited by Jerome. From outlines of the early annals of the world, and a full recital of the apocalypse just noticed, it has been pretended that Saint the Jewish law, and of the events which happened to the Isra- Paul copied Gal. v. 6. and vi. 15. ; and it has been imagined elites from their becoming a distinct people to their departure that what is said in the Epistle of Jude (verse 9.), respecting out of Egypt, and their arrival on the confines of the land the archangel Michael's contention with Satan for the body of Canaan,-a period of two thousand five hundred and of Moses, was taken from the apocryphal Ascension of Mofifteen years according to the vulgar computation, or of three ses. Such was the opinion of Origen, who, though he cites thousand seven hundred and sixty-five years, according to it in another place, alludes to it as not being in the canon.s the computation established by Dr. Hales. “It is a wide All these pretended Mosaic writings, however, are confessdescription gradually contracted; an account of one nation, edly spurious, and are supposed to have been fabricated in preceded by a general sketch of the first state of mankind. the early ages of Christianity. The books are written in pure Hebrew, with an admirable *** On the difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan diversity of style, always well adapted to the subject, yet Pentateuchs, or, rather, editions of the Pentateuch, see Vocharacterized with the stamp of the same author; they are lume I. p. 204., for a view of the Genuineness and Crediall evidently parts of the same work, and mutually strength-bility of the Pentateuch, see Volume I. pp. 32–38.; and en and illustrate each other. They blend revelation and for a List of the principal Commentators on this portion of history in one point of view; furnish laws, and describe the Sacred Scriptures, see Volume II. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APtheir execution; exhibit prophecies, and relate their accom- PENDIX, Part II. Chap. V. Sect. III. S 4. plishment."

III. Besides the Pentateuch the Jews ascribe to Moses ten psalms, from psalm xc. to xcix. inclusive. There is, however, no solid evidence to prove that these psalms were composed by him; for the title of the ninetieth psalm

SECTION II. (“ a prayer of Moses the man of God"), which, they pretend,

1 ITsvratrumos, from TIVTE, five, and Teux05, a book or volume. Bible de I. Title.II. Author and date.—III. General argument.Vence, tom. I. p. 310. 2 For an account of these divisions, see Vol. I. p. 213.

IV. Scope.-V. Types of the Messiah.—VI. Synopsis.3 The author of the treatise De Mundo, which is commonly ascribed to VII. Literal sense of the first three chapters of Genesis vinPhilo Judæus, was of opinion that Moses himself divided his work into five

dicated. books; but he assigned no authority for such opinion. Jesus Christ and his apostles never cite the five books of Moses under any other name than 1. The first book of the Pentateuch, which is called GEthat of Moses, or the Law of Moses, as the Jews ordinarily do to this day. Calmet conjectures that Ezra divided the Pentateuch into five books. Dis: NESIS (TENEXIE), derives its appellation from the title it sertations, tom. il. p. 23.

* In his Jewish Antiquities, Josephus terms the Pentateuch the "Holy 6 The book of Job was composed many ages before the time of Moses Books of Moses" (lib. x. c. iv. $ 2.); and in his Treatise against Apion (lib. See chap. iii. sect. i. infra, of this volume. i. c. 8.), when enumerating the sacred writings of the Jews, he says that * Cedrenus, enumerating the authorities consulted by him, says, that he

PIVE of them belong to Moses." —Some critics have imagined that this dis- collected not a few things from the Little Genesis, áno Tus 17Tns tinction of the Pentateuch into five separate books was known to and recog. ItVErw5. Historia Compendiaria, tom. I. p. 2. edit. Venet. 1729. Cedrenus rised by St. Paul (1 Cor. xiv. 19.), by the term five words; but the context frequently cites this apocryphal book in the course of his work. of that passage does not authorize such a conjecture.

8 See

the passages or Origen at length in Dr. Lardner's works, vol. ii. pp • Bp. Gray's Key to the Old Testament, p. 76. 5th edit.

483-512. 8vo. or vol. i. pp. 511-557. 4to.

ON THE BOOK OF GENESIS.

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Num. XXV.

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TABLE OF THE STATIONS OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE

Y.M.D.
WILDERNESS."

Water from the rock

Num. XX.

13. Meribah

Moses and Aaron offend xx. 12. (From Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, Vol. I. pp. 395–400.)

xxvii. 14.)

39. Mount Hor, or Seir, on Y.M.D.

XX. 22. Num.xxxiii. 37 1. 1. 15. 1. Rameses, near Cairo

the edge of Edom
Exod. xii. 37. Num.xxxiii. 3.
2. Succoth

Aaron's Death

XX. 23. xii. 37.

xxxiii. 38
xxxiii. 3. 40 5.
3. Etham, or Adsjerud

King Arad attacks the
xiii. 20.
xxxiii. 5.

