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which, being struck against each other, made a hollow ring- it a part of their worship which they paid to the golden calf. ing sound. They form, in our days, a part of every military (Exod. xxxii. 19.) The Amalekites danced after their vic band.

tory at Ziklag (1 Sam. xxx. 16.), and Job makes it part of iii. The Sisirum, Siyayar (MENAUNOIM), which in our ver- the character of the prosperous wicked (that is, of those sion of 2 Sam. vi. 5, is misrendered cornets, was a rod of who, placing all their happiness in the enjoyments of sense, iron bent into an oval or oblong shape, or square at two cor- forget God and religion), that their children dance. (Job ners and curved at the others, and furnished with a number xxi. 11.). The dancing of the profligate Herodias's daughter of moveable rings; so that, when shaken or struck with pleased'Herod so highly, that he promised to give her whatanother rod of iron, it emitted the sound desired.

ever she asked, and accordingly, at her desire, and in compli(2.) Wind Instruments.—Six of these are mentioned in ment to her, he commanded John the Baptist to be beheaded the Scriptures, viz. The organ, the flute and hautboy, dulci- in prison. (Matt. xiv. 6—8.) Most probably it resembled mer, horn, and trumpet.

the voluptuous performances of the dancing girls who still i. The Organ, 2ay (oGeb), is frequently mentioned in the exhibit in the East.5 Old Testament, and its invention is ascribed to Jubal in Gen. iv. 21.; but it cannot have been like our modern organs. It is supposed to have been a kind of flute, at first composed of one or two, but afterwards of about seven pipes, made of

SECTION III. reeds of unequal length and thickness, which were joined together. It corresponded most nearly to the cupy & or pipe

ON THE LITERATURE AND SCIENCES OF THE HEBREWS. ii. iii. Thesun (chalil), and the apa (NEKEB), which our 1. Schools.On the schools of the prophets in particular.-II. translators have rendered pipes, are supposed to have been the flute and hautboy.

Appellation given to the Jewish doctors or teachers.-III. iv. The UDDID (SUMPunjah), or Dulcimer (Dan. iii. 5.),

Their method of teaching.-IV. Studies of the Jews.-1. was a wind instrument made of reeds ; by the Syrians called

History.—2. Poetry.-3. Oratory.-4. Ethics.—5. Physics.

-6. Arithmetic.7. Mathematics.-8. Astronomy.-9. AsSombonjah, by the Greeks Expburn, and by the Italians Zampogna.

trology.-10. Surveying.–11. Mechanic Arts.-12. Geov. The Horn or Crooked Trumpet was a very ancient in- graphy. strument, made of the horns of oxen cut off at the smaller

1. SCHOOLS have ever been considered among polished extremity. In progress of time ram's horns were used for nations as the chief support of states: in them are formed the same purpose. It was chiefly used in war.

the ministers of religion, judges, and magistrates, as well as vi. The form of the straight Trumpet is well known: it the people at large : and there are taught religion, laws, was used by the priests (Num. x. 8. i Chron. xv. 24.) both history, and all those sciences, the knowledge of which is on extraordinary occasions (Num. x. 10.), and also in the of the greatest importance to the well-being of nations, and daily service of the temple. (2 Chron. vii. 6. xxix. 26.) In to the comfort of private life. The Jewish writers pretend time of peace, when the people or the rulers were to be con- that from the earliest ages there have been schools; and that, vened together, this trumpet

was blown softly: but when the before the Deluge, they were under the direction of the patricamps were to move forward, or the people were to march to archs : but these notions have long since been deservedly war, it was sounded with a deeper note.

rejected for want of authority. (3.) Stringed Instruments.—These were the harp and the °Although the Hebrews confined their pursuits to agriculpsaltery.

ture and the management of cattle, yet we have no reason to i. The Harp, 95 (KinoUR), seems to have resembled that conclude that they were a nation of ignorant rustics. Of that in modern use it was the most ancient of all musical instru- which most concerns man to know,—their religious and moral ments. (Gen. iv. 21.), It had ten strings, and was played by duties,-they could not be ignorant, since the father of every David with the hand' (1 Sam. xvi. 23.); but Josephus says, family was bound to teach the laws of Moses to his children. that it was played upon or struck with a plectrum. ii. The Psaltery sa: (NEBEL), obtained its name from its evidence of the existence of any schools, strictly so called,

