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totally ignorant of the arts of building and navigating vessels, 5.) yet many others appear to have gained their subsistence he again had recourse to the assistance of Hiram. The king by buying and selling, Hence, immediately after their of Tyre, who was desirous of an opening to the oriental com- restoration, there were Jewish traders, who, regardless of merce, the articles of which his subjects were obliged to the rest of the sabbath-day which was enjoined by Moses, receive at second hand from the Arabians, entered readily not only bought and sold on that sacred day (Neh. xiii. 15.), into the views of the Hebrew monarch. Accordingly, Tyrian but also extorted unjust usury. (Neh. v. 1–13.). In later carpenters were sent to build vessels for both kings at Ezion- times, foreign commerce was greatly facilitated' by Simon geber, Solomon's port on the Red Sea; whither Solomon Maccabæus, who made the fortified city of Joppa a commohimself also went to animate the workmen by his presence. dious port (1 Macc. xiv. 5.), and by Herod the Great, who
Solomon's ships, conducted by Tyrian navigators, sailed erected the city of Cæsarea, which he converted into a very in company with those of Hiram to some rich countries, excellent harbour, which was always free from the waves of called Ophir (most probably Sofala on the eastern coast of the sea by means of a magnificent mole. Africa), and Tarshish, a place supposed to be somewhere on IV. Respecting the size and architecture of the Jewish the same coast.? The voyage required three years to accom- ships, we have no information whatever. The trading vessels plish it; yet, notwithstanding the length of time employed in of the ancients were, in general, much inferior in size to it, the returns in this new channel of trade were prodigiously those of the moderns :. Cicero mentions a number of ships great and profitable, consisting of gold, silver, precious stones, of burden, none of which were below two thousand amphovaluable woods, and some exotic animals, as apes and pea- ræ, that is, not exceeding fifty-six tons; and in a trading cocks. We have no information concerning the articles ex-. vessel, in all probability of much less burden, bound with ported in this trade: but, in all probability, the manufactures corn from Alexandria in Egypt to Rome, St. Paul was of the Tyrians, together with the commodities imported by embarked at Myra in Lycia. From the description of his them from other countries, were assorted with the corn, wine, voyage in Acts xxvii. it is evident to what small improveand oil of Solomon's dominions in making up the cargoes; ment the art of navigation had then attained. They had and his ships, like the late Spanish galleons, imported the no anchors, by which to moor or secure their vessels; and hullion, partly for the benefit of his industrious and commer- it is most probable that the crew of the vessel on board of cial neighbours. (1 Kings vii.—x. 2 Chron. ii. viii. ix.) which the apostle was embarked, drew her up on the beach Solomon also established a commercial correspondence with of the several places where they stopped, and made her fast Egypt; whence he imported horses, chariots, and fine linen on the rocks, as the ancient Greeks did in the time of Hoyarn: the chariots cost six hundred, and the horses one hun- mer, which practice also still obtains in almost every island dred and fifty, shekels of silver each. (1 Kings x. 28, 29. of Greece. Further, they had no compass by which they 2 Chron. i. 16, 17.)
could steer their course across the trackless deep; and the After the division of the kingdom, Edom being in that por- sacred historian represents their situation as peculiarly distion which remained to the house of David, the Jews appear tressing, when the sight of the sun, moon, and stars was to have carried on the oriental trade from the two ports of intercepted from them. (Acts xxvii. 20.) 'The vessel being Elath and Ezion-geber, especially the latter, until the time overtaken by one of those tremendous gales, which, at of Jehoshaphat, whose fleet was wrecked there (1 Kings certain seasons of the year prevail in the Mediterraneans xxii. 48. 2 Chron. xx. 36, 37.) During the reign of Jeho- (where they are now called Levanters), they had much work to ram, the wicked successor of Jehoshaphat, the Edomites come by the ship's boat, which appears to have been towed shook off the yoke of the Jewish sovereigns, and recovered along after the vessel, agreeably to the custom that still obtheir ports. From this time the Jewish traffic, through the tains in the East, where the skiffs are fastened to the sterns of Red Sea, ceased till the reign of Uzziah ; who, having reco- the ships (16.); which having taken up, that is, having drawn vered Elath soon after his accession, expelled the Edomites it up close to the stern, they proceeded to under-gird ihe ship. thence, and having fortified the place, peopled it with his (17.) We learn from various passages in the Greek and own subjects, who renewed their former commerce. This Roman authors, that the ancients had recourse to this expeappears to have continued till the reign of Ahaz, when Rezin, dient in order to secure their vessels, when in imminent king of Damascus, having oppressed and weakened Judah danger ;9 and this method has been used even in modern in conjunction with Pekah, kíng of Israel, took advantage of times.10 this circumstance to seize Elath; whence he expelled the Much ingenious conjecture has been hazarded relative to Jews, and planted it with Syrians. In the following year, the nature of the rudder-bands, mentioned in Acts xxvii. however, Elath fell into the hands of Tiglathpileser, king of 40.; but the supposed difficulty will be obviated by attendAssyria, who conquered Rezin, but did not restore it to his ing to the structure of ancient vessels. It was usual for all friend and ally, king Ahaz.2. Thus finally terminated the large ships (of which description were the Alexandrian commercial prosperity of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. corn ships) to have two rudders, a kind of very large and After the captivity, indeed, during the reigns of the Asmonæan broad oars, which were fixed at the head and stern. The, princes, the Jews became great traders. In the time of bands were some kind of fastenings, by which these rudders Pompey the Great there were so many Jews abroad on the were hoisted some way out of the water; for as they could ocean, even in the character of pirates, that king Antigonus be of no use in a storm, and in the event of fair weather was accused before him of having sent them out on purpose. coming the vessel could not do without them, this was a During the period of time comprised in the New Testament prudent way of securing them from being broken to pieces history, Joppa and Cæsarea were the two principal ports; by the agitation of the waves. These bands being loosed, and corn continued to be a staple article of export to Tyre. the rudders would fall down into their proper places, and (Acts xii. 20.)
