was to take an oath of cursing, it is said that the priest shall | Eunuch, though probably reading to himself, and not parwrite the curses in a book, and blot them out with the bitter ticularly designing to be heard by his attendants, would water. It appears that these maledictions were written with read loud enough to be understood by a person at some disa kind of ink prepared for the purpose, without any calx of tance." 5 iron or other material that could make a permanent dye; 2. Though the art of Carving or ENGRAVING was not inand were then washed off the parchment into the water vented by the Hebrews, yet that it was cultivated to a conwhich the woman was obliged to drink : so that she drank siderable extent is evident not only from the cherubim which the very words of the execration. The ink used in the East were deposited first in the tabernacle and afterwards in Solois almost all of this kind; a wet sponge will completely mon's temple, but from-the lions, which were on each side obliterate the finest of their writings. The ink was carried of his throne (1 Kings x. 20.), and from the description in an implement, termed by our translators an inkhorn, which which Isaiah (xliv. 13–17.) has given us of the manner in was stuėk into the girdle (Ezek. ix. 2, 3.), as it still is in which idols were manufactured. the Levant.2

3. By whomsoever PAINTING was invented, this art apEpistles or Letters, which are included under the same pears to have made some progress in the more advanced Hebrew word with Books (viz. 100, Sepher), are very rarely periods of the Jewish polity. In Ezek. xxiii. 14, 15. menmentioned in the earlier ages of antiquity. The first notice tion is made of men portrayed upon the wall, the images of of an epistle in the Sacred Writings occurs in 2 Sam. xi. the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles 14.: but afterwards they are more frequently mentioned. upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all In the East, letters are to this day commonly sent unsealed : of them princes to look to. Jeremiah mentions apartments but, when they are sent to persons of distinction, they are which were painted with vermilion. (xxii. 14.) But as all placed in a valuable purse, which is tied, closed over with pictures were forbidden by the Mosaic law, as well as clay or wax, and then stamped with a signet. The same images (Lev. xxvi. 1. Num. xxxiii. 52.), it is most propractice obtained in ancient times. See Isa. viii. 6. xxix. babie that these pictures were copied by the Jews from some 11. (marginal rendering), Neh. vi. 5. Job xxxviii. 14. of their heathen neighbours, after they had been corrupted The book which was shown to the apostle John (Rev. v. 1. by intercourse with them. vi. 1, 2, &c.). was sealed with seven seals, which unusual 4. The art of Music was cultivated with great ardour by number seems to have been affixed, in order to intimate the the Hebrews, who did not confine it to sacred purposes, but great importance and secrecy of the matters therein contained. introduced it upon all special and solemn occasions, such as The most ancient epistles begin and end without either entertaining their friends, public festivals, and the like: thus salutation or farewell; but under the Persian monarchy it Laban tells Jacob that if he had known of his leaving him, was very prolix. It is given in an abridged form in Ezra he would have sent him away with mirth and with songs, with iv. 7–10. and v. 7. The apostles, in their epistles, used tabret and with harp., (Gen. xxxi, 27.) Isaiah says, that the salutation customary among the Greeks, but they omitted the harp and the viol, the tabret and pipe, are in their feasts the usual farewell (xrepeer) at the close, and adopted a bene- (Isa. v. 12.); and, to express the cessation of these feasts, diction more conformable to the spirit of the Gospel of he says, the mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the joy of the harp ceaseth. Christ. When Paul dictated his letters (as he most fre- (Isa. xxiv. 8.) It was also the custom at the coronation of quently did), he wrote the benediction at the close with his kings. (2 Chron. xxiii. 13.) And it was the usual manner own hand. See an instance in 2 Thess. iii. 17.2

of expressing their mirth upon their receiving good tidings Books being written on parchment and similar flexible of victory, and upon the triumphal returns of their generals, materials, were rolled round a stick or cylinder; and if they as may be seen in Judg. xi. 31. and 1 Sam. xviii. &. That were very long, round two cylinders, from the two extremi- music and dancing were used among the Jews at their feasts ties. Usually, the writing was only on the inside. The in latter ages, may be inferred from the parable of the prodiwriting on Ezekiel's roll (Ezek. ii. 9, 10.) being on both gal son. (Luke xv. 25.) Besides their sacred music, the sides, indicated that the prophecy would be long. The Hebrew monarchs had their private music. Asaph' was reader unrolled the book to the place which he wanted, master of David's royal band of musicians. It appears that DYLITTUELS TO Bibnuv, and rolled it up again, when he had read in the temple-service female musicians were admitted as it, atuğus To Bebnis (Luke iv. 17-20.); whence the name well as males, and that in general they were the daughters mbap (megillan), a volume, or thing rolled up. (Psal. xl. 7. of Levites. Heman had fourteen sons and three daughters Isa. xxxiv. 4. "Ezek. ii. 9. 2 Kings xix. 14. Ezra vi. 2.) who were skilled in music; and Ezra, when enumerating The leaves thus rolled round the stick, and bound with a those who returned with him from the Babylonish captivity, string, could be easily sealed. (Isa. xxix. 11. Dan. xii. 4. reckons two hundred singing men and singing women. Rev. v. 1. vi. 7.) Those books which were inscribed on The Chaldee paraphrast on Eccles. ii. 8., where Solomon tablets of wood, lead, brass, or ivory, were connected toge- says that he had men singers and women singers, understands ther by rings at the back, through which a rod was passed it of singing women of the temple. to carry them by. In Palestine, when persons are reading In the tabernacle and the temple, the Levites (both men privately in a book, " they usually go on, reading aloud with and women) were the lawful musicians; but on other occaa kind of singing voice, moving their heads and bodies in sions the Jews were at liberty to use any musical instrutime, and making a monotonous cadence at regular intervals, ments, with the exception of the silver trumpets, which were _thus giving emphasis; although not such an emphasis, to be sounded only by the priests, on certain solemn and pliant to the sense, as would please an English ear." Very public occasions. (Num. x. l-10.) often they seem to read without perceiving the sense; and