1.
Israelites.

-xxi.
4. Pihahiroth, or Valley of

xiv.
1.
xxxiii. 7.

40. Kibroth Hatataavah, or
Bedea

Deut. i.

1. 5. Shur;-Ain Musa

Tophel, again 6. Desert of Shur, or

11. Zalmonah, or Hashmo

xxxiii. 41
XV.
xxxiii. 8.

nah, again
Etham
7. Marah," bitteri wa

The People bitten by
XV.
ters healed
23. xxxiii. 8.

fiery Serpents

The 'Brazen Serpent
8. Elim, Valley of Corondel XV. 27.
xxxiii. 9.

Yum. xxi. 8.

erected 9. Encampment by the

xxxiii. 10.

12. Punon Red Sea

xxxiii. 42. 13. Oboth.

xxi. 10. 1.1.2. 15. 10. Desert of Sin, Valley of

xxxiii. 43.
xvi. 1.
xxxiii. 11.

11. Jim, or Jie Abarim in
Baharan
Manna, for forty years

the border of Moab.

xxxiii. 44 xvi. 13.

15. The valley and brook

xxi. 12.
Quails, for a day
xvi. 35.

Zered

Deut. ii. 13.
Sabbath renewed, or ?
xvi. 23.

46. Arnon

Nun. xxi. 12. revived

xxi. 17. Beer, or Beer Elim

16. 11. Dopkah..

xxxiii. 12.

Isaiah xv.

8.
12. Aluth

xxxiii. 13.
48. Jahaz

Num. xxi. 23.
13. Rephidiin

xvii. 1.
xxxiji. 11.
19. Heshbon

xxi.

24.
Water, from the rock
xvii. 6.

Sihon defeated
Massah

50. Jaazar.

xxi. 32.
Amalekites defeated
xvii. 13.
51. Edrei

33.
Jethro's visit

xxi.
xviii. 5.

Og defeated.
Judges appointed
xviii. .

52. Dibon Gad 1. 3. 15. 14. Mount Sinai, or Foreb

xix. 1.
xxxiii. 15.

33. Almuon Diblathaim Ezek. vi. 14.
The Decalogue given
1.

xxxiii. 45 XX.

51. Mattanah. The Covenant made

Num. xxi 7.

18. xxiv.

xxxiii. 46. 55. Nabiliel

xxi. 19.
The Golden Calf

xxxii.
6.
56. Bainoth

19.
Neh. ix.

xxi.
18.
57. Pisgah .

xxj. 20. 1./6.

Exod. xxxiv. 27.
The Covenant renewed

58. Abarim
The first Muster, or
xxxviii. 26.

59. Shittim, or Abel Shit-
Numbering

Num. xxv. tim

. xxxiii. 47 2.1.1 1. The Tabernacle erected xl. 17

In the Plains of Moab Josh. iii. 1. S
Aaron consecrated and

xxxiii. 48. Lev. viii. 6.

Idolatry of Baal Peor .

3. his sons

Midianites punished

17. Sacrifices of Atonemení

XXV. 2. 1. 8. ix. 1.

The third Muster.

xxvi. 2. 14. The second Passorer. Num. ix. 5.

40. u. 1.

2.

Last exhortation of Moses Deut. i.
The second Muster

3. 2. 2 1.

i.
40.12. 1. Joshua appointed his Num. xxvii.

18.
Nadab and Abihu de.
iii.

successor

Deut. xxxiv.

9. stroyed

Death of Moses

xxxiv. 5.
Lev. x.

A Month's Mourning
Num. X.

xxxiv.
2. 2. 20. 15. Desert of Paran
12.

8. 41.

1. 16. Taberah

1. 1. 60. Joshua sends two Spies Josh. ii. 33.

11.) 1.10. Murmuring of the peo

Passage of the river

29. xi. 3.

iv.

Jordan 17. Kibroth Ilattaavah, or

xi. 31. Tophel

xxxiii. 16.

VII. Few passages in the Pentateuch have more exercised Deut. i.

1.) Quails, for a month.

the ingenuity of biblical critics, than the Book of the Wurs of Plague of the People

the Lord mentioned in Num. xxi. 14. Aben-Ezra, HottinCouncil of LXX. appointed

ger, and others, are of opinion that it refers to this book of 18. Hazeroth Num. xi. 35.

the Pentateuch, because in it are related various battles of the Deut. i.

1. xxxiii. 17. Israelites with the Amorites: Hezelius, and after him MiMiriam's Leprosy Num. xii. 10. 2.) 5. 19. Kadesh Barnea, in Rith. Num. xii.

chaelis, think it was an Amoritish writing, containing. trimah, or "ihe De

-xxxiii. 18. | umphal songs in honour of the victories obtained by Sihon

xxxii. 8. sert" of Sin, or Paran

king of the Amorites, from which Moses cited the words that Twelve Spies sent xiii. 2.

immediately follow. Fonseca and some others refer it to the 2. 7. 6. Their return

xiii. 26.
The people rebel
xiv. 2.

book of Judges. Le Clerc understands it of the wars of the
Sentenced to wander
xiv.

