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and an impoverished diet; to all of which the Israelites and show himself to the priests, that he might be declared were exposed, whilst under the Egyptian bondage. clean, and offer the sacrifice enjoined in that case; and,
It appears, also, from the Mosaic account, that in conse- when purified, that he might be again admitted into civil quence of these hardships there was, even after the Israelites society. (Matt. viii. 4. Lev. xiv. Il-32.). had quitted Egypt, a general predisposition to the contagious (7.) Lastly, As this
disease was so offensive to the Israelform of leprosy, so that it often occurred as a consequence ites, God commanded them to use frequent ablutions, and of various other cutaneous affections. Eight different ble- prohibited them from eating swine's flesh and other articles mishes in the skin, which had a tendency to terminate in of animal food that had a tendency to produce this disease. this terrible disease, are enumerated by Moses, and describ- The peculiar lustrations which a person who had been ed by Dr. Good, to whose elaborate treatise the reader is healed of a leprosy was to undergo are detailed in Lev. xiv. referred. The effects of leprosy, as described by travellers - See an abstract of them in p. 134. of this volume. who have witnessed the disorder in its most virulent forms, 2. The DISEASE with which the patriarch Job was afflicted are truly deplorable.' The Mosaic statutes respecting leprosy (ii. 7.) has greatly exercised the ingenuity of commentators, are recorded in Lev. xiii. and xiv. Num. v. 1–4. and Deut. who have supposed it to be the contagious leprosy, the small xxiv. 8, 9. They are in substance as follows:
pox, and the ELEPHANTIASIS, or Leprosy of the Arabians. (1.) On the appearance of any one of the cutaneous affections The last opinion is adopted by Drs. Mead and Good, and by above noticed on any person, the party was to be inspected Michaelis, and appears to be best supported. This dreadful by a priest, both as acting in a judicial capacity, and also as malady, which the ancient medical writer Paul of Ægineta being skilled in medicine. The signs of the disease, which has accurately characterized as an universal ulcer, was named are circumstantially pointed out in the statute itself, accord elephantiasis by the Greeks, from its rendering the skin of with those which have been noticed by modern physicians. the patient like that of an elephant, scabrous and dark co“ If, on the first inspection, there remained any doubt as to loured, and furrowed all over with tubercles, loathsome the spot being really a symptom of leprosy, the suspected alike to the individual and to the spectators. When it attains person was shut up for seven days, in order that it might be j a certain height, as it appears to have done in this instance, ascertained, whether it spread, disappeared, or remained as it is incurable, and, consequently, affords the unhappy patient it was; and this confinement might be repeated. During no prospect but that of long-continued misery. this time, it is probable that means were used to remove the 3. The DISEASE OF THE PHILISTINES, mentioned in 1 Sam. spot. If in the mean time it spread, or continued as it was, v. 6. 12. and vi. 17., has been supposed to be the dysentery; without becoming paler, it excited a strong suspicion of real but it was most probably the hæmorrhoids or bleeding piles, leprosy, and the person inspected was declared unclean. If in a very aggravated degree. Jahn, however, considers it it disappeared, and after his liberation became again manifest, as the effect of the bite of venomous solpugas. a fresh inspection took place.
4. The DISEASE OF Saul (1 Sam. xvi. 14.) appears to (2.) “ The unclean were separated from the rest of the have been a true madness, of the melancholic or attrabilapeople. So early as the second year of the Exodus, lepers rious kind, as the ancient physicians termed it; the fits of were obliged to reside without the camp (Num. v. 1-4.); which returned on the unhappy monarch at uncertain periods, and so strictly was this law enforced, that the sister of Moses as is frequently the case in this sort of malady. The remedy herself, becoming leprous, was expelled from it. (Num. applied, in the judgment of experienced physicians, was an xii. 14-16.) When the Israelites came into their own land, extremely proper one, viz. playing on the harp. The chaand lived in cities, the spirit of the law thus far operated, racter of the modern oriental music is expression, rather that lepers were obliged to reside in a separate place, which than science: and it may be easily conceived how well was called (nur enn 3) BETH CHOPHSCHITH, or the house of adapted the unstudied and artless strains of David were to uncleanness ; and from this seclusion not even kings, when soothe the perturbed mind of Saul; which strains were bold they became leprous, were exempted. (2 Kings xv. 5.) and free from his courage, and sedate through his piety.5 As, however, a leper cannot always be within doors, and 5. The DISEASE OF JEHORAM KING OF ISRAEL. — This may, consequently, sometimes meet clean persons, he was sovereign, who was clothed with the double infamy of being obliged, in the first place, to make himself known by his at once an idolater and the murderer of his brethren, was dress, and to go about with torn clothes, a bare head, and diseased internally for two years, as had been predicted by his chin covered ; and in the next place, when any one came the prophet Elijah; and his bowels are said at last to have too near him, to cry out that he was Unclean. (Num. xiii. fallen out by reason of his sickness. (2 Chron. xxi. 12—15. 45, 46.)”.