The invention of inusical instruments is ascribed to Jubal. to be pleased with themselves, merely because they can go (Gen. iv. 21.) The following are the principal MUSICAL through the mechanical act of reading in any way.” This INSTRUMENTS mentioned in the Sacred Writings :-— practice may enable us to “understand how it was that (1.) Pulsatile Instruments. These were three in number, Philip should hear at what passage in Isaiah the Ethiopian viz. The tabret, the cymbal, and the sistrum. Eunuch was reading, before he was invited to come up and

i. The Tabret, Tabor, or Timbrel, yn (Tuph), was comsit with him in the chariot. (Acts viii. 30, 31.) The posed of a circular hoop, either of wood or brass, which was

covered with a piece of skin tensely drawn and hung round 1 Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. p. 127. Dr. A. Clarke on Num. v. 23. with small bells. It was held in the left hand, and beaten 2 Einerson's Letters from the gean, vol. ii. p. 64. "This implement to notes of music with the right. After the passage of the is one of considerable antiquity; it is common throughout the Levant, and Red Sea, Miriam the sister of Moses took a timbrel, and brass tube for holding pens is attached the little case containing

the moist began to play and dance with the women (Exod. xv. 20.): ened sepia used for ink, which is closed with a lid and snap, and the

whole in like manner the daughter of Jephthah came to meet her stuck with much importance in the girdle. This is, without doubt, the father with timbrels and dances, after he had discomfited clothed in linen, with a writer's inkhorn by his side. (Ezek. ix. 2.)" Ibid. and subdued the Ammonites. (Judg. xi. 34.). The ladies 3 Jahn's Archæol. Hebr. by Mr. Upham, $$ 88, 89. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr' ment. The earliest notice of the tabret occurs in Gen.

in the East, to this day, dance to the sound of this instrupp. 426—428.

* In the monastery of Megaspelaion, in Greece, the Rev. Mr. Hartley xxxi. 27. observed two beautiful rolls of the same description with that mentioned in Ezek. ii. 9, 10., and containing the Liturgies of St. Chrysostom, and that of two large and broad plates of brass, of a convex form;

ii. The Cymbal, bsbs (Tseltsel), Psal. cl. 5. consisted and you continued to read and unfold, till at last you arrived at the stick to which the roll was attached. Then you turned the parchment round, and Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 121. continued to read on the other side of the roll; folding it gradually up, For some remarks on the titles of certain Psalms, which are supposed until you completed the

Liturgy. Thus it was written within and without." to have been derived either from musical instruments or the tunes to which Hartley's Researches in Greece, p. 238.

they were sung, see part i. chap. iii. sect. ii. $ vi. infra.

p. 64. note.


which, being struck against each other, made a hollow ring-, it a part of their worship which they paid to the golden calf. ing sound.1 °They form, in our days, a part of every military (Exod. xxxii. 19.) The Amalekites danced after their vic band.

tory at Ziklag (1 Sam. xxx. 16.), and Job makes it part of iii. The Sisirum, Diyayar (MENAUNOIM), which in our ver- the character of the prosperous wicked (that is, of those sion of 2 Sam. vi. 5, is misrendered cornets, was a rod of who, placing all their happiness in the enjoyments of sense, iron bent into an oval or oblong shape, or square at two cor- forget God and religion), that their children dance. (Job ners and curved at the others, and furnished with a number xxi. 11.). The dancing of the profligate Herodias's daughter of moveable rings; so that, when shaken or struck with pleased'Herod so highly, that he promised to give her whatanother rod of iron, it emitted the sound desired.

ever she asked, and accordingly, at her desire, and in compli(2.) Wind Instruments.—Six of these are mentioned in ment to her, he commanded John the Baptist to be beheaded the Scriptures, viz. The organ, the flute and hautboy, dulci- in prison. (Matt. xiv. 6—8.) Most probably it resembled mer, horn, and trumpet.

the voluptuous performances of the dancing girls who still i. The Organ, way (OGEB), is frequently mentioned in the exhibit in the East.5 Old Testament, and its invention is ascribed to Jubal in Gen. iv, 21.; but it cannot have been like our modern organs. It is supposed to have been a kind of flute, at first composed of one or two, but afterwards of about seven pipes, made of

SECTION III. reeds of unequal length and thickness, which were joined together. It corresponded most nearly to the supez & or pipe of Pan among the Greeks.

ii. iii. The subo (CHALIL), and the apa (NEKEB), which our 1. Schools. On the schools of the prophets in particular.-II. translators have rendered pipes, are supposed to have been the flute and hautboy.