During thé Babylonish captivity, the Jews seem to have Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iv. c. 9. $6. Parean, Antiq. Ilebr. pp. 418, 419. applied themselves much more than they had previously
5 Epist. ad Familiares, lib. xii. ep. 15.
6 Iliad, lib. i. 435. et passim. done to commercial pursuits; for though some of them - Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. ii. p. 121. The following pas. cultivated the soil at the exhortation of Jeremiah (xxix. 4, sages of Acts. xxvii. will derive elucidation from the above practice: it will
be observed that at setting sail there is no mention made of heaving up the
anchor; but there occur such phrases as the following :- And entering 1 It is certain that under Pharaoh Xecho, two hundred years after the into a ship of Adramyttium. WE LAUNCHED, meaning to sail by the coast time of Solomon, this voyage, was made by the Egyptians, (iferodotus, lib. 4 Asia. (verse 2) And then the south wind blex softly, supposing that iv. c. 42.) They sailed from the Red Sea, and returned by the Mediterra. ihey had obtained their purpose, LOOSING THENCE, ihey sailed close by nean, and they performed it in three years; just the same time that the Crete. (13.) And again, And when we had LAUNCHED FROM THENCE, we voyage under Solo:non had taken up. It appears likewise from Pliny sailed under Cyprus, because the winds were contrary. (4.) Ibid. pp. (Nat. Hist. lib. ii. c. 67.), that the passage round the Cape of Good Hope 121, 122. was known and frequently practised before his time; by Hanno the Car. * Mr. Emerson has described the phenomena attending one of these thaginian, when Carthage was in all its glory; by one Eudoxus, in the time gales in his Letters from the Ægean, vol. ii. pp. 149–152. of Plolemy Lathyrus, king of Egypt; and Cælins Antipater, an historian of s Raphelius and Wetstein, in loc. have collected numerous testimonies. good credit, somewhat earlier than Pliny, testifies that he had seen a mer- See also Dr. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 239, 240. chant who had made the voyage froin Gades to Æthiopia. Bp. Lowth, 10 The process of under.girding a ship is thus performed :-A stout cable however, supposes Tarshish' to be Tartessus in Spain. Isaiah, vol. ii. is slipped under the vessel
at the prow, which the seamen can conduct to pp. 34, 35.
any part of the ship's keel, and then fasten the two ends on the deck, to » During this period, the Jews seem to have had privileged streets at keep the planks from starting. As many rounds as may be necessary Damascus, as the Syrians had in Samaria. (1 Kings xx. 34.) In later times, may be thus taken about the vessel. An instance of this kind is mentioned during the crusades, the Genoese and Venetians, who had assisted the in Lord Anson's Voyage round the World. Speaking of a Spanish man-ofLatin kings of Jerusalem, had streets assigned to thein, with great liberties war in a storm, the writer says, "They were obliged to throw overboard and exclusive jurisdictions therein. See Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. all their upper-deck guns;
and take sir turns of the cable round the ship pp. 489–492.
to preveni her opening.” (p. 24. 410. edit.) Bp. Pearce and Dr. A. Clarke 's Jahn, Archæol. Heor. $$ 107–111. Macpherson's Annals of Com. on Acts xxvii. 11. Two instances of under-girding a ship are noticed in the meree, vol. i. pp. 22-24. 26. Prideanx's Connection, vol. i. pp. 5--10. Chevalier de Johnstone's Meinoirs of the Rebellion in 1745–6. (London,
1822. 8vo,) pr. 421. 454.
serve to steer the vessel into the creek which they now had to this day. In process of time such metals as were deemed in view.'
the most valuable were received into traffic, and were weighed It was the custom of the ancients to have images on out; until the inconveniences of this method induced men to their ships both at the head and stern ; the first of which give to each metal a certain mark, weight, and degree of was called Tapzones, or the sign, from which the vessel alloy, in order to determine its value, and save both buyers was named, and the other was that of the tutelar deity to and sellers the trouble of weighing and examining the metal. whose care it was committed. There is no doubt but they In some cases, the earliest coins bore the impression of a sometimes had deities at the head : in which case it is particular figure; in others, they were made to resemble most likely, that if they had any figure at the stern, it was objects of nature. The coinage of money was of late date the same as it is hardly probable, that the ship should among the Persians, Greeks, and Romans. The Persians be called by the name of one deity, and be committed to had none coined before the reign of Darius the son of Hys. the care of another. The constellation of the Dioscuri, taspes, nor had the Greeks (whom the Romans most probathat is, of Castor and Pollux (Acts xxviii. 11.), was bly imitated) any before the time of Alexander. We have deemed favourable to mariners; and, therefore, for a good no certain vestiges of the existence of coined money, among omen, they had them painted or carved on the head of the the Egyptians, before the time of the Ptolemies; nor had the ship, whence they gave it a name, which the sacred his- Hebrews any coinage until the government of Judas Maccatorían uses.