18, 19.) 'This disease, Dr. Mead says, beyond all doubt (3.) Although a leper, merely meeting and touching a was the dysentery, and though its continuance so long a person, could 'not have immediately infected him, yet, as time was very uncommon, it is by no means a thing unheard such a rencontre and touch would have rendered him Leviti- of. The intestines in time become ulcerated by the operaeally unelean, in order to prevent leprosy from spreading, in tion of this disease. Not only blood is discharged from consequence of close communication, " it was an established them, but a sort of mucous excrements likewise is thrown rule to consider a leprous person as likewise unclean in a off, and sometimes small pieces of the flesh itself; so that Levitical or civil sense; and, consequently, whoever touched apparently the intestines are emitted or fall out, which is him, became also unclean; not indeed medically or physi- sufficient to account for the expressions that are used in the cally so,--that is, infected by one single touch,—but still statement of king Jehoram's disease. unclean in a civil sense.
6. The DISEASE WITH WHICH HEZEKIAH WAS AFFLICTED (4.) “On the other hand, however, for the benefit of those (2 Kings xx. 7. Isa. xxxviii. 21.) has been variously supfound clean, the law itself specified those who were to be posed to be a pleurisy, the plague, the elephantiasis, and pronounced free from the disorder; and such persons were the quinsey. But Dr. Mead is of opinion that the malady then clear of all reproach, until they again fell under accusa- was a fever which terminated in an abscess; and for protion from manifest symptoms of infection. The man who, moting its suppuration a cataplasm of figs was admirably on the first inspection, was found clean, or in whom the adapted. The case of Hezekiah, however, indicates not supposed symptoms of leprosy disappeared during confine-only the limited knowledge of the Jewish physicians at that ment, was declared clean: only, in the latter case, he was time, but also that though God can cure by a miracle, yet obliged to have his clothes washed. If, again, he had he also gives sagacity to discover and apply the most natural actually had the disorder, and got rid of it, the law required remedies.? him to make certain offerings, in the course of which he was 7. Concerning the nature of NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S MALADY pronounced clean." 2
(Dan. iv. 25, 26. 31–33.) learned men are greatly divided, (5.) The leprous person was to use every effort in his but the most probable account of it is that given by Dr. power to be healed; and, therefore, was strictly to follow Mead; who remarks that all the circumstances of it, as the directions of the priests. This, Michaelis is of opinion, related by Daniel, so perfectly agree with hypochondriacal may fairly be inferred from Deut. xxiv. 8.
madness, that to him it appears evident that Nebuchadnezzar (6.) When healed of his leprosy, the person was to go was seized with this distemper, and under its influence ran
wild into the fields; and that fancying himself transformed - Mr. Barker, the agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, when into an ox, he fed on grass in the manner of cattle. For at Damascus in the year 1825, describing the hospital of Christian lepers, says, “How amicting was their situation and appearance! Some were : Mead's Medica Sacra, pp. 1–11. (London, 1755.) Good's translation of without noses and fingers. being eaten up by the disease, and others were Job, p. 22. differently disfigured." Twenty-sixth Report of the Bible Society, App.
Mead's Medica Sacra, p. 20–33.
& Mead's Medica Sacra, p. 35. Jahn's Archæol. Bibl. $ 187, Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 278-287.
* Medica Sacra, p. 37.
Archæol. Bibl. $ 185,
every sort of madness is a disease of a disturbed imagina-| known to require any explanation. Physicians confess it to tion; under which this unhappy man laboured full seven be a disorder which is very difficult of cure. (Mark v. 26.) years. And through neglect of taking proper care of him- How does this circumstance magnify the benevolent miracle, self, his hair and nails grew to an excessive length; by wrought by Jesus Christ on a woman who had laboured which the latter, growing thicker and crooked, resembled the under it for twelve years ! claws of birds. Now, the ancients called persons affected 10. The BLINDNESS of the sorcerer Elymas (Acts xiii. cm with this species of madness lundy Spuzc (wolf-men) or xuver- 12.) is in the Greek denominated exaus, and with great proSpurol (dog-men); because they went abroad in the night priety, being rather an obscuration tħan a total extinction of imitating wolves or dogs; particularly intent upon opening sight. It was occasioned by a thin coat or tunicle of hard the sepulchres of the dead, and had their legs much ulcer- substance, which spread itself over a portion of the eye, and ated, either by frequent falls, or the bites of dogs. In like interrupted the power of vision. Hence the disease is likemanner are the daughters of Proetus related to have been wise called oxutes, or darkness. It was easily cured, and mad, who, as Virgil says,
sometimes even healed of itself, without resorting to any
medical prescription. Therefore St. Paul added in his de- Implerunt falsis mugitibus agros. 2
nunciation, that the impostor should not see the sun for a seaWith mimick'd mooings filled the fields.
son. But the blindness of the man, of whose miraculous For, as Servius observes, Juno possessed their minds with restoration to sight we have so interesting an account in such a species of madness, that' fancying themselves cows, John ix., was total, and being inveterate from his birth, was they ran into the fields, bellowed often, and dreaded the incurable by any human art or skill. See an examination plough. But these, according to Ovid, the physician Me- of this miracle in Vol. I. pp. 104, 105. lampus,
11. Lastly, in the New Testament we meet with repeated
instances of what are termed DEMONIACAL POSSESSION. The per carmen et herbas
reality of such possessions indeed has been denied by some Eripuit furiis.3
authors, and attempts have been made by others to account Snatch'd from the furies by his charms and herbs.