(Deut. xxxii. 6. Psal. lxxvii. 5.) We have, however, no resemblance to a bottle or flagon: it is first mentioned in the earlier than the time of Samuel: and as the Seriptures do Psalms of David, and the invention of it is ascribed to the not mention the schools of the prophets, before him who was Phænicians. In Psal. xxxiii

. 2. and cxliv. 9. it is called a both a judge and a prophet in Israel, we may venture to asfen-stringed instrument, but in Psal. xcii. 3. it is distinguish- cribe those schools to him. It is not improbable that the ed from the latter. Josephus3 says, that it had twelve almost total cessation of the spirit of prophecy under the sounds (or strings), and was struck or played upon by the ministry of Eli, and the degeneracy of the priesthood, first fingers.4 Effects the most astonishing are attributed in the Scrip- education of those who were to succeed in the sacred minis

occasioned the institution of these seminaries, for the better tures to the Hebrew music, of the nature of which we know try. From 1 Sam. x. 5. 10. xix. 20. 2 Kings ii. 5. and xxii. but very little. Several examples are recorded, in the sacred 14., it appears that the schools of the prophets were first history, of the power and charms of music to sweeten the erected in the cities of the Levites; which for the more contemper, to compose and allay the passions of the mind, to venient instruction of the people were dispersed through the revive the drooping spirits, and to dissipate melancholy. It several tribes of Israel. In these places convenient edifices had this effect on Saul, when David played to him on his were built for the abode of the prophets and their disciples, harp. (1 Sam. xvi. 16. 23.) And when Elisha was desired who were thence termed the Sons of the Prophets; over whom by Jehoshaphat to tell him what his success against the king presided some venerable and divinely-inspired prophet, who of Moab would be, the prophet required a minstrel to be is called their father. (2 Kings ii. 12.) Samuel was one, brought unto him; and when he played, it is said that the and, perhaps, the first of those fathers (1 Sam. xix. 20.), and hand of the Lord came upon him (2 Kings iii. 15.); not that Elijah was another (2 Kings ii. 12.), who was succeeded by the gift of prophecy was the natural effect of music, but the Elisha in this office. (2 Kings vi. 1.) The sons of the promeaning is, that music disposed the organs, the humours, phets lived together in a society or community (2 Kings iv, and in short the whole mind and spirit of the prophet, to 38.); they were instructed in the knowledge of the law, and receive these supernatural impressions.

of the principles of their religion, as well as in the sacred (4.) Dancing was an ordinary concomitant of music art of psalmody, or (as it is termed in 1 Sam. x. 5. and among the Jews. Sometimes it was used on a religious 1 Chron. xxv. 1. 7.) prophesying with harps, psalteries, and account: thus Miriam with her women glorified God (after cymbals. At the conclusion of their lectures and religious the deliverance from the Egyptians), in dances as well as exercises, they were accustomed to eat together with their songs (Exod. xv. 20.), and David danced after the ark. masters. Calmet is of opinion that these schools subsisted (2 Sam. vi. 16.) It was a thing common at the Jewish feasts until the Babylonish captivity: and it should seem that the (Judg. xxi. 19. 21.) and in public triumphs (Judg. xi. 34), captives resorted to such establishments, to hear the prophets, and at all seasons of mirth and rejoicing. (Psal. xxx. 11. when there were any, in the places where they resided. Jer. xxxi. 4. 13. Luke xv. 25.) The idolatrous Jews made Ezekiel relates various conversations which he had with the a good smell early in the spring (Song of Solomon ii. 13.), only their liquors, but dry things which are not apt to be as we learn, also, from Isa. xviii. 5. afore the harvest, that is, broken; by which means they are well preserved from wet, the barley harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the sour grape dust, or insects. These would in time crack and wear out. is ripening in the flower. It was also usual to erect tempo- Hence, when the Gibeonites came to Joshua, pretending that rary huts or sheds, made of boughs and reeds, to shelter the they came from a far country, amongst other things they seryant who was employed to guard the fruit when nearly brought wine bottles old and rent, and bound up where they ripe from birds and other creatures of prey (Isa. i. 11.), and had leaked. (Josh. ix. 4. 13.). Thus, too, it was not expeparticularly from the ravages of wild boars Psal. lxxx. 13.), dient to put new wine into old bottles, because the fermentawhich to this day are as destructive in Greece,2 as they tion of it would break or crack the bottles. (Matt. ix. 17.) anciently were in Palestine. As soon as the vintage was And thus David complains, that he is become like a bottle completed, these sheds were either taken down or suffered to in the smoke ; that is, a bottle dried, and cracked, and worn perish. From this circumstance Job derives a beautiful out, and unfit for service. (Psal. cxix. 83.) These bottles simile, to illustrate the short duration of the prosperity of the were probably of various sizes, and sometimes very large; wicked. (xxvii. 18.)? But it appears from Isa. v. 1, 2. Matt. for when Abigail went to meet David and his four hundred xxi. 33. and Mark xii. 1., that towers were erected for this men, and took a present to pacify and supply him, two hunpurpose, as they still are in some parts of Palestine.4 dred loaves, and fire sheep ready dressed, &c. she took only