Appellation given to the Jewish doctors or teachers.-III. iv. The nocid (SUMPUNJAH), or Dulcimer (Dan. iii. 5.),

Their method of teaching:-IV. Studies of the Jews.-1. was a wind instrument made of reeds ; by the Syrians called

History.—2. Poetry.-3. Oratory.-4. Ethics.-5. Physics. Sambonjah, by the Greeks Idpburn, and by the Italians Zam

-6. Arithmetic.—7. Mathematics.-8. Astronomy.-9. Aspogna.

trology.-10. Surveying.-11. Mechanic Arts.-12. Geov. The Horn or Crooked Trumpet was a very ancient in- graphy. strument, made of the horns of oxen cut off at the smaller

1. Schools have ever been considered among polished extremity. In progress of time ram's horns were used for nations as the chief support of states: in them are formed the same purpose. It was chiefly used in war. vi. The form of the straight Trumpet is well known: it the people at large and there are taught religion, laws,

the ministers of religion, judges, and magistrates, as well as was used by the priests (Num. X. 8. 1 Chron. xv, 24.) both history, and all those sciences, the knowledge of which is on extraordinary occasions (Num. x. 10.), and also in the of the greatest importance to the well-being of nations, and daily service of the temple. (2 Chron. vii. 6. xxix. 26.) In to the comfort of private life. The Jewish writers pretend time of peace, when the people or the rulers were to be con- that from the earliest ages there have been schools; and that, vened together, this trumpet was blown softly: but when the before the Deluge, they were under the direction of the patricamps were to move forward, or the people were to march to archs : but these notions have long since been deservedly war, it was sounded with a deeper note.

rejected for want of authority. (3.) Stringed Instruments. These were the harp and the

Although the Hebrews confined their pursuits to agriculpsaltery.

ture and the management of cattle, yet we have no reason to i. The Harp, 7130 (KinoUR), seems to have resembled that conclude that they were a nation of ignorant rustics. Of that in modern use: it was the most ancient of all musical instru- which most concerns man to know,-their religious and moral ments. (Gen. iv. 21.), It had ten strings, and was played by duties,-they could not be ignorant, since the father of every David with the hand (1 Sam. xvi. 23.); but Josephus2 says, family was bound to teach the laws of Moses to his children. that it was played upon or struck with a plectrum. ii. The Psallery 593 (Nebel.), obtained its name from its evidence of the existence of any schools, strictly so called,

(Deut. xxxii. 6. Psal. lxxvii. 5.) We have, however, no resemblance to a bottle or flagon: it is first mentioned in the earlier than the time of Samuel": and as the Seriptures do Psalms of David, and the invention of it is ascribed to the not mention the schools of the prophets, before him who was Phænicians. In Psal. xxxiii . 2. and cxliv. 9. it is called a both a judge and a prophet in Israel

, we may venture to asfen-stringed instrument, but in Psal. xcii. 3. it is distinguish- cribe those schools to him. It is not improbable that the ed from the latter. Josephus3 says, that it had twelve almost total cessation of the spirit of prophecy under the sounds (or strings), and was struck or played upon by the ministry of Eli, and the degeneracy of the priesthood, first fingers.

occasioned the institution of these seminaries, for the better Effects the most astonishing are attributed in the Scrip- education of those who were to succeed in the sacred ministures to the Hebrew music, of the nature of which we know try. From 1 Sam. x. 5. 10. xix. 20. 2 Kings ii. 5. and xxii. but very little. Several examples are recorded, in the sacred 14., it appears that the schools of the prophets were first history, of the power and charms of music to sweeten the erected in the cities of the Levites; which for the more contemper, to compose and allay the passions of the mind, to venient instruction of the people were dispersed through the revive the drooping spirits, and to dissipate melancholy. It several tribes of Israel. In these places convenient edifices had this effect on Saul, when David played to him on his were built for the abode of the prophets and their disciples, harp.

(1 Sam. xvi. 16. 23.) And when Elisha was desired who were thence termed the Sons of the Prophets ; over whom by Jehoshaphat to tell him what his success against the king presided some venerable and divinely-inspired prophet, who of Moab would be, the prophet required a minstrel to be is called their father. (2 Kings ii. 12.) Samuel was one, brought unto him; and when

he played, it is said that the and, perhaps, the first of those fathers (1 Sam. xix. 20.), and hand of the Lord came upon him (2 Kings iii. 15.); not that Elijah was another (2 Kings ii. 12.), who was succeeded by the gift of prophecy was the natural effect of music, but the Elisha in this office. (2 Kings vi. 1.) The sons of the promeaning is, that music disposed the organs, the humours, phets lived together in a society or community (2 Kings iv; and in short the whole mind and spirit of the prophet, to 38.); they were instructed in the knowledge of the law, and receive these supernatural impressions.