for them, either as the effect of natural disease, or the influNor was this disorder unknown to the moderns; forence of imagination on persons of a nervous habit. But it Schenckius records a remarkable instance of it in a hus- is manifest, that the persons who in the New Testament are bandman of Padua, who, imagining that he was a wolf, said to be possessed with devils (more correctly with
demons) attacked, and even killed several persons in the fields ; and cannot mean only persons afflicted with some strange diswhen at length he was taken, he persevered in declaring him- ease; for they are evidently, here as in other places-parself a real wolf, and that the only difference consisted in the ticularly in Luke iv. 33–36. 41.—distinguished from the inversion of his skin and hair. But it may be objected to diseased. Further, Christ's speaking on various occasions this opinion, that this misfortune was foretold to the king, to these evil spirits, as distinct from the persons possessed so that he might have prevented it by correcting his morals; by them,--his commanding them and asking them questions, and, therefore, it is not probable that it befell him in the and receiving answers from them, or not suffering them course of nature. But we know that those things, which to speak,—and several circumstances relating to the terGod executes either through clemency or vengeance, are rible preternatural effects which they had upon the posfrequently, performed by the assistance of natural causes. sessed, and to the manner of Christ's evoking them,Thus, having threatened Hezekiah with death, and being particularly their requesting and obtaining permission to afterwards moved by his prayers, he restored him to life, enter the herd of swine (Matt. viii. 31, 32.) and precipitating and made use of figs laid on the tumour, as a medicine for them into the sea; all these circumstances can never be his disease. He ordered king Herod, upon account of his accounted for by any distemper whatever. Nor is it any pride, to be devoured by worms. And no one doubts but reasonable objection that we do not read of such frequent that the plague, which is generally attributed to the divine possessions before or since the appearance of our Redeemer wrath, most commonly owes its origin to corrupted air. upon earth. It seems, indeed, to have been ordered by a 8. The Palsy of the
New Testament is a disease of very special providence that they should have been permitted to wide import, and the Greek word, which is so translated, have then been more common; in order that He, who came comprehended not fewer than five different maladies, viz. to destroy the works of the Devil, might the more remarka(1.) Apoplexy, a paralytic shock, which affected the whole bly and visibly triumph over him; and that the machinabody (2.) Hemiplegy, which affects and paralyzes only tions and devices of Satan might be more openly defeated, one side of the body; the case mentioned in Matt. ix. 2. at a time when their power was at its highest, both in the appears to have been of this sort ;—(3.) Paraplegy, which souls and bodies of men; and also, that plain facts might paralyzes all parts of the system below the neck;—(4.) be a sensible confutation of the Sadducean error, which deCatalepsy, which is caused by a contraction of the muscles nied the existence of angels or spirits (Acts xxiii. 8.), and in the whole or part of the body; the hands, for instance. prevailed among the principal men both for rank and learnThis is a very dangerous disease, and the effects upon the ing in those days. The cases of the demoniacs expelled by parts seized are very violent and deadly. Thus, when a the apostles were cases of real possession ; and it is a well person is struck with it, if his hand happens to be extended, known fact, that in the second century of the
Christian æra, he is unable to draw it back : if the hand be not extended, the apologists for the persecuted professors of the faith of when he is so struck, he is unable to extend it. It seems to Christ appealed to their ejection of evil spirits as a proof of be diminished in size, and dried up in appearance; whence the divine origin of their religion. Hence it is evident that the Hebrews were accustomed to call it a withered hand. the demoniacs were not merely insane or epileptic patients, The impious Jeroboam was struck with catalepsy (1 Kings but persons really and truly vexed and convulsed by unclean xiii. 4–6.); the prophet Zechariah, among the judgments
demons. he was commissioned to denounce against the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock, threatens that his arm shall be dried up. (Zech. xi. 17.) Other instances of this malady occur in Matt. xii. 10. and John v. 3. 5.-(5.) The Cramp. This,
SECTION II. in oriental countries, is a fearful malady, and by no means unfrequent. It originates from the chills of the night: the limbs, when seized with it, remain immoveable, sometimes turned in and sometimes out, in the very same position as I. Jewish notions of death.—II. Mosaic laws relating to the when they were first seized. The person afflicted resembles
dead.—III. Preparations for interment.-IV. Rites of sepula man undergoing the torture, Broavisojew, and experiences ture.-Lamentations for the dead.-V. Notice of the tombs nearly the same sufferings. Death follows this disease of the Jews.-Monumental inscriptions.-VI. Funeral feasts. in a few days. Alcimus was struck with it (1 Macc. ix. —Duration of mourning. 55–58.), as also was the centurion's servant. (Matt. viii. 6.)
So strong was the love of life among the Hebrews, that 9. The disease, which in Matt. ix. 20. Mark v. 25. and instances of suicide are of extremely rare occurrence in the Luke viii. 43. is denominated an Issue of Blood, is too well
6 Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, $ 199. · See Aetius, Lib. Medicin. lib. vi. and Paul. Ægineta, lib. iii. c. 16. * For a summary of the evidence that the demoniacs, mentionod in the Eclog. vi. 48.
3 Metamorph. xv. 325. 4 Observationes Medicæ Rar. de Lycanthrop. Obs. 1.
New Testament, were persons really possessed by evil spirits, see Bp. Medica Sacra, pp. 58—61.
Newton's Works, vol. iv. pp. 526-301., and Mr. Townsend's Harmony or the New Test. vol. i. pp. 157-160.