Israelites, who fought under the direction of Jehovah, and, forty years xxxii. 13.

instead of book, he translates it, with most of the Jewish Ten of the Spies de

doctors, narration, and proposes to render the verse thus :xiv.

37. stroyed

* Wherefore, in the narration of the wars of the Lord, there The People defeated by

xiv. 45.

is (or shall be) mention of what he did in the Red Sea, and the Ainalekites Rebellion of Korah, &c. xvi. 1.

in the brooks of Arnon.”—Lastly, Dr. Lightfoot considers Budding of Aaron's Rod xvii.

10.

this book to have been some book of remembrances and direc20. Rimmon Parez

xxxiii. 19. tions written by Moses for Joshua's private instruction, for 21. Libnah, or Leban Deut. i.

1.

xxxiii. 20. 22. Rissah

xxxiii. 21. the prosecution of the wars after his decease. (See Exod. 23. Kehelathah.

xxxiii

. 22. xvii. 14–16.) This opinion appears to us the most simple, 24. Mount Shaphar

xxxiii. 23. and is, in all probability, the true one. 25. Haradath, or

. 21. Hazar Addar, or Adar Num. xxxiv. 4.?

Josh. xv. 26. Makeloth

xxxiji. 25. 27. Tahath

xxxiji. 26. 28. Tarath

xxxiii. 27.

SECTION VI. 29. Mitcah

xxxiii. 28. 30. Hashmonah, or

xxxiii. 29.

ON THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY.
Azmon, or Selmonah . Num. XX.

Josh. xv.
31. Beeroth
Deut. x.

I. Title, date, and chronology,—II. Scope.—III, Predictions 32. Moseroth, or Mosera

xxxiii. 30.

of the Messiah.-IV. Synopsis of contents.-V. Observa33. Benejaakan, or Banea

xxxiii. 31 34. Horhagidgad, or

xxxiii. 32. tions.Table or harmony of the Mosaic law. Gudgodah

X.

7. 35. Jotbatha, or

xxxiii. 33.

I. THE Jews call this fifth book of Moses digann abe Etebatha, or Elath

ii. 8. 1 Kings ix. 26.

(ALEH HADEBARIM), that is, “ These are the words," because the 36. Ebrona 37. Ezion Geber, or

xxxiii. 31. original commences with these words: by some rabbins it is -xxxiii. 35.

called
Dizahab

Deut. 1.
1.

an nwp (misNeH TORAH), or the repetition of the law, 40.) 1.4 38. Kadesh Barnea again;

while others term it DD ninain (SEPHER TUKHHUTH), or the ii.

- xxxiii. 36. after 38

14. years

Book of Reproofs, on account of the numerous reproofs of the
Miriam's Death

INum. xx.
1.

Israelites by Moses. The Greeks and Latins respectively * in the Bible de Vence, tom. iii. pp. 365—403. there is an elaborate Geo-call it AETTEPONOMION, Deuteronomium (whence our graphical Dissertation sur les xlii. Stations des Israelites.

English title Deuteronomy is derived), that is to say, the

E

3. S

ܩܕ ܕ ܗ

.

ANALYSIS OF SCRIPTURE.

PART V.

ANALYSIS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE PENTATEUCH, OR FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES.

SECTION I.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE PENTATEUCH.

I. Title.—II. Argument of the Pentateuch.III. Notice of other Writings ascribed to Moses. 1. The PENTATEUCH, by which title the five books of must be applied also to the nine following psalms, is not Moses are collectively designated, is a word of Greek origi- sufficient. The greater part of the titles of the psalms is nal," which literally signifies five books, or volumes; by the not original, nor, indeed, very ancient; and some of them Jews it is frequently termed on (Torah) the Law, or the Law are evidently misplaced ? we find also in these psalms the of Moses, because it contains the ecclesiastical and political names of persons, and other marks, which by no means ordinances issued by God to the Israelites. The Pentateuch agree with Moses. forms, to this day, but one roll or volume in the Jewish Further, some of the ancient fathers have thought that manuscripts, being divided only into paraschioth and siderim, Moses was the author of the book of Job : Origen, in his or larger and smaller sections. This collective designation commentary on Job, pretends that Moses translated it out of of the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Syriac into Hebrew; but this opinion is rejected both by Deuteronomy, is of very considerable antiquity, though we Jews and Christians. Besides, if this book had really been have no certain information when it was first introduced. composed by Moses, is it likely that the Jews would have As, however, the names of these books are evidently derived separated it from the Pentateuch ?6 from the Greek, and as the five books of Moses are expressly There are likewise ascribed to Moses several apocryphal mentioned by Josephus, who wrote only a few years after books; as an Apocalypse, or Little Genesis, the Ascension of our Saviour's ascension, we have every reason to believe Moses, the Assumption of Moses, the Testament of Moses, that the appellation of Pentateuch was prefixed to the Sep- and the Mysterious Books of Moses. The principal part of the tuagint version by the Alexandrian translators.