of the principles of their religion, as well as in the sacred (4.) DANCING was an ordinary concomitant of music art of psalmody, or (as it is termed in 1 Sam. x. 5. and among the Jews. Sometimes it was used on a religious 1 Chron. xxv. 1. 7.) prophesying with harps, psalteries, and account: thus Miriam with her women glorified God (after cymbals. At the conclusion of their lectures and religious the deliverance from the Egyptians), in dances as well as exercises, they were accustomed to eat together with their songs (Exod. xv. 20.), and David 'danced after the ark. masters. Calmet is of opinion that these schools subsisted (2 Sam. vi. 16.) It was a thing common at the Jewish feasts until the Babylonish captivity: and it should seem that the (Judg. xxi. 19. 21.) and in public triumphs Judg. xi. 34), captives resorted to such establishments, to hear the prophets, and at all seasons of mirth and rejoicing. (Psal. xxx. 11. when there were any, in the places where they resided. Jer. xxxi. 4, 13. Luke xv. 25.) The idolatrous Jews made Ezekiel relates various conversations which he had with the him and being instructed by him; but they were not very sects of Sadducees and Pharisees, each sect had its separate careful to reduce his instructions to practice. (Ezek. viii. 1. school. The METHOD OF TEACHING in these schools may be xiv. 1. xx. 1.) It is not improbable that from the schools of easily collected from the Gospels and Acts. The Doctors or the prophets God chose such persons as he deemed fit to Teachers generally sat. Thus our Lord sat down previously to exercise the prophetic office, and to make known his will to delivering his sermon on the mount (Matt. v. 1.); as Gamathe people. The greater prophets employed these scholars liel also did in his school. (Acts xxii. 3.) Sometimes, howor young prophets to carry prophetic messages. In 2 Kings ever, the Jewish teachers, like the Greek philosophers, were ix. 1., Elisha sent one of the sons of the prophets to anoint accustomed to have their disciples around them, wherever Jehu king of Israel: and in 1 Kings xx. 15., the young pro- they went, and to discourse, as occasion arose, on things phet, who was sent to reprove Ahab for sparing Ben-Hadad, either human or divine. In this way our Lord delivered king of Syria, is by the Chaldee paraphrast called one of the some of his most interesting instructions to his apostles. sons or disciples of the prophets. Hence Amos relates it as Allusions to this practice occur in Matt. iv. 20. x. 38. xvi. an unusual circumstance, that he was no prophet, not one of 24. Mark i. 18. xvi. 24. The Pupils generally sat below those distinguished men who presided over these seminaries, their preceptors. St. Paul tells the Jews that he sat or -neither a prophet's son, educated from his youth in the schools studied at the feet of Gamaliel. (Acts xxii. 3.) Philo relates of the prophets; but that he was an herdsman and a gatherer that the children of the Essenes sat at the feet of their masof sycamore fruit, who did not pursue the studies and mode of ters, who interpreted the law, and explained its figurative living peculiar to the prophets, when the LORD took him as he sense, after the manner of the ancient philosophers. The was following the flock, and commanded him to go and pro-author of the commentary on the first Epistle to the Corinphesy unto his people Israel. (Amos vii. 14, 15.) To the thians, published under the name of St. Ambrose, says, on schools of the prophets succeeded the synagogues; but it ch. xiv., that the Jewish rabbins sat on elevated chairs; while appears that in the time of Jesus Christ eminent Jewish scholars who had made the greatest proficiency sat on benches doctors had their separate schools; as Gamaliel, the preceptor just below them, and the junior pupils sat on the ground on of St. Paul, and probably also Tyrannus.

elders of Israel who came to consult him : the people also · Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

assembled about him, apparently for the purpose of hearing Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

a Ibid. Calmet, Dissertation sur les Instrumens de Musique des Hebreux, pre. fixed to his Commentary on the Psalms. Jahn, Archæologia Biblica, &$ 94 Carne's Letters from the East, p. 165. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. p. 431 -96. Brown's Antiquities of the Jews, vol. i. pp. 313–321.

Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 339, 310.

hassocks. But in the Talmud, it is stated that the masters II. Various APPELLATIONS were anciently given to learned sat down while the scholars stood.5 men. Among the Hebrews they were denominated D'pan IV. The Jews did not become distinguished for their intel(Hakamım), as among the Greeks they were called ocpo, that lectual acquirements before the time of David, and especially is, wise men. In the time of Christ, the common appellative of Solomon, who is said to have surpassed all others in wisfor men of that description was 7pae pe perteus, in the Hebrew dom; a circumstance which was the ground of the many 2010 (SOPHER), a scribe. They were addressed by the hono- visits which were paid to him by distinguished foreigners. rary title of Rabbi 27, 37 (RCB, RABBI), that is, great or master. (1 Kings v. 9—12.) His example, which was truly an illusThe Jews, in imitation of the Greeks, had their seven wise trious one, was, beyond question, imitated by other kings. men, who were called Rabboni, 11. Gamaliel was one of The literature of the Hebrews was limited chiefly to religion, the number. They called themselves the children of wis- the history of their nation, poetry, philosophy, ethics, and dom; expressions which correspond very nearly to the Greek natural history; on which last subject Solomon wrote many Panoorpos. (Matt. xi. 19. Luke vii. 35.) The heads of sects treatises, no longer extant. The Hebrews made but little were called fathers (Matt. xxiii. 9.), and the disciples, diridho progress in science and literature after the time of Solomon. (TALMUDIM), were denominated sons or children. The Jew- During their captivity, it is true, they acquired many foreign ish teachers, at least some of them, had private lecture-rooms, notions, with which they had not been previously acquainted : but they also taught and disputed in synagogues, in temples, and they, subsequently, borrowed much, both of truth and and, in fact, wherever they could find an audience. The of falsehood, from the philosophy of the Greeks. The author method of these teachers was the same with that which pre- of the book of Wisdom, with some others of the Jewish vailed among the Greeks. Any disciple who chose might writers, has made pretty good use of the Greek philosophy. propose questions, upon which it was the duty of the teachers It is clear, notwithstanding this, that the Jews after the capto remark and give their opinions. (Luke ij. 46.). The tivity fell below their ancestors in respect to History; as the teachers were not invested with their functions by any formal published annals of that period are not of a kindred character act of the church or of the civil authority; they were self- with those of the primitive ages of their country. constituted. They received no other salary than some volun- 1. That the art of HISTORICAL WRITING was anciently tary present from the disciples, which was called an honorary, much cultivated in the East, the Bible itself is an ample tesTipen, HONORARIUM. (1 Tim. v. 17.) They acquired a subsist- timony; for it not only relates the prominent events, from the ence in the main by the exercise of some art or handicraft. creation down to the fifth century before Christ, but speaks According to the Talmudists they were bound to hold no of many historical books, which have now perished; and conversation with women, and to refuse to sit at table with also of many monuments erected in commemoration of remarkthe lower class of people. (John iv. 27. Matt. ix. 11.) The able achievements, and furnished with appropriate inscripsubjects on which they taught were numerous, commonly tions. The Babylonians, also, the Assyrians, the Persians, intricate, and of no great consequence; of which there are and Tyrians, had their historical annals. Among the Egypabundant examples in the Talmud.3