TREATMENT OF THE DEAD.-FUNERAL RITES.
history of that people. Saul, Ahithophel, and the traitor Judas | the humours, and by their inherent virtues to preserve it as are the only persons recorded to have laid violent hands upon long as possible from putrefaction and decay. Thus we themselves, in a fit of desperation. (1 Sam. xxxi. 4, 5. read that Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, 2 Sam. xvii. 23. Matt. xxvii. 3—5.) In the last period of about a hundred pounds weight, to perform the customary the Jewish state, however, the custom of the Romans ap- office to the dear deceased. This embalming was usually pears to have greatly lessened the horror of suicide among repeated for several days together, that the drugs and spices the Jews; but that most terrible of all diseases, the leprosy, thus applied might have all their efficacy in the exsiccation seems to have rendered its victims utterly regardless of life. of the moisture and the future conservation of the body.8 (Job vii. 15.).
They then swathed the corpse in linen rollers or bandages, 1. The Hebrews, in common with many other ancient closely enfolding and wrapping it in that bed of aromatic nations, especially in the East, were accustomed to re- drugs with which they had surrounded it. Thus we find present death by various terms which were calculated to that Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus took the body of mitigate the appalling image inspired by that last enemy of Jesus and wrapt it in linen clothes with the spices, as the man. mankind. Hence they often called death a journey or depar- ner of the Jews is to bury. (John xix. 40.) This custom we ture. (Josh. xxiii. 14. 1 Kings ii. 2. Eccles. v. 15. vi
. 6. behold also in the Egyptian mummies, round which, TheveLuke iì. 29.). Frequently also they compared it to sleep, not informs us, the Egyptians have sometimes used above a and to rest after the toils of life were over (Gen. xlvii. 30. thousand ells of filleting, besides what was wrapped about Job iii. 13. 17–19. Isa. xiv. 8. lvii. 2. Matt. ix. 29. xxvii. the head. Thus, when our Lord had cried with a loud voice, 52. John xi. 11. Acts vii. 60. 1 Cor. xi. 30. 1 Thess. iv. 13. | Lazarus, come forth! it is said, the dead came forth, bound 2 Pet. iii. 4. Rev. xiv. 13.); and it was a very common ex- hand and foot in grave-clothes. (John xi. 44.) We learn pression to say, that the party deceased had gone, or was from Scripture, also, that about the head and face of the gathered to his fathers or to his people. (Gen. xv. 15. xxv. corpse was folded a napkin, which was a separate thing, and 8. 17. xxxv. 29. xlix. 29. 33. Num. xx. 24. xxvii. 13. xxxi. did not communicate with the other bandages in which the 2. Deut. xxxii. 50. Judg. ii. 10. 2 Kings xxii. 20.)? body was swathed. Thus we read, that the face of Lazarus
II. By the law of Moses a dead body conveyed a legal was bound about with a napkin (John xi. 44.); and when pollution to every thing that touched it, even to the very our Lord was risen, Peter, who went into the sepulchre, saw house and furniture --which continued seven days. (Num. the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that had been folded xix. 14, 15, 16.) And this was the reason why the priests, round his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wreathed on account of their daily ministrations in holy things, were together in a place by itself, lying at some distance from the forbidden to assist at any funerals, but those of their nearest rollers in which his body had been swathed, and folded up, relatives (Lev. xxi. 1-4. 10–12.); nay, the very dead exactly in the state it was when first wrapped round his head." bones, though they had lain ever so long in the grave, if dig- (John xx. 7.). ged up, conveyed a pollution to any one who touched them. Besides the custom of embalming persons of distinction, This circumstance will account for Josiah's causing the bones the Jews commonly used great burnings for their kings, comof the false priests to be burnt upon the altar at Bethel posed of large quantities of all sorts of aromatics, of which (2 Chron. xxxiv. 5.), in order that these altars, being thus they made a fire, as a triumphant farewell to the deceased. polluted, might be held in the greatest detestation.3
In these they were wont to burn their bowels, their clothes, III. After the principle of life was extinguished, the fol- armour, and other things belonging to the deceased. Thus, lowing ceremonies were performed by the Jews :
it is said of Asa, that ihey made a very great burning for hini 1. The eyes of the deceased were closed by the nearest of|(2 Chron. xvi. 14.), which could not be meant of his corpse kin, who gave the parting kiss to the lifeless corpse : thus, in the fire, for in the same verse it is said, they buried him in it was promised to Jacob, when he took his journey into his own sepulchre. This was also done at the funeral of ZedeEgypt, that Joseph should put his hands upon his eyes (Gen. kiah. (Jer. xxxiv. 5.), And it was very probably one reason xlvi. 4.); and accordingly we read that, when Jacob ex- why, at the death of Jehoram, the people made no burning pired, Joseph fell upon his face and kissed him. (Gen. 1. 1.) for him like the burning of his fathers (2 Chron. xxi. 19.), From the Jews, Calmet observes, this practice passed to thé because his bowels being ulcerated by his sickness, they felí heathens, who gave the dying farewell kiss, and received out, and to prevent the stench, were immediately interred or their last sigh, in token of their affectionate union.