bæus, to whom Antiochus Sidetes, king of Syria, granted the The Egyptians commonly used on the Nile a light sort of privilege of coining his own money in Judæa. Before these ships or boats made of the reed papyrus.3 Isaiah alludes to respective times, all payments were made by weight; this them (xviii. 2.), in our version rendered vessels of bulrushes. will account for one and the same word (shekel, which comes Boats of similar frail materials are still in use in the from shakal, to weigh), denoting both a certain weight of any East.5
commodity and also a determinate sum of money." The V. Commerce could not be carried on without Coin, nor holy pliancy of temper with which believers should conform without a system of Weights and MEASURES.
to all the precepts of the Gospel is by St. Paul represented Although the Scriptures frequently mention gold, silver, by a beautiful állusion to the coining of money, in which the brass, certain sums of money, purchases made with money, liquid metals accurately receive the figure of the mould or current money, and money of a certain weight; yet the use die into which they are poured. (Rom. vi. 17.) of coin or stamped Money appears to have been of late intro- WEIGHTS AND MEASURES were regulated at a very early duction among the Hebrews. Calmet is of opinion, that the period in Asia. Moses made various enactments concerning ancient Hebrews took gold and silver only by weight, and them for the Hebrews; and both weights and measures, which that they regarded the purity of the metal, and not the stamp. were to serve as standards for form and contents, were depoThe practice of weighing money is stated by M. Volney to sited at first in the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple, be general in Syria, Egypt, and Turkey: no piece, however under the cognizance of the priests.10 On the destruction of effaced, is there refused. The merchant draws out his scales Solomon's temple these standards necessarily perished; and and weighs it, as in the days of Abraham, when he pur- during the captivity the Hebrews used the weights and meachased the cave of Machpelah for a sepulchre. (Gen. xxiii. sures of their masters. 16.)? The most ancient mode of carrying on trade, unques- For tables of the weights, measures, and money used in tionably, was by way of barter, or exchanging one commo-commerce, and which are mentioned in the Bible, the reader dity for another; a custom which obtains in some places evenl is referred to No. II. of the appendix to this volume.
AMUSEMENTS OF THE JEWS.—ALLUSIONS TO THE THEATRES, TO THEATRICAL PERFORMANCES, AND
TO THE GRECIAN GAMES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
I. Recreations of the Jews in domestic Life.—II. Military Sports.—III. Introduction of gymnastic and theatrical Exhibi
tions among the Jews.-IV. Allusions to the Theatres and to theatrical Performances in the New Testament.–V. Allusions to the Grecian Games, particularly the Olympic Games.-1. Qualifications of the Candidates.—Preparatory Discipline to which they were subjected.-2. Foot Race.-3. Rewards of the Victors.-4. Beautiful Allusions to these Games in the New Testament explained.
The whole design of the Mosaic institutes, being to pre-feast on the day when Isaac was weaned. (Gen. xxi. 8.) serve the knowledge and worship of the true God among the Weddings were always seasons of rejoicing (see pp. 161, Israelites, will sufficiently account for their silence respect- 162. supra): so also were the seasons of sheep-shearing ing recreations and amusements. Although no particular (1 Sam. xxv. 36. and 2 Sam. xiii. 23.); and harvest-home. circumstances are recorded on this subject, we meet with a (See p: 177.) To which may be added, the birth-days of few detached facts which show that the Hebrews were not sovereigns. (Gen. xl. 20. Mark vi. 21.) of most of these entirely destitute of amusements.
festivities music (see p. 183.) and dancing (see p: 184.) I. The various events incident to DOMESTIC Life afforded were the accompaniments. From the amusement of children them occasions for festivity. Thus, Abraham made a great sitting in the market-place, and imitating the usages common 1 Elsner and Wetstein on Acts xxvii. 40.
at wedding feasts and at funerals, Jesus Christ takes occa1 Valpy's Gr. Test. vol. ii. on Acts xxviii. 11. • Ex ipso quidem papyro navigia texunt. Pliny, list, Nat, lib: xiv. 1. pleased with nothing which their companions can do, whe
sion to compare the pharisees to sullen children who will be The same fact is attested by Lucan: conseritur bibula Memphitis cymbather they play at weddings or funerals; since they could not papyro. Pharsal lib. iv. 136. Bp. Lowth on Isaiab xviii. 2.
be prevailed upon to attend either to the severe precepts and • The Hon. Capt. Keppel, giving an account of an excursion up the river life of John the Baptist, or to the milder precepts and habits like a large circular basket; the sides were of willow, covered over with of Christ
. xi. 16, 17.)". The infamous practice of the Euphrates and the Tigris, and is probably best adapted to the strong with a strong metaphor, in which he cautions the Christians bitumen, the bottom was laid with reeds. This sort of boat is common to gamesters who play with loaded dice has furnished St. Paul kind as the vessels of bulrushes upon the waters alluded to by Isaiah ? at Ephesus against the
cheating sleight of men (Eph. iv. 14.), (xviii. 2.)" Narrative of Travels from India, vol. i. pp. 197, 198.
whether unbelieving Jews, heathen philosophers, or false 6 In a piece of sculpture discovered by Captains Irby and Mangles at El Cab, the ancient Eleethias in Egypt, ihere was represented a pair of scales: at one end was a man writing an account, while another was weigh- 8 Calmet's Dictionary, vol. ii. article Money. See a full account of the ing some small articles, probably loaves of bread. The weight was in the money coinert by the Maccabean princes, in F. P. Bayer's Dissertatio De form of a cow couchant Travels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. pp. 130–132. Numis llebræo-Samaritanis. Valentiæ Edetanoruin. 1781. 4to.