tians there was a separate order, viz. the priests, one part of III. After the Jews became divided into the two great whose duty it was to write the history of their country. In

the primitive ages the task of composing annals fell in most · Calmet, Dissertation sur les Ecoles des febreux, Dissert. tom. I. pp. nations upon the priests, but at a later period the king had 372–376., and Dictionary, voce Schools. Stillingtleet's Origines Sacræ, pp. his own secretaries, whose special business it was to record cellanea Sacra, lib. i. c. 10. $ 10. p. 79. Bp. Story's Essay concerning the the royal sayings and achievements. The prophets among Nature of the Priesthood, pp. 39--42.

the Hebrews recorded the events of their own times, and, in 5 " It was anciently the custoin of preceptors to address their pupils by the earliest periods, the genealogists interwove many histothe title of sons: thus, the disciples of the prophets are called the sonsorical events with their accounts of the succession of families. his son. (1 Tim. i. 2. 2 Tim. i. 2.), St. John styles those, to whom his first Indeed, it should not be forgotten, that ancient history geneepistle was sent his children (ii. 1. v. 21.); and thus the royal sage (Prov. rally partakes more of a genealogical than a chronological duty, second only in importance to obedience to God.” Holden's Transla- (TOLDOTH) is used also for history (Gen. vi. 9. x. 1.); and advice and admonition of their parents ; because obedience to parents is a character. Hence the Hebrew phrase for genealogies nishin tion of Proverbs, p. 88. : A sort of academical degree was conferred on the pupils in the Jewish

hence no epoch more ancient than that of Nabonnassar is seminaries, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem, were established | any where found. In the Bible, however, this defect, in reat Babylon and Tiberias, and of which Basnage has given a copious account gard to a regular chronological system, is in a manner comin his History of the Jews, book v. c. 5. pp. 410-414. (London, 1708. folio.) pensated by the insertion in various places of definite periods by Maimonides (Jadchazaka, lib. vi. 4) as follows:-1. The candidate for of time, and by chronological genealogies. In giving a conthe degree was examined, both in respect to his moral character and his eise account of the genealogy of a person, the Hebrews, as literary acquisitions. 2. Having undergone this examination with approba well as the Arabs, took the liberty to omit, according to their ing tablet was presented to him, to signify, that he should write down his own pleasure, one or more generations. (Ruth iv. 18_22. acquisitions, since they might escape from his memory, and, without being Ezra vii. 1–5. Matt. i. 8.) It was considered so much of written down, be lost. 4. A key was presented, to signify that he might an honour to have a name and a place in these family annals, now open to others the treasures of knowledge. (Luke xi: 52.) 5. Hands that the Hebrews, from their first existence as a nation, had power or authority was conferred upon him, probably to be exereised public genealogists, denominated Suwe, 612 (SHOTER, SHOover

his own disciples. 7. Finally, he was saluted in the school of Tibe. TERIM). rias, with the title of Rabbi, 37, in the school of Babylon, with that of Master, 70 (Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, by Mr Vobam. 105.)

• Tit. Megillah.

• Calmet, Dissertations, tom. i. pp. 377, 378. OL. II.