otherwise disposed of; so that they could not well be burnt 2. The next office was the ablution of the corpse, which in this pompous manner after his death; though as he was a (except when it was buried immediately) was laid out in an wicked king, this ceremony might possibly have been omitupper room or chamber. Thus, when "Tabitha died, it is ted on that account also. said, that they washed her body, and laid it in an upper cham- The burning of dead bodies in funeral piles, it is well ber. (Acts ix. 37.) This rite was common both to the known, was a custom prevalent among the Greeks and RoGreeks and Romans, in whose writings it is frequently men- mans, upon which occasion they threw frankincense, myrrh, tioned. In Egypt, it is still the custom to wash the dead cassia, and other fragrant articles into the fire: and this in body several times.
such abundance, that Pliny represents it as a piece of pro3. The bodies of persons of distinction were embalmed: faneness, to bestow such heaps of frankincense upon a dead this process the Jews probably derived from the Egyptians, body, when they offered it so sparingly to their gods. And whose various methods of embalming their dead with spices though the Jews might possibly learn from them the custom and nitre are minutely described by Herodotus, and Diodo- of burning the bowels, armour, and other things belonging rus Siculus." The patriarch Jacob was embalmed according to their kings, in piles of odoriferous spices, yet they very to the Egyptian process: his remains lay in nitre thirty rarely, and only for particular reasons, burnt the dead bodies days, for the purpose of drying up all superfluous and noxious themselves. We are told, indeed, that the people of Jabeshmoisture; and during the remaining forty days, they were Gilead took the bodies of Saul and his sons" (from the place anointed with gums and spices, to preserve them; which unction, it appears from Gen. 1. 2, 3., was the proper em- does not properly signify to bury. The note of Beza is accurate. Ad balming. The former circumstance explains the reason why sepelienduin, malé." Nam aliud est Santsiv quam evtz çox(sur : ut Latinis
Vulg. et Erasnius, ad me the Egyptians mourned for Jacob threescore and ten days; the sepelire est sepulchro condere: funerare vero pollincire, cadaver sepullatter explains the meaning of the forty days, which were chro inandandum prius curare. Beza ad Matt. xxvi. 12. 'EvT400xi est fulfilled for Israel.6
corpus ad funus componere, et ornamentis sepulchralibus ornare. Wet
stein, in loc. In later times, where the deceased parties were persons of 8 Kabebat consuetudo, ut carissima capita, et quæ plurimi fierent cadarank or fortune, after washing the corpse, the Jews "em-wera, non semel tantumn ongerentur, sed sæpius, pluribusque continuis valmed it, by laying all around it a large quantity of costly immo tabefactá carne aridà, et quasi æneâ reddità, diu servari possint spices and aromatic drugs, in order to imbibe and absorb integra et immunia a putrefactione. Lucas Brugensis
, in Marc. xvi. 9 Δεδεμενος-κειρίαις. Phavorinus explains Κειρια by calling them
επιταφιοι δεσμοί, sepulchral bandages. Κειρια σημαινει τα σχοινια το 1 Josephus, De Bell. Jud. lib.iji. c. 8. $$ 4-7.
ενταφια. Εtymol. , Pareau, Antiquitas Hebr. pp. 468, 469.
10 He went into the sepulchre, and then he plainly saw the linen clothes, : Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. p. 362. Michaelis has examined at Hoxx, alone, or without the body, and xstevz lying, that is, u.disturbed, length the reason and policy of the Mosaic statutes on this subject. Com and at full length, as when the body was in them. The cap, or napkin, also, mentaries, vol. iii. pp. 322—330.
which had been upon our Lord's head, he found separate, or at a little dis. • Sophoclis Electra, verse 1143. Virgil, Æneid. lib. vi. 218, 219.
tance from the open coffin; but ststug usvov, folded up in wreaths, in Herodotus, lib. ii. cc. 86–88. tom. ii. pp. 131, 132. Oxon. 1809. Diodo- the form of a cap, as it had been upon our Lord's head. Dr. Benson's rus Siculus, lib. i. cc. 91–93. edit. Bipont.
Life of Christ, p. 524. Wrapped together in a place by itself; as if the • Paxton's Ilustrations, vol. iii. p. 249. 2d edit.
body had miraculously slipt out of it, which indeed was ihe real fact. Dr. * Matt. xxvi. 12. For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, Ward's Dissertations, p. 149. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 135 she did it for my funeral, pos *VTC140ui mi, to embalm me. The word | -137.
where the Philistines had hung tnem up), and came to Jabesh, the body of one who had been hanged on a tree should be and burnt them there (1 Sam. xxxi. 12.); but by this time their taken down before night. The burial of Tabitha was debodies must have been in such a state, that they were not fit layed, on account of the disciples sending for the apostle to be embalmed; or, perhaps, they were apprehensive that Peter. (Acts ix. 37.) if they should embalm them, and so bury them, the people 2. The poorer classes were carried forth to interment lying of Bethshan might at some future time díg them up, and fix on an open bier or couch, as is the universal practice in the them a second time against their walls; and, therefore, the East to this day, not screwed into a coffin. In this way the people of Jabesh might think it more advisable to recede son of the widow of Nain was borne to his grave without the from their common practice, and for greater security to imi- city: and it should seem that the bearers at that time moved tate the heathen in this particular. Amos also speaks of the with as much rapidity as they do at the present time among burning of bodies (vi. 10.); but it is evident from the words the modern Jews. T'he rich, and persons of rank, were carthemselves, and from the context, that this was in the time ried forth on more costly biers. Josephus relates that the of a great pestilence, not only when there were few to bury body of Herod was carried on a golden bier, richly embroithe dead, but when it was unsafe to go abroad and perform dered ;; and we may presume, that the bier on which Abner the funeral rites by interment, in which case the burning was was carried was more costly than those used for ordinary percertainly the best expedient.