elders of Israel who came to consult him: the people also 1 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

assembled about him, apparently for the purpose of hearing » Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

3 Ibid. 4 Calmet, Dissertation sur les Instrumens de Musique des Hebreux, pre. fixed to his Commentary on the Psalms. Jahn, Archæologia Biblica, &$ 94 > Carne's Letters from the East, p. 165. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. p. 431 -96. Brown's Antiquities of the Jews, vol. i. pp. 315-321.

Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 339, 310.

"The vintage followed the wheat harvest and the thresh- two bottles of wine (1 Sam. xxv. 18.); a very disproportioning (Lev. xxvi. 5. Amos ix. 13.), about June or July, when ate quantity, unless the bottles were large. But the Israelthe clusters of the grapes were gathered with a sickle, and ites had bottles likewise made by the potters. (See Isa. xxx. put into baskets (Jer. vi. 9.), carried and thrown into the 14. margin, and Jer. xix. 1. 10. xlviii. 12.) We hear also wine-vat

, or wine-press, where they were probably first trod- of vessels called barrels. That of the widow, in which her den by men and then pressed. (Rev. xiv. 18—20.) It is meal was held (1 Kings xvii. 12. 14.) was not, probably, mentioned, as a mark of the great work and power of the very large; but those four in which the water was brought Messiah, I have trodden the figurative wine-press alone; and up from the sea, at the bottom of Mount Carmel, to pour upon of the people there was none with me. (Isa. lxiii

. 3. ; see also Elijah's sacrifice and altar, must have been large. (1 Kings Rev. xix. 15.) The vintage was a season of great mirth. xviii