Not only the Hebrews, but, if we may credit Herodotus | also on the sabbath in the synagogues, which had been and Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians also assigned a certain recently erected, in order to make the people understand period to a generation. According to their estimation, three what was

read. These interpreters learnt the Hebrew langenerations made an hundred years. In the time of Abraham, guage at the schools. The teachers of these schools, who, however, when men lived to a greater age, an hundred years for the two generations preceding the time of Christ, had made a generation. This is clear from Gen. xv. 13. 16., and maintained some acquaintance with the Greek philosophy, from the circumstance, that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob dwelt were not satisfied with a simple interpretation of the Hebrew two hundred and fifteen years in the land of Canaan, and yet idiom, as it stood, but shaped the interpretation so as to there were only two generations.

render it conformable to their philosophy. Thus arose conThe study of history among the Jews was chiefly confined tentions, which gave occasion for the various sects of Pharito the affairs of their own nation. Much information, how- sees, Sadducees, and Essenes. In the time of our Saviour, ever, may be obtained from their historical and other writings, divisions had arisen among the Pharisees themselves. No for the better understanding the states of other foreign nations less than eighteen nice questions, if we may believe the with which they became very closely connected and the Jewish Rabbins, were contested, at that period, between the most ancient historical documents of the Hebrews throw more schools of Hillel and Shammai. One of which questions light upon the origin of nations, and the invention and pro- was an inquiry, "What cause was sufficient for å bill of gress of the arts, than any other writings that are extant. divorce ?" If the Shammai and Hillel of the Talmud are

2. Poetry had its origin in the first ages of the world, the same with the learned men mentioned in Josephus, viz. when undisciplined feelings and a lively imagination natu- Sameas and Pollio, who flourished thirty-four years before rally supplied strong expressions, gave an expressive modu- Christ, then Shammai or Sameas is undoubtedly the same Jation to the voice, and motion to the limbs. Hence poetry, with the Simeon who is mentioned in Luke ii. 25. 34., and music, and dancing, were in all probability contemporaneous his son Gamaliel, so celebrated in the Talmud, is the same in their origin. As the nature and genius of the poetry of with the Gamaliel mentioned in Acts v. 34. xxii. 3. the Hebrews has already been discussed at some length in 5. Physics, or Natural Philosophy, has secured but the first volume of this work, it is sufficient here to remark, little attention in the East; but a knowledge of the animal, that the effusions of the inspired Hebrew muse infinitely sur- vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, or the science of NATURAL pass in grandeur, sublimity, beauty, and pathos, all the most History, was always much more an object of interest. celebrated productions of Greece and Rome. Not to repeat Whatever knowledge of this science the Hebrews subseunnecessarily the observations already offered on this topic, quently had, they most probably derived partly from the we may here briefly remark, that the eucharistic song of Canaanitish merchants, partly from the Egyptians, and other Moses, composed on the deliverance of the Israelites and nations with whom they had intercourse. The book of Job their miraculous passage of the Red Sea (Exod. xv. l-19.), evinces that its author possessed an intimate knowledge of is an admirable hymn, full of strong and lively images. The the works of nature. The agricultural and pastoral habits song of Deborah and Barak (Judg. v.), and that of Hannah of the Hebrews were favourable to the acquisition of this the mother of Samuel (1 Sam. ii. 1.), have many excellent science; and how much they loved it will be evident to any flights, and some noble and sublime raptures. David's one who peruses the productions of the sacred poets, espelamentation on the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. i. 19.) cially those of David. But no one among the Hebrews is an incomparable elegy. The gratulatory hymn (Isa. xii.) could ever be compared to King Solomon ; who spake of and Hezekiah's song of praise (Isa. xxviii.) are worthy of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon, even to the hyssop that every one's attention. The prayer of Habakkuk (iii.) con- springeth out of the wall, and also of beasts and of fowl, and of tains a sublime description of the divine majesty. Besides creeping things and of fishes. (1 Kings iv. 33.) The nuthese single hymns, we have the book of Psalms, Proverbs, merous images which our Saviour derived from the works of Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and Lamentations; all of which are nature, attest how deeply he had contemplated them. composed by different poets, according to the usage of those 6. ARITHMETIC.—The more simple methods of arithmetical times. The Psalms are a great storehouse of heavenly devo- calculation are spoken of in the Pentateuch, as if they were tion, full of affecting and sublime thoughts, and with a well known. The merchants of that early period must, for variety of expressions, admirably calculated to excite a thank- their own convenience, have been possessed of some method ful remembrance of God's mercies, and for moving the pas- of operating by numbers. sions of joy and grief, indignation and hatred. They consist 7. 'Mathematics.—By this term we understand Geometry, mostly of pious and affectionate prayers, holy meditations, Mensuration, Navigation, &c. As far as a knowledge of and exalted strains of praise and thanksgiving. "The allusions them was absolutely required by the condition and employare beautiful, the expressions tender and moving, and the ments of the people, we may well suppose that knowledge piety of the authors is singularly remarkable. The Proverbs to have actually existed; although no express mention is of Solomon are a divine collection of many admirable sen- made of these sciences. tences of morality, wonderfully adapted to instruct us in our 8. ASTRONOMY.—The interests of agriculture and navigaduty to God and man. The book of Ecclesiastes teaches tion required some knowledge of astronomy: An evidence us, in a very lively manner, the insufficiency of all earthly that an attempt was made at a very early period to regulate enjoyments to make a man happy. The Canticles or Song the year by the annual revolution of the sun, may be found of Solomon, under the parable of a man's affection to his in the fact, that the Jewish months were divided into thirty spouse, in very tender yet elegant expressions, shows us the days each. (See Gen. vii. 11. viii. 4.). In Astronomy, the ardent love of Christ to his church and people; and the La- Egyptians, Babylonians, and Phænicians exhibited great mentations of Jeremiah contain a very mournful account of superiority. We are informed there were magicians or enthe state of Jerusalem, as destroyed by the Chaldeans. chanters in Egypt (Exod. vii. 11. Lev. xx. 27. xix. 31.