sons. (2 Sam. iii. 31.) In some cases the rites of sepulture were not allowed; and But whatever the rank of the parties might be, the superinto this it has been thought that there is an allusion in Job tendence and charge of the funeral were undertaken by the xxvii. 19. It was the opinion of the pagan Arabs that, upon nearest relations and friends of the deceased. Thus, Abrathe death of any person, a bird, by them called Manah, issued ham interred Sarah in the cave of Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 19.); from the brain, which haunted the sepulchre of the deceased, Isaac and Ishmael buried Abraham (Gen. xxv. 9.); Esau uttering a lamentable scream. This notion, also, the late and Jacob buried Isaac (Gen. xxxv. 29.); Moses buried professor Carlyle thinks, is evidently alluded to in Job xxi. Aaron on Mount Hor (Num. xx. 29.); the old prophet laid 32., where the venerable patriarch, speaking of the fate of the disobedient prophet in his own grave (1 Kings xiii. 30.); the wicked, says:
Joseph of Arimathea interred Jesus Christ in his own new He shall be brought to the grave,
tomb (Matt. xxvii. 59, 60.); and the disciples of John the And shall watch upon the raised up heap.1
Baptist performed the last office for their master. The sons
and numerous relations of Herod followed his funeral proThe Jews showed a great regard for the burial of their cession. Sometimes, however, servants took the charge of dead; to be deprived of it was thought to be one of the great- interring their masters, as in the case of Josiah king of Judah. est dishonours that could be done to any man : and, there- (2 Kings xxiii. 30.) Devout men carried Stephen to his fore, in Scripture it is reckoned one of the calamities that burial. (Acts viii. 2.) The funeral obsequies were also atshould befall the wicked. (Eccles. vi. 3.) In all nations tended by the friends of the deceased, both men and women, there was generally so much humanity as not to prevent their who made loud lamentations for the deceased, and some of enemies from burying their dead. The people of Gaza al- whom were hired for the occasion. David and a large body lowed Samson's relations to come and take away his body of the Israelites mourned before Abner. (2 Sam iii. 31, 32.) (Judg. xvi. 31.); though one would have thought that this Solomon mentions the circumstance of mourners going about last slaughter which he made among them might have pro- the streets (Eccles. xii. 5.); who, most probably, were pervoked them to some acts of outrage even upon his dead body. sons hired to attend
the funeral obsequies, to wail and lament But as he stood alone in what he did, none of the Israelites for the departed. From Jer. ix. 17. it appears, that women joining with him in his enterprises, they might possibly be were chiefly employed for this purpose; and Jerome, in his apprehensive, that, if they denied him burial, the God of commentary on that passage, says, that the practice was conIsrael, who had given him such extraordinary strength in his tinued in Judæa, down to his days, or the latter part of the lifetime, would not fail to take vengeance on them in that fourth century,5' In Jer. xlviji. 36., the use of musical instrucase, and, therefore, they were desirous, it may be, to get ments by these hired mourners is distinctly recognised ; and rid of his body (as afterwards they were of the ark), and Amos (v. 17.) alludes to such mourning as a well-known glad, perhaps, that any one would remove such a formidable custom. object out of their sight. Jeremiah prophesied of Jehoiakim, In the time of Jesus Christ and his apostles, the funeral that he should be buried with the burial of an ass (Jer. xxii. dirges sung by these hired mourners were accompanied by 19.), meaning that he should not be buried at all, but be cast musical instruments. “ The soft and plaintive melody of the forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem, exposed to the air and flute was employed to heighten these doleful lamentations putrefaction above ground, as beasts are, which is more and dirges. Thus we read, that on the death of the daughplainly expressed afterwards, by, telling us, that his body ter of Jairus, a company of mourners, with players on the should be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the flute, according to the Jewish custom, attended upon this sorfrost. (Jer. xxxvi. 30.) The author of that affecting elegy, rowful occasion. When Jesus entered the governor's house, the seventy-ninth psalm, when enumerating the calamities he saw the minstrels and the people wailing greatly. (Matt. which had befallen his unhappy countrymen, particularly ix. 23.) The custom of employing music to heighten public specifies the denial of the rites of sepulture, as enhancing and private grief was not in that age peculiar to the Jews. their afflictions. The dead bodies of thy servants have they we find the flute also employed at the funeral solemnities of giren to be meat unto the fowls of heaven ; the flesh of thy the Greeks and Romans, in their lamentations for the desaints unto the beasts of the earth. (Psal. lxxix. 2.)
ceased, as appears from numerous testimonies of classic IV. The Rites OF SEPULTURE were various at different authors." The same custom still obtains among the Moors in times, and also according to the rank or station of the de- Africa, the Turks in Palestine, and the modern Greeks. "At ceased.