- Volney's Travels in Syria, &c. vol. ii. p. 425. In considerablc payments 9 Cox's Iloræ Roinanæ, p. 33. an agent of exchange is sent for, who counts paras by thousands, rejects 10 Michaelis has fully discussed the wisdom and propriety of the Mosaiu pieces of false money, and weighs all the sequins either separately or regulations concerning weights and measures, in his Commentaries on the fogether. (Ibid.) This may serve to illustrate the phrase, current money Laws of Moses, vol. iii. pp. 378–397. with the merchant, in Gen. xxiii. 16.
11 Kuinöel on Matt. xi. 17.
the Olympic crown. We see the kings of Macedon,' the your master, as to a physician. Then, in the combat you tyrants of Sicily, the princes of Asia Minor, and at last the may be thrown into a ditch, dislocate your arm, turn your lords of imperial Rome, and emperors of the world, incited ankle, swallow abundance of dust, be whipped, and, after all, by a love of glory, the last infirmity of noble minds, enter lose the victory. When you have reckoned up all this, if their names among the candidates, and contend for the envied your inclination still holds, set about the combat."9 palm ;-judging their felicity completed, and the career of 2. “After this preparatory discipline, on the day appointed all human glory and greatness happily terminated, if they for the celebration, a herald called over their names, recited could but interweave the Olympic garland with the laurels to them the laws of the games, encouraged them to exert all they had purchased in fields of blood. The various games, their powers, and expatiated upon the blessings and advanwhich the Romans celebrated in their capital and in the tages of victory. He then introduced the competitors into principal cities and towns of Italy, with such splendour, the stadium, led them around it, and, with a loud voice, deostentation, and expense, seem to have been instituted in manded if any one in that assembly could charge any of the imitation of the Grecian; though these were greatly inferior candidates with being infamous in his life and morals, or in point of real merit and intrinsic glory: for though the could prove him a slave, a robber, or illegitimate. They Romans had the gymnastic exercises of the stadium and the were then conducted to the altar, and a solemn oath exacted chariot-race, yet the mutual slaughter of such numbers of from them, that they would observe the strictest honour in gladiators, the combats with lions, bears, and tigers, though the contention. Afterwards, those who were to engage in the congenial to the sanguinary ferocity and brutality of these foot-race were brought to the barrier, along which they were people,—for no public entertainment could be made agreea- arranged, and waited, in all the excesses of ardour and impable without these scenes,-must present spectacles to the tience, for the signal. The cord being dropped, they all at last degree shocking to humanity; for every crown here once sprung forward, 11 fired with the love of glory, conscious won was dipt in blood.
that the eyes of all assembled Greece were now upon them, 1. “ The Olympic exercises principally consisted in run- and that the envied palm, if they won it, would secure them ning, wrestling, and the chariof-race; for leaping, throwing the the highest honours, and immortalize their memory. It is dart, and discus, were parts of that they called the Pantathlon. natural to imagine with what rapidity they would urge their The candidates were to be freemen, and persons of unexcep: course, and, emulous of glory, stretch every nerve to reach tionable morals. A defect in legitimacy or in personal the goal. This is beautifully represented in the following character totally disqualified them. It was indispensably elegant epigram (translated by Mr. West) on Arias of Tarsus, necessary for them previously to submit to a severe regimen. victor in the stadium :At their own houses they prescribed themselves a particular course of diet; and the laws required them, when they had
The speed of Arias, victor in the race,
Brings to thy founder, Tarsus, no disgrace; given in their names to be enrolled in the list of competitors,
For, able in the course with him to vie, to resort to Elis, and reside there thirty? days before the games
Like him, he seems on feather'd feet to fly, commenced; where the regimen and preparatory exercises
The barrier when he quits, the dazzled sight
In vain essays to catch him in his flight. were regulated and directed by a number of illustrious per
Lost is the racer through the whole career, sons who were appointed every day to superintend them.
Till victor at the goal he reappear. This form of diet they authoritatively prescribed, and religiously inspected, that the combatants might acquit them
In all these athletic exercises the combatants contended selves in the conflict in a manner worthy the Grecian name, naked ;12 for though, at first, they wore a scarf round the waist, worthy the solemnity of the occasion, and worthy those yet an unfortunate casualty once happening, when this discrowds of illustrious spectators by whom they would be sur- engaging itself, and entangling round the feet, threw the perrounded. There are many passages in the Greek and Roman son down, and proved the unhappy occasion of his losing the classics which make mention of that extreme strictness, tem- victory, it was, after this accident, adjudged to be laid aside 13 perance, and continence which the candidates were obliged 3. “ Chaplets composed of the sprigs of a wild olive, 14 and to observe.
branches of palm, were publicly placed on a tripod in the
middle of the stadium,15 full in the view of the competitors, Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam,
to inflame them with all the ardour of contention, and all the Multa tulit fecitque puer; sudavit et alsit :
spirit of the most generous emulation. Near the goal was Abstinuit venere et vino.