. 33.) We read likewise of other vessels, which the Of the juice of the squeezed grapes were formed wine and widow of Shunem borrowed of her neighbours, to hold the vinegar. The wines of Helbon, near Damascus, and of miraculous supply of oil (2 Kings iv. 246.); and of the Lebanon, where the vines had a fine sun, were reckoned water-pots, or jars, or jugs, of stone, of considerable size, in most excellent. (Ezek. xxvii. 18. Hos. xiv. 7.) The which our Lord caused the water to be converted into wine. wines of Canaan, being very heady, were commonly mixed (John ii. 6.). Grapes, among the Israelites, were likewise with water for common use, as the Italians do theirs; and dried into raisins. A part of Abigail's present to David was sometimes they scented them with frankincense, myrrh, an hundred clusters of raisins (1 Sam. xxv. 18.); and when calamus, and other spices (Prov. ix. 2. 5. Song of Solomon Ziba met David, his present contained the same quantity. viii. 2.): they also scented their wine with pomegranates, (2 Sam. xvi. 1. ; see also 1 Sam. xxx. 12. and 1 Chron. or made wine of their juice, as we do of the juíce of currants, xii, 10.)"? gooseberries, &c. fermented with sugar. Wine is best when It was a curse pronounced upon the Israelites, that, upon old and on the lees, the dregs having sunk to the bottom, their disobedience, they should plant vineyards and dress (Isa. xxv. 6.) Sweet wine is that which is made from them, but they should neither drink of the wine nor cat the grapes fully ripe. (Isa. xlix. 26.) The Israelites had two grapes, for the worms should eat them. (Deut. xxviii. 39.) kinds of vinegar, the one was a weak wine, which was used It seems that there is a peculiar sort of worms that infest thé for their common drink in the harvest field, &c. (Ruth ii. vines, called by the Latins Volvox and Convolvulus, because 14.), as the Spaniards and Italians still do; and it was pro- it wraps and rolls itself up in the buds, and eats the grapes bably of this that Solomon was to furnish twenty thousand up, when they advance towards ripeness, as the Roman aubaths to Hiram, for his servants, the hewers that cut timber thors explain it.8 in Lebanon. (2 Chron. ii. 10.) The other had a sharp acid Besides other fruits that were common in Judæa, as dates, taste, like ours; and hence Solomon hints, that a sluggard figs, cucumbers, pomegranates, they had regular plantations vexes and hurts such as employ him in business; as vinegar of olives, which were a very ancient and profitable object of is disagreeable to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes (Prov. x. horticulture. So early as the time of Noah (Gen. viii. 11.) 26.); and as vinegar poured upon nitre spoils its virtue: so the branches of the olive tree were, and since that time have he that singeth songs to a heavy heart does but add to its grief. been among all nations, the symbol of peace and prosperity. (Prov. xxv. 20.) The poor were allowed to glean grapes, Oil is first mentioned in Gen. xxviii. 18. and Job xxiv. 11.; as well as corn and other articles (Lev. xix. 10. Deut. xxiv. which proves the great antiquity of the cultivation of this 21. Isa. iii. 14. xvii. 6. xxiv. 13. Mic. vii. 1.); and the tree. Olives, in Palestine, are of the best growth, and afford gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim was better than the vintage the finest oil; whence that country is often extolled in the of Abiezer. (Judg: viii. 2.). The vineyard was not to be Scriptures on account of this tree, and especially in opposipruned and dressed in the Sabbatical year. (Lev. xxv. 3, tion to Egypt, which is destitute of good olives. (Num. 4.) The vessels in which the wine was kept were, proba- xviii. 12. Deut. vii. 13. xi. 14. xii. 17. xviii. 4.) The olive bly, for the most part, bottles, which were usually made of delights in a barren, sandy, dry, and mountainous soil; and leather, or goat-skins, firmly sewed and pitched together. its multiplied branches (which are very agreeable to the eye The Arabs pull the skin off goats in the same manner that as they remain green throughout the winter) have caused it to we do from rabbits, and sew up the places where the legs be represented as the symbol of a numerous progeny,-a and tail were cut off, leaving one for the neck of the bottle, to pour from; and in such bags, they put up and carry, not 7 Investigator, No. iv. pp. 307–309.—The pleasing and instructive Essay

on the Agriculture of the Israelites (by the Rev. James Pluinptre), in the

first, third, and fourth numbers of this journal, contains the fullest account 1 Isa. I. 8. And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, of this interesting subject extant in the English language. as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. "There is a small species of 8 Bochart. Hieroz. p. 3. 1. iv. c. 27. sucumber of which the natives of India are very fond. .... Large fields of 9 On the cultivation of this valuable article of food in the East, Mr. these are sometimes planted; which, when nearly arrived to maturity, Jowett has communicated the following interesting particulars. During require incessant watching to protect them from the attacks of man and his voyage to Upper Egypt, in February, 1819, he says, "We observed the beast." Statham's Indian Recollections, p. 90.

people making holes in the sandy soil on the side of the river. Into these - Hartley's Researches in Greece, pp. 234, 235.

holes they put a small quantity of pigeons' dung and feathers, with the seed 3 Dr. Boothroyd on Job xxvii. 18.

of melons or cucumbers. The value of this manure is alluded to in 2 * In the route between Jerusalem and the convent of Saint Elias (which Kings vi. 25. The produce of