“Little Genesis" was transferred by Cedrenus into his chroII. This division of the sacred volume comprises an ac- nological history :? it was extant in Hebrew in the fourth cencount of the creation of the world, and of the fall of man, the tury of the Christian æra, for we find it cited by Jerome. From outlines of the early annals of the world, and a full recital of the apocalypse just noticed, it has been pretended that Saint the Jewish law, and of the events which happened to the Isra- Paul copied Gal. v. 6. and vi. 15.; and it has been imagined elites from their becoming a distinct people to their departure that what is said in the Epistle of Jude (verse 9.), respecting out of Egypt, and their arrival on the confines of the land the archangel Michael's contention with Satan for the body of Canaan,--a period of two thousand five hundred and of Moses, was taken from the apocryphal Ascension of Mokifteen years according to the vulgar computation, or of three ses. Such was the opinion of Origen, who, though he cites thousand seven hundred and sixty-five years, according to it in another place, alludes to it as not being in the canon.8 the computation established by Dr. Hales. “It is a wide All these pretended Mosaic writings, however, are confessdescription gradually contracted; an account of one nation, edly spurious, and are supposed to have been fabricated in preceded by a general sketch of the first state of mankind. the early ages of Christianity. The books are written in pure Hebrew, with an admirable On the difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan diversity of style, always well adapted to the subject, yet Pentateuchs, or, rather, editions of the Pentateuch, see Vocharacterized with the stamp of the same author ; they are lume I. p. 204.; for a view of the Genuineness and Crediall evidently parts of the same work, and mutually strength- bility of the Pentateuch, see Volume I. pp. 32–38.; and en and illustrate each other. They blend revelation and for a List of the principal Commentators on this portion of history in one point of view; furnish laws, and describe the Sacred Scriptures, see Volume II. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APtheir execution ; exhibit prophecies, and relate their accom- PENDIX, Part II. Chap. V. Sect. III. § 4. plishment."

III. Besides the Pentateuch the Jews ascribe to Moses ten psalms, from psalm xc. to xcix. inclusive. There is, however, no solid evidence to prove that these psalms were composed by him; for the title of the ninetieth psalm

SECTION II. (" a prayer of Moses the man of God"), which, they pretend,

ON THE BOOK OF GENESIS. 1 ITEVTØTivyos, from TVTe, five, and TEUXos, a book or volume. Bible de I. Title.-II. Author and date.-III. General argument.Vence, tom. I. p. 310. 2 For an account of these divisions, see Vol. I. p. 213.

IV. Scope.-V. Types of the Messiah.VI. Synopsis.3 The author of the treatise De Mundo, which is commonly ascribed to VII. Literal sense of the first three chapters of Genesis vinPhilo Judeus, was of opinion that Moses himself divided his work into five

dicated. books; but he assigned no authority for such opinion. Jesus Christ and his apostles never cite the five books of Moses under any

other name than 1. The first book of the Pentateuch, which is called GEthat of Moses, or the Law of Moses; as the Jews ordinarily do to this day, Calmet conjectures that Ezra divided the Pentateuch into five books. Dis: NESIS (TENEZIE), derives its appellation from the title it sertations, tom. ii. p. 23.

* In his Jewish Antiquities, Josephus terms the Pentateuch the "Holy & The book of Job was composed many ages before the time of Moses Books of Moses" (lib. x. c. iv. 52.); and in his Treatise against Apion (lib. See chap. iii. sect. i. infra, of this volume. i. c. 8.), when enumerating the sacred writings of the Jews, he says that * Cedrenus, enumerating the authorities consulted by him, says, that he

PIVE of them belong to Moses." --Some critics have imagined that this dis- " collected not a few things from the Little Genesis, úto TMS ASATIS tinction of the Pentateuch into five separate books was known to and recog- reversws. Historia Compendiaria, tom. I. p. 2. edit. Venet. 1729. Cedrenus rised by St. Paul (1 Cor. xiv. 19.), by the term five words; but the context frequently cites this apocryphal book in the course of his work. of that passage does not authorize such a conjecture.

8 See the passages or Origen at length in Dr. Lardner's works, vol. ii. pp . Bp. Gray's Key to the Old Testament, p. 76. 5th edit.

483-512. 8vo. or vol. i. pp. 511-567. 410.

203

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