erected a tribunal, on which sat the presidents of the games, A youth, who hopes th' Olympic prize to gain, All arts inust try, and every toil sustain ;
called Hellanodics, personages venerable for their years and Th'extremes of heat and cold must often prove;
characters, who were the sovereign arbiters and judges of And shun the weak’ning joys of wine and love. Francis. these arduous contentions, the impartial witnesses of the
respective merit and pretensions of each combatant, and with The following is a very distinguished passage in Arrian's the strictest justice conferred the crown. discourses of Epictetus, which both represents to the reader
4. “ It is pleasing and instructive to observe, how the sethe severity of this regimen and the arduous nature of the veral particulars here specified concerning these celebrated subsequent contention : 3—“Do you wish to conquer at the solemnities, which were held in the highest renown and
glory Olympic games ?—But consider what precedes and
follows, in the days of the
apostles, explain and illustrate various pasand then if it be for your advantage, engage in the affair. You sages in their writings, the beauty, energy, and sublimity of must conform to rules; submit to a diet, refrain from dainties, which consist in the metaphorical allusions to these games, exercise your body whether you choose it or not, in a stated from the various gymnastíc exercises of which their elegant hour, in heat and cold: you must drink no cold water, nor some and impressive imagery is borrowed. Thus the writer of the times even wine. In a word, you must give yourself up to Epistle to the Hebrews (an epistle which, in point of com
position, may vie with the most pure and elaborate of the 1. Philip. Eadem quoque die nuntium pater ejus |Philippus) daurum vic: Greek classics) says, Wherefore seeing we also are compassed quod quadrigarum currus miserat. Justin. lib. xii. cap. 16. p. 359. edit. Gro? about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every nov. 1719. Cui Alexandro tanta omnium virtutum naturâ ornamenta exsti. tere, ut etiam Olympio certamine vario ludicrorum genere contenderit. • Mrs. Carter's translation of Arrian, pp. 268, 269. London, 1758. 4to. Justin. lib. vii. cap. 2. p. 217.
10 See West's Dissertation on the Olympic Games, p. 194. 12mo. · Hiero king of Syracuse. See Pindar's first Olympic ode : his first Py.
signoque repente thian ode. Theron king of Agrigentum. See the second and third Olympic
Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt
Effusi, nimbo similes : simul ultima signant. 3 Nero. See Dion Cassius, tom. ii. pp. 1032, 1033. 1066. edit. Reimar.
Virgil. Æneid. v. ver. 313 Aurigavit [Nerol plurifariam, Olyinpiis etiam decernjugem. Suetonius in Vita Neronis, p. 605. edit. var. Lug. Bat. 1662.
12 Thucydides, lib. i. $ 6. tom. i. pp. 16, 17. ed. Glasg.
13 In the xivth Olympiad, one Orsippus, a racer, happened to be thrown * Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum
down by his
scarf tangling about his feet, and was killed; though others say Collegisse, juvat: metaque fervidis
that he only lost the victory by that fall; but whichever way it was, occaEvitata rotis, palınaque nobilis
sion was taken from thence to make a law, that all the athletes for the future Terrarum dominos evehit ad Deos.
should contend naked. West's Dissertation, p. 66. 12mo. The candidates were obliged to undergo an exarnination of another kind, 14 Το γερας εστιν ουκ αργυρος, ουδε κρυσος, ου μην ουδε κοτένσυ στεφανος και consisting of the following interrogatories :- 1. Were they freemen? Ovou. Josephus contra Apion. lib. it. $30. p. 488. ITavercamp. Strabo, 2. Were they Grecians ? 3. Were their characters clear from all infamous in bis geographical description of the Elian territories, mentions a grove and immoral stains ? West's Dissertation on the Olympic Games, p. 152. of wild olives. Εστι δ' αλσος αγριελαιων πληρες. Strabo, lib. viii. p. 343. edit. 12mo.
edit. Paris, 1620. Probably from this grove the Olympic crowns were com
posed. · Philostratus, de Vita Apollonii, lib. v. cap. 43. p. 227. edit. Olearii. Lip: object of their ambition, these crowns were laid upon a tripod or table,
Hor. Art. Poet. ver. 412.
Horat. lib. i. ode 1.
15 To excite , in • Epictetus, lib iii. c. 15. See also Epicteti Enchriidion. cap. 29. p. 710. which during the games was brought out and placed in the middle of the edit. Upton.
stadium. West's Dissertation, p. 174. 12mo.
weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run that which is lame be turned out of the way: exert in the Chris. with patience the race that is set before us ; looking unto Jesus, tian race those nerves that have been relaxed, and collect the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set those spirits which have been sunk in dejection: make a before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set smooth and even path for your steps, and remove every thing down at the right hand of the majesty on high. For consider that would obstruct and retard your velocity. him that endureth such contradiction of sinners against himself, “The following distinguished passage in St. Paul's first lest you be wearied and faint in your minds, Wherefore lift Epistle to the Corinthians (ix. 24–27.). abounds with up the hands that hang down, and the feeble knees ; and make agonistical terms. Its beautiful and striking imagery is straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out totally borrowed from the Greek stadium. Know ye not of the way. (Heb. xii. 1–3. 12, 13.). In allusion to that pro- that they who run in a race, run all, but one receiveth the digious assembly, from all parts of the world,' which was prize ?? So run, that ye may obtain. And every man that convened at Olympia to be spectators of those celebrated striveth for the mastery, is temperate in all things. Now they games, the apostle places the Christian combatant in the do it to obtain a corruptible crown ; but we an incorruptible. midst of a most august and magnificent theatre, composed of 1 therefore so run, not as uncertainly ; 80 fight I, not as one all those great and illustrious characters, whom in the pre- that beateth the air : but I keep under my body, and bring it ceding chapter he had enumerated, the fancied presence of into subjection ; lest that by any means, when I have preached whom should fire him with a virtuous ambition, and animate the Gospel to others, I myself should be a cast-away: know you him with unconquered ardour to run the race that was set not that in the Grecian stadium great numbers run with the before him. Wherefore seeing we are compassed about with utmost contention to secure the prize, but that only one person such a cloud of witnesses :? whose eyes are upon us, who expect wins and receives ? With the same ardour and perseverance do every thing from the preparatory discipline we have received, you run, that you may seize the garland of celestial glory. and who long to applaud and congratulate us upon our victory: Every one, also, who enters the list as a combatant, submits let us lay aside every weight, and the sin that doth so easily beset to a very rigid and severe regimen. They do this to gain us ;4 let us throw off every impediment, as the competitors for a fading chaplet,o that is only composed of the decaying the Olympic crown did, and that sin that would entangle and leaves of a wild olive, but in our view is hung up the impede our steps, and prove the fatal cause of our losing the unfading wreath of immortality.10 With this in full pros. victory; and let us run with patience the race set before us ; pect I run the Christian race, not distressed with wretched like those who ran in the Grecian stadium, let us, inflamed uncertainty concerning its final issue. I engage as a comwith the idea of glory, honour, and immortality, urge our batant, but deal not my blows in empty air.2 But I inure course with unremitting ardour toward the destined happy my body to the severest discipline, and bring all its appetites goal for the prize of our high calling in God our Saviour, into subjection : lest, when I have proclaimed13 the glorious looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith : as the prize to others, I should, at last, be rejected as unworthy24 candidates for the Olympic honours, during the arduous con- to obtain it. This representation of the Christian race must tention, had in view those illustrious and venerable per- make a strong impression upon the minds of the Corinthisonages from whose hands they were to receive the envied ans, as they were so often spectators of those games, which palm, and who were immediate witnesses of their respective were celebrated on the Isthmus, upon which their city was conduct and merit; in imitation of them, let us Christians situated. It is very properly introduced with, Know You keep our eyes steadfastly fixed upon Jesus the original intro- NOT; for every citizen in Corínth was acquainted with every ducer and perfecter of our religion, who, if we are victorious, minute circumstance of this most splendid and pompous scwill rejoice to adorn our temples with a crown of glory that lemnity. St. Paul, in like manner, in his second Epistle to will never fade; who, for the joy set before him, endured the Timothy (ii. 5.), observes, that if a man strive for mastery, cross, despising the shame, and is now set down at the right hand yet is he not crowned unless he strive lawfully : he who conof God: Jesus himself, to seize the glorious palm which his tends in the Grecian games secures not the crown, unless he God and Father placed full in his view in order to inspirit strictly conform to the rules prescribed. him with ardour and alacrity, in the race he had set before " What has been observed concerning the spirit and him, cheerfully submitted to sorrows and sufferings, endured ardour with which the competitors engaged in the race, the cross, contemning the infamy of such a death, and, in and concerning the prize they had in view to reward their consequence of perseverance and victory, is now exalted to arduous contention, will illustrate the following sublime the highest honours, and placed on the right hand of the Su- passage of the same sacred writer in his Epistle to the preme Majesty. For, consider him that endureth such contra- Philippians, (iii. 12–14.) :- Not as though I had already diction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint attained, either were already perfect ; but I follow after, it in your minds ;6 consider him who conflicted with such oppo- ε Πας δε και αγωνιζομενος παντα εγκρατεύεται. We have already noticed sition of wicked men all confederated against him, and let how rigid and severe this regimen was, and what temperance and contireflections on his fortitude prevent your being languid and nence Ley Xpers*those who entered their names in the list of combatants dispirited; therefore lift up the hands which hang down, and alsit: abstinuit venere et vino, says Horace. See Æliani, Var. Hist, lib. xi. the feeble knees. And make straight paths for your feet, lest cap. 3. p. 684. Gronovii Lug. Bat. 1731, and Plato de Legibus, lib. viii. pp.
139, 140. edit. Serrani, 1578, and Eustathius ad Hom. Iliad e. p. 1472 1 Not merely the inhabitants of Athens, of Lacedæmon, and of Nicopolis, Olympic games was made of wild olive, the crowns in the Isthmian games
9 $$xpTOV OTS0%von. The chaplet that was bestowed on the victor in the but the inhabitants of the whole world are convened to be spectators of the were composed of parsley. These chaplets were fading and transitory. Olympic exercises. Arriani Epictetus, lib. iii. p. 456. Upton. 1 Nepos p:eptupwy. A cloud of witnesses. This form of expression occurs
Διδους και τους θεμελικοες στεφανου μεν ου κρυσoυς, αλλ'
ώσπερ εν ολυμπια, in the politest writers. See Iliad, x. 133. Æneid, vii. 793. Andron. Rho-phyrius de Antro Nympharum, p. 240. edit. Cantab: 1655. Philonis Opera,
Plutarch. Cato, jun. p. 1433. edit. Gr. Steph. 8vo. See also Pordii Argonauticon, iv. 398. Appian, Pisc. i. 463. and Euripidis Hecuba, tom. ii. p. 463. edit. Mangey. Tous gap To lo Spoze vixwTag of Koper. Tev * Oyxov a to Isusvos axvT4. A stadio sumpta similitudo : ibi qui cursuri thians crown with parsley. Polyæni Stratag. lib. v. p. 376. edit. Casaubon.