3. Oratory does not appear to have been cultivated by Deut. xviii. 202), denominated in Hebrew b'dwap, because the Hebrews; although the sacred writers, following the they computed eclipses of the sun and moon, and pretended impulse of their genius, have left such specimens in their to the people, that they produced them by the efficacy of writings, as the most distinguished orators might imitate their own enchantments. Astronomy does not appear to with advantage. Want of eloquence was objected as a have been much cultivated by the Hebrews: the laws of defect against the apostle Paul (1 Cor. i. 17.), who, not-Moses, indeed, by no means favoured this science, as the withstanding, possessed a highly cultivated mind, and was neighbouring heathen nations worshipped the host of heaven; by no means deficient in strong natural eloquence.

hence the sacred writers rarely mention any of the constella4. Traces of Ethics, that is, of the system of prevailing tions by name. See Job ix. 9. xxxviii. 31, 32. Isa. xiii. moral opinions, may be found in the book of Job, in the 10. Amos v. 8. 2 Kings xxiii

. 5. 37th, 39th, and 63d Psalms, also in the books of Proverbs 9. ASTROLOGY.--It is by no means surprising that the and Ecclesiastes, but chiefly in the apocryphal book of Hebrews did not devote greater attention to astronomy, since Wisdom, and the writings of the son of Sirach. During the study of astrology, which was intimately connected with the captivity, the Jews acquired many new notions, and that of astronomy, and was very highly estimated among appropriated them, as occasion offered to their own pur- the neighbouring nations (Isa. xlvii. 9. Jer. xxvii. 9. 1. 35. poses. They at length became acquainted with the philoso- Dan. ii. 13. 48.), was interdicted to the Hebrews. (Deut. phy of the Greeks, which makes its appearance abundantly xviii. 10. Lev. xx. 27.), Daniel, indeed, studied the art of in the book of Wisdom. After the captivity, the language astrology at Babylon, but he did not practise it. (Dan. i. in which the sacred books were written was no longer 20. ii. 3.). The astrologers (and those wise men mentioned vernacular. Hence arose the need of an interpreter on the in Matt. ii. 1. et seq. appear to have been such) divided the Fabbatic year, a time when the whole law was read; and I heavens into apartinents or habitations, to each one of which apartments they assigned a ruler or president. This fact | viz. one along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, from developes the origin of the word bescocun, 5123 Sya, or the Gaza to Pelusium, which was about three days' journey; Lord of the celestial) dwelling. (Matt

. x. 25. xii. 24. 27. and the other from Gaza to the Elanitic branch of the AraMark iii. 22. Luke xí. 15–19.

bian Gulf, which now passes near Mount Sinai, and requires 10. Measures of length are mentioned in Gen. vi. 15, 16. nearly a month to complete it. Although chariots were not A knowledge of the method of measuring lands is implied unknown to the ancient inhabitants of the East, yet they in the account given in Gen. xlvii. 20—27. Mention is made, chiefly transported their merchandise across the desert on in the books of Job and Joshua, of a line or rope for the pur- camels, a hardy race of animals, admirably adapted by nature pose of taking measurements, p, san. It was brought by for this purpose: and lest they should be plundered by robthe Hebrews out of Egypt, where, according to the unani- bers, the merchants used to travel in large bodies (as they mous testimony of antiquity, SURVEYING first had its origin, now do), which are called caravans, or in smaller compaand, in consequence of the inundations of the Nile, was car- nies termed kafilés or kaflés. (Job vi. 18, 19. Gen. xxxvii. ried to the greatest height. It was here, as we may well | 25. Isa. xxi. 13.) conclude, that the Hebrews acquired so much knowledge III. Although

the land of Canaan was, from its abundant of the principles of that science, as to enable them, with the produce, admirably adapted to commerce, yet Moses enacted aid of the measuring line above mentioned, to partition and no laws in favour of trade; because the Hebrews, being set off geographically the whole land of Canaan. The specially set apart for the preservation of true religion, could weights used in weighing solid bodies (Gen. xxiii. 15, 16.), not be dispersed among idolatrous nations without being in provided they were similar to each other in form, imply a danger of becoming contaminated with their abominable knowledge of the rudiments of stereometry.

worship. He therefore only inculcated the strictest justice 11. The Mechanic Arts.—No express mention is made in weights and measures (Lev. xix. 36, 37. Deut. xxv. 13, of the mechanic arts; but that a knowledge of them, not- 14.); and left the rest to future ages and governors. It is withstanding, existed, may be inferred from the erection of obvious, however, that the three great festivals of the Jews, Noah's ark, and the tower of Babel ; from the use of balances who were bound to present themselves before Jehovah thrice in the time of Abraham; also from what is said of the Egyp- in the year, would give occasion for much domestic traffic, tian chariots, in Gen. xli. 43. xlv. 19. 1. 9. and Exod. xiv. which the individuals of the twelve tribes would carry on 6, 7.; and from the instruments used by the Egyptians in with each other either for money or produce. From Judg; irrigating their lands. (Deut. xi. 10.) It is implied in the v. 17. it should seem that the tribes of Dan and Asher had mention of these, and subsequently of many other instru- some commercial dealings with the neighbouring maritime ments, that other instruments still, not expressly named, but nations; but the earliest direct notice contained in the Scripwhich were, of course, necessary for the formation of those tures of the commerce of the Hebrews does not occur before which are named, were in existence.