all their principal entertainments," says Dr. Shaw, "and to 1. Before the age of Moses, the funeral took place a few show mirth and gladness upon other occasions, the women days after death. (Gen. xxiii, 19. xxv.9. xxxv. 29.) In Egypt, welcome the arrival of each guest, by squalling out for sevea longer time elapsed before the last offices were performed
2 Not to detail the observations of the earlier travellers, it may suffice to for Jacob and Joseph, on account of the time which was adduce three instances from recent and intelligent English travellers.requisite for the Egyptian process of embalming, in order at Cairo, says Mr. Carne, that the corpse might be preserved for a long time. (Gen. friends of the deceased, advanced under a row of palm trees, singing in a xlix. 29. 1. 3. 24–26.) As it is probable that the Israelites, neatly
dressed in white, and borne on an open bier, with a small awning of when in Egypt, had been accustomed to keep their dead for red silk over it.” (Letters from the East, p. 109.) Át Baghtchisarai in the a considerable period, the Mosaic laws, respecting the un- the Christians: it was simply wrapped round with a white cloth, laid upon cleanness which arose from a dead body, would compel a bier or board, and borne by four men to the grave. This mode of perthem to a more speedy, interment. At length, after the forming the funeral olosequies obtains equally among the Jews, Christians, return from the Babylonish captivity, it became customary families, who naturally conform to the rite of their ancestors.” (Biblical for the Jews to bury the dead on the same day, and as soon Researches, p. 304.) Mr. Hartley observed a similar mode of interinent as possible after the vital spark was extinguished. Jahn in Greece. "The corpse is always exhibited to full view: it is placed upon affirms (but without assigning any authority for his asser- a bier which is borne aloft upon the shoulders, and is dressed in the best tion), that the Jews did this in imitation of the Persians; but p. 118.9
and gayest garments possessed by the deceased.” (Researches in Greece, it is more likely, that the custom arose from a superstitious 3 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 8. 83. Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 33. $ 9. interpretation of Deut. xxi. 22, 23., which law enjoined, that
• Holden's translation of Ecclesiastes, p. 171.
Dr. Blayney's translation of Jeremiah, p. 270. 8vo. edit.
* Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 132. 134., where various pasages of · Carlyle's Specimens of Arabian Poetry, p. 14. 2. edit.
classic authors are cited.
ral times together, Loo! Loo! Loo!! At their funerals, | to do honour to his memory, and who accompanied the proalso, and upon other melancholy occasions, they repeat the cession into the land of Canaan. (Gen. 1. 7-10.) At the same noisé, only they make it more deep, and hollow, and burial of Abner, David commanded Joab and all the people end each period with some ventriloquous sighs. The saracen that were with him to rend their garments, and gird themCYTAS Ronae, or wailing greatly (as our version expresses it, selves with sackcloth, and to mourn before Abner, or make Mark v. 38.), upon the death of Jairus's daughter, was, pro- lamentations in honour of that general; and the king himself bably, performed in this manner. For there are several followed the bier. (2 Sam. iii. 31.) A Judah and the inhawomen, hired to act upon these lugubrious occasions, who, bitants of Jerusalem did honour to Hezekiah at his death, like the præficæ, or mourning women of old, are skilful in |(2 Chron. xxxii. 33.) Much people of the city were with the lamentation (Amos v. 16.), and great mistresses of these me- widow of Nain, who was following her only son to the lancholy expressions : and, indeed, they perform their parts grave. (Luke vii. 12.), Josephus informs us that Herod was with such proper sounds, gestures, and commotions, that they attended to Herodium (a journey of twenty-five days), where rarely fail to work up the assembly into some extraordinary he had commanded that he should be interred, first, by his pitch of thoughtfulness and sorrow. The British factory has sons and his numerous relations; next, by his guards, and often been very sensibly touched with these lamentations, after them by the whole army, in the same order as when whenever they were made in the neighbouring houses," they marched out to war; and that these were followed by The Rev. William Jowett, during his travels in Palestine, five hundred of his domestics, carrying spices." arrived at the town of Napolose, which stands on the site of Further, it was usual to honour the memory of distinthe ancient Shechem, immediately after the death of the guished individuals by a funeral oration or poem: thus governor. “On coming within sight of the gate,” he relates, David pronounced a eulogy over the grave of Abner. (2
we perceived a numerous company of females, who were Sam. iií. 33, 34.). Upon the death of any of their princes, singing in a kind of recitative, far from melancholy, and beat- who had distinguished themselves in arms, or who, by any ing time with their hands. On our reaching the gate, it was religious actions, or by the promotion of civil arts, had suddenly exchanged for most hideous plaints and shrieks; merited well of their country, they used to make lamentations which, with the feeling that we were entering a city at no or mournful songs for them: from an expression in 2 Chron. time celebrated for its hospitality, struck
a very dismal im- xxxv. 25. Behold they are written in the Lamentations, we pression upon my mind. They accompanied us a few paces, may infer that they had certain collections of this kind of but it soon appeared that the gate was their station; to which, composition. The author of the book of Samuel has prehaving received nothing from us, they returned. We learned served the exquisitively beautiful and affecting elegy which in the course of the evening that these were only a small de- David composed on occasion of the death of Saul and Jonatachment of a very numerous body of cunning women, who than; but we have no remains of the mournful poem which were filling the whole city with their cries, taking up a Jeremiah made upon the immature death of the pious king wailing with the design, as of old, to make the eyes of all Josiah, mentioned in the last-cited chapter: which loss is the inhabitants run down with tears, and their eyelids gush out the more to be deplored, because in all probability it was a with waters. (Jer. ix. 17, 18.). For this good service they masterpiece in its kind, since never was there an author would, the next morning, wait upon the government and more deeply affected with his subject, or more capable of principal persons, to receive some trifling fee.”3 The Rev. carrying it through all the tender sentiments of sorrow and John Hartley, during his travels in Greece, relates, that, one compassion, than Jeremiah. But no funeral obsequies were morning, while taking a solitary walk in Ægina, the most conferred on those who laid violent hands on themselves : plaintive accents fell upon his ear which he had ever heard. hence we do not read that the traitor-suicide Judas was laHe followed in the direction from which the sounds pro- mented by the Jews (Matt. xxvii. 4.), or by his fellow-disceeded, and they conducted him to the newly-made grave of ciples. (Ảcts i. 16.) a young man, cut down in the bloom of life, over which a Among many ancient nations, a custom prevailed of throwwoman, hired for the occasion, was pouring forth lamentation ing pieces of gold and silver, together with other precious and mourning and wo, with such doleful strains and feelings, articles, into the sepulchres of those who were buried : this as could scarcely have been supposed other than sincere. custom was not adopted by the Jews. But in Ezek. xxxii.