σελινων στεφανουσιν. Those who congner in the Isthmian games the Corinsunt, omnia quæ oneri esse possunt, deponunt. Grot. in loc. Monet ut 1589. ayxov abjiciamus, quo vocabulo crassa omnis et tarda moles significatur. 10 ‘Hubus D, 9uptov. With what ardour in the Christian race this glo• Euripuoluetov. Entangled by wrapping round. An allusion to the gar: igitur agonista ad incorruptelæ agonem adhortatar nos, ati coronemur, et
rious crown should inspire us is well represented by Irenæus. Bonus ments or the Greeks
which were long, and would entangle and impede their preciosam arbitremur coronam, videlicet quæ per agonem nobis acquiritur, steps, if not thrown off in the race. See Hallet, in loc. Tiporstuesvas xUT2%2025. The joy placed full in his view. In the Olym: ciosior: quantò autem preciosior, tantò eam semper diligamus. Irenæus,
sed non ultro coalitam. Et quantò per agonem nobis advenit, tantò est prepic exercises the prize was publicly placed in the view of the combatants lib. iv. p. 377. edit. Grab. The folly also of Christians in being negligent
and to fire their emulation. The following note of Krebsius is very elegant : remiss, when an incorruptible crown awaits their persevering and victoriElegantissima metaphora est vocis #poke LEVAS, e veterum certaminum ratione ducta. Proprie enim apoxsecut dicuntur « *514, sc. præmia cer his Apol. ii. p. 78. edit. Paris. 1636.
ous constancy and virtue, is also beautifully exposed by Justin Martyr. See taminis, quæ publicè proponuntur in propatulo, ut eorum aspectus, cer- 11 So we understand oux admins. Mr. West renders it, in the illustration taque, eorum adipiscendorum spes, certaturos alacriores redderet ad certamen ineundum, victoriamque reportandam. J. Tob. Krebsii Observat. in and then adds the following note: '925 oux udniws, may also signify in this
he has given us of this passage; I so run, as not to pass undistinguished; N. T. e Joseph. p. 377. Lips. 1755. 8vo. Ive per *meuXTS, THIS YUXmış üzewv exavouevos. Hæc duo verba a palæstra et of the judge of the games, and a great number of spectators. West's Dis
place, as if I was unseen, not unobserved, i e. as if I was in the presence ab athletis desumpta sunt, qui proprie dicuntur x L ALVELV et \u%*5 exdu$65*, sertation, p. 253. 12mo. cum corporis viribus debilitati et fracti, omnique spe vincendi abjecta, victas manus dant adversario-Neque dubium est quin apostolus eó
12 Ούτω συκτευω, ώς ουκ αερα δερων. This circumstance is often mentioned
in describing the engagements of combatants; thus, Virgil has, Entellus respexerit. Krebsius, p. 390. Διο της παρειμενας χειρας και τα παραλελυμενα γονατα ανορθωσατε. | Brachia. Valerius Flaccus, iv. 302. τρις δ' τερά τους εθελαν. Πiad, Y. 446.
vires in ventum effudit. Æneid. v. 443. Vacuas agit inconsulta per auras Quemadmodum Paulus sæpissime delectatur loquendi formulis ex re pa. See also Oppian. Piscat. lib. ii. ver. 450. Rittershus. Lug. Bat. 1597. læstricâ petitis ; ita dubium non est, quin hic
quoque respexisse eo videa. tur. Athletis enirm et luctatoribus tribuntur παρειμεναι χειρες et παραλελυ- κηρυξ, made proclamation at the games what rewards would be bestowed
13 AXLO.5 xmpuzues; proclaimed, as a berald, the prize to others. A herald, Mive youett, cum luctando ita defatigati, viribusque fracti sunt, ut neque on the conquerors. manus neque pedes officio suo fungi possint, ipsique adeo victos se esse 14 Αδοκιμος γινω μας. fateri cogantur. Krebsius, p. 392.
Be disapproved; be rejected as unworthy; come
off without honour and approbation. VOL. II.
that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended | prize before me, pressing with eager and rapid steps, towards of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself to have appre- the goal, to seize the immortal palm which God, by Christ hended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which Jesus, bestows. This affecting passage, also, of the same are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are apostle, in the second Epistle of Timothy, written a little before, I press towards the mark, for the prize of the high before his martyrdom, is beautifully allusive to the abovecalling of God in Christ Jesus : Not that already I have mentioned race, to the crown that awaited the victory, and acquired this palm ; not that I have already attained per- to the Hellanodics or judges who bestowed it: I have fection; but I pursue my course, that I may seize that crown fought a good fight, I have finished my course,2 I have kept of immortality, to the hope of which I was raised by the the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of rightgracious appointment of Christ Jesus. My Christian breth-eousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at ren, I do not esteem myself to have obtained this glorious that day:
and not to me only, but to all them also that love prize: but one thing. occupies my whole attention ; forget- his appearing,” (2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.) ting what I left behind, I stretch every nerve towards the
ON THE DISEASES MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES, TREATMENT OF THE DEAD, AND
ON THE DISEASES MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.
. Origin and Progress of the Art of Medicine in the East.-II. Notice of Remedies in use among the Jews.-III. Account of some particular Diseases mentioned in the Scriptures ; viz. 1. The Leprosy ;-2. Elephantiasis, the Disease of Job ;3. Disease of the Philistines ;-4. Of King Saul ;-5. Of King Jehoram ;-6. Of King Hezekiah ;–7. Of Nebuchadnezzar; –8. Palsy ;—9. Issue of Blood";—10. Blindness ;–11. The Reality of demoniacal Possessions proved.