the reign of David. This wise and valiant prince, by many 12. GEOGRAPHY.–Geographical notices occur so frequently victories, not only enlarged the boundaries of his empire, in the Bible, that it is not necessary to say much on this but also subdued the kingdom of Edom (which he reduced point; but see Gen. x. 1—30. xii. 4–15. xiv. 1–16. xxviii. into a province), and made himself master of the two ports 2—9. xlix. 13, &c. Perhaps, however, it deserves to be of Elath and Ezion-geber on the Red Sea. Part of the repeated, that in the time of Joshua, the whole of Palestine wealth acquired by his conguests he employed in purchasing was subjected to a geographical division. (Josh. xviii

. 9.) cedar-timber from Hiram I. king of Tyre, with whom he It is evident, then, from their geographical knowledge, as maintained a friendly correspondence as long as he lived; well as from other circumstances already mentioned, that and he also hired Tyrian masons and carpenters for carrying there must have existed among the Hebrews the rudiments, on his works. This prince collected, for the building of the if nothing more, of geographical science.

temple, upwards of eight hundred millions of our money, according to Dr. Arbuthnot's calculations. On the death of David, Solomon his successor cultivated the arts of peace,

and was thereby enabled to indulge his taste for magnificence SECTION IV.

and luxury, more than his father could possibly do. Being blest with a larger share of wisdom than ever before fell to the lot of any man, he directed his talents for business to the

improvement of foreign commerce, which had not been exCommerce of the Midianites, Egyptians, and Phænicians.-pressly prohibited by Moses. He employed the vast wealth II. Mode of transporting gooils.—III. Commerce of the amassed by his father in works of architecture, and in strengthHebrews, particularly under Solomon and his successors.

ening and beautifying his kingdom. The celebrated temple IV. Notice of ancient shipping:-V. Money, weights, and at Jerusalem, the fortifications of that capital, and many en

tire cities (among which was the famous Tadmor or Palmy

ra), were built by him. Finding his own subjects but little I. The Scriptures do not afford us any example of trade, qualified for such undertakings, he applied to Hiram II. king more ancient than those caravans of Ishmaelites and Midian- of Tyre, the son of his father's friend Hiram, who furnished ites, to whom Joseph was perfidiously sold by his brethren. him with cedar and fir (or cypress) timber, and large stones, These men were on their return from Gilead, with their all properly cut and prepared for building; which the Tyrians camels laden with spices, and other rich articles of merchan- carried' by water to the most convenient landing-place in dise, which they were carrying into Egypt; where, doubt- Solomon's dominions. Hiram II. also sent a great number less, they produced a great return, from the quantities con- of workmen to assist and instruct Solomon's

people, none sumed in that country for embalming the bodies of the dead. of whom had skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians (1 From their purchasing Joseph, and selling him to Potiphar, Kings v. 5, 6.), as the Israelites then called the Tyrians, it is evident that their traffic was not confined to the commo- from their having been originally a colony from Sidon. dities furnished by Gilead. But the most distinguished Solomon, in return, furnished the Tyrians with corn, wine, merchants of ancient times were the Phenicians, who bought and oil; and he even received a balance in gold. (1 Kings the choicest productions of the East, which they exported to v. 9–11. 2 Chron. ii. 10.). It is not improbable, however, Africa and Europe, whence they took in return silver and that the gold was the stipulated price for Solomon's cession other articles of merchandise, which they again circulated of twenty towns to the Tyrians; which Hiram, not liking in the East. Their first metropolis was Sidon, and after-them, afterwards returned to him. (1 Kings ix. 12, 13.) wards Tyre, founded about 250 years before the building of The great intercourse of trade and friendship, which SoloSolomon's temple, or 1251 before the Christian era; and mon had with the first commercial people in the western wherever they went, they appear to have established peace- world, inspired him with a strong desire to participate in the ful commercial settlements, mutually beneficial to themselves advantages of trade. His father's conquests, as we have and to the natives of the country visited by them. The com- already seen, had extended his territories to the Red Sea or merce of Tyre is particularly described in Isa. xxiii. and the Arabian Gulf, and had given him the possession of a good Ezek. xxvii. xxviii.

harbour, whence ships might be despatched to the rich counII. The commerce of the East appears to have been chiefly tries of the south and east. But, his own subjects being carried on by land : hence ships are but rarely mentioned in the Old Testament before the times of David and Solomon. lib. ix.), says that David built ships in Arabia, in which he sent mên skilled

2 Eupolemus, an ancient writer quoted by Eusebius (De Præp. Evang. There were two principal routes from Palestine to Egypt; in mines and metals to the island of Ophir. Some modern authors;

improving upon this rather suspicious authority, have ascribed to David 1 Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, by Upham, 5$ 98 --100. 104. 106. Pareau, the honour of being the founder of the great Fast Indian commerce. Autiquitas Hebraica, pp. 432–438.

3 Tables of Ancient Coins, pp. 35. 209.



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