In proportion to the rank of the deceased, and the estima- 27. there is an allusion to the custom which obtained among tion in which his memory was held, was the number of per- almost all ancient nations, of adorning the sepulchres of sons who assisted at his funeral obsequies, agreeably to the heroes with their swords and other military trophies. The very ancient custom of the East. Thus, at the funeral of prophet, foretelling the fall of Meshech and Tubal, and all Jacob, there were present not only Joseph and the rest of his her multitude, says that they are gone down to hell (or the family, but also the servants and elders (or superintendents invisible state) with their weapons of war; and they have of Pharaoh's house) and the principal Egyptians, who attended laid their swords under their heads. In Mingrelia, Sir John remarks, Anxay, a word of the like sound, was used by an army either
be their heads, and their other arms by their sides; and they · Dr. Shaw conceives this word to be a corruption of Hallelujah. He Chardin informs us, they all sleep with their 'ewords under fore they gave the onset, or when they had obtained the victory. The bury them in the same manner, their arms being placed in Turks to this day call out, Allah! Allah! Allah! upon the like occasion. the same position. This fact greatly illustrates the passage Travels, vol. I. p. 435. note'. (8vo. edit.) Ibid. pp. 435, 436.
above cited, since, according to Bochart and other learned tontewer's Christian Researches in Syria, P: 194...
The mourning of the geographers, Meshech and Tubal mean Mingrelia, and the On the death of any one, nothing
is heard but tears, cries
, and groans from circumjacent country,
V. I'he most simple Tombs or monuments of old consisted ceased person is laid out for twenty-four hours, in the house where he ex: have numerous examples in our own country. In the East, manner, pluck off their hair and tear their faces
and bosons. The de- of hillocks of earth, heaped up over the grave, of which we strewed with flowers and aromatic Icaves, after the custom of the ancients. where persons have been murdered, heaps of stones are The lamentations are renewed every moment, particularly on the arrival raised over them as signs; and to this custom the prophet of a fresh
person, and especially of the priest - Just before the defunctis Ezekiel appears to allude. (xxxix. 15.) missions for the other world, to their departed relatives or friends. After The earliest sepulchres, in all probability, were caverns. these singular addresses, a pall or winding sheet is thrown over the dead Abraham purchased the cave of Machpelah of Ephron
the person, whose face continues uncovered, and he is carried to church;
while Hittite for a family burial-place. (Gen. xxiii
. 8-18.2 .Here their tears. Previously to depositing him in the ground, the next of kin tie were interred Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah; here the manner of the ancient Greeks. During this ceremony, as also while remains. (Gen. xlix. 29–32. 1. 13.) The ancient Jews a piece of cake to his neck, and put a piece of money in his hand, after also Jacob buried Leah, and charged his sons to deposit his addressed to the defunct, which are interrupted only by mournful sobs seem to have attached much importance to interment in the whose poor wife loved him so tenderly, and provided every thing for him in the land of Canaan (Gen. xlvii. 30. xlix. 29. 1. 25.), in asking him why he quitted them? Why he abandoned his family?
He sepulchre of their fathers, and
particularly to being buried succoured him whenever he wanted assistance; who possessed such beau- / which affection for the country of their ancestors they are tiful flocks, and all whose undertakings were blessed by heaven! When not surpassed by their descendants, the modern Jews. and partake of a grand entertainment, which is frequently interrupted by Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvi. c. 8. & 3. jovial songs, intermixed with prayers in honour of the deceased. One of Harmer's Observations on Scripture, vol. iï. pp. 55, 56. the guests is commissioned to chant a "lament" impromptu, which usually ? Shaw's Travels, vol. i. Pref. p. xviii. draws tears from the whole company; the performer is accompanied by 8 The modern Jews, in the time of Rabbi Solomon Jarchi, buried their three or four monochords, whose harsh discord excites both laughter and dead immediately, and put wooden props in the tombs by their side, by tears at the same time. Voyage Historique et Politique à Montenegro, par leaning on which they would be enabled to arise more easily at the resur. M. le Colonel Vialla de Sommières, tom. i. pp. 275-278. Paris, 1820. 8vo. rection of mankind from death. They further persuade themselves that • Hartley's Researches in Greece, pp. 119. 120
all the bodies of Jews dying out of Palestine, wherever they may be