I. The diseases to which the human frame is subject would | from producing the effects he ascribes to them. Physicians naturally lead men to try to alleviate or to remove them: are mentioned first in Gen. 1. 2. Exod. xxi. 19. Job xiii. 4. hence sprang the Art of MEDICINE. In the early ages of Some acquaintance with chirurgical operations is implied in the world, indeed, there could not be much occasion for an the rite of circumcision. (Gen. xvii. 11–14.) There is art which is now so necessary to the health and happiness ample evidence that the Israelites had some acquaintance of mankind. The simplicity of their manners, the plainness with the internal structure of the human system, although it of their diet, their temperance in meat and drink, and their does not appear that dissections of the human body, for mediactive life (being generally occupied in the field, and in rural cal purposes, were made till as late as the time of Ptolemy. affairs), would naturally tend to strengthen the body, and to That physicians sometimes undertook to exercise their skill, afford a greater share of health than what we now enjoy. So in removing diseases of an internal nature, is evident from long as our first parents continued in that state of upright- the circumstance of David's playing upon the harp to cure ness in which they were created, there was a tree, emphati- the malady of Saul. (1 Sam. xvi. 16.)" The art of healing cally termed the tree of life, the fruit of which was divinely I was committed among the Hebrews, as well as among the appointed for the preservation of health ; but after the fall, Egyptians, to the priests; who, indeed, were obliged, by a being expelled from Eden, and, consequently, banished for law of the state, to take cognizance of leprosies. (Lev. xiii
. ever from that tree, they became liable to various diseases, 1–14. 57. Deut. xxiv. 8, 9.) Reference is made to physiwhich, doubtless, they would endeavour to remove, or to miti- cians who were not priests, and to instances of sickness, gate in various ways. From the longevity of the patriarchs disease, healing, &c. in the following passages; viz. 1 Sam. it is evident that diseases were not very frequent in the early
1 Τα μεν οπισω επιλανθάνομενος, τοις δε εμπροσθεν επεκτεινομενος, επι ages of the world, and they seem to have enjoyed a suffi- Kosov sowe w Sa 1 TO BpzCscov. Every term here employed by the apostle ciently vigorous old age, except that the eyes became dim is agonistical. The whole passage beautifully represents that ardour which and the sight feeble. (Gen. xxvii
. 1. xlviii. 10.) Hence it is fired the combatants when engaged in the race. Their spirit and conten, recorded as a remarkable circumstance concerning Moses, lines of Oppian, which happily illustrate this passage :
tion are in a very striking manner described in the following truly poetical that in extreme old age (for he was an hundred and twenty,
“Ως δε ποδωκευης μεμελημενοι ανδρες οεθλων, years old when he died) his eye was not dim, nor his natural
Σταθμης ορμηθεντες, αποσσυτοι ωκεα γουνα force abated. (Deut. xxxiv. 7.)
Προπροτιταινομενοι δολιχον τελος εγκονεουσιν
Εξανυσαι πασιν· δε πονος νυσση τε πελασσαι, The Jews ascribed the origin of the healing art to God him
Νικης τε γλυκυδωρον έλειν κρατος, ες τε θυρεθρα self (Ecclus. xxxviii. 1, 2.), and the Egyptians attributed the
Αίξαι, και καρτος αε θλιον αμφιβαλεσθαι. invention of it to their god Thaut or Hermes,or to Osiris or Isis.
Oppian Pisc. lib. iv. ver. 101. edit. Rittershusii. Anciently, at Babylon, the sick, when they were first
As when the thirst of praise and conscious force attacked by a disease, were left in the streets, for the purpose
Invite the labours of the panting COURSE, of learning from those who might pass them what practices
Prone from the lists the blooming rivals strain,
And spring exulting to the distant plain, or what medicines had been of assistance to them, when
Alternate feet with nimble measured bound afflicted with a similar disease. This was, perhaps, done
Impetuous trip along the refluent ground,
In every breast ambitious passions rise, also in other countries. The Egyptians carried their sick
To seize the goal, and snatch th' immortal prize. into the temple of Serapis; the Greeks carried theirs into
Jones's translation. those of Æsculapius. In both of these temples there were
Instat equis auriga suos vincentibus, illum preserved written receipts of the means by which various
Præteritum temnens, extremos inter euntem: cures had been effected. With the aid of these recorded re
Horat. Satyr. lib. I. Sat. i. 115, 116.
, TO APOMON TITELSXX. I have finished my RACE. The whole passage medies, the art of healing assumed in the progress of time is beautifully allusive to the celebrated games and exercises of those times. the aspect of a science. It assumed such a form, first in Apovos properly signifies a race. Theocritus, Idyl. iii. ver. 41. Sophoclis Egypt, and at a much more recent period in Greece; but it Electra, ver. 693. See also ver. 686-688. Euripidis Andromache, ver. 599. was not long before those of the former were surpassed in Eipidis Iphigenia in Aulide, ver: 242 Strabo, lib. iii. p. 155. edit. Paris, excellence by the physicians of the latter country. That the to be rendered. (Acts xx. 24.) But none of these things move me, neither Egyptians, however, had no little skill in medicine,
may be count I my life dear unto myself; so that I might finish my course with gathered from what is said in the Pentateuch respecting the honour and applause. It is a beautiful and striking allusion to the race in marks of leprosy. That some of the medical prescriptions these celebrated games.- In the fifth volume of Bishop
Horne's Works, should fail of bringing the expected relief is by no means there is an animated discourse on the Christian race; the materials of which strange, since Pliny himself mentions some which are far are partly derived from Dr. Harwood's Introduction to the New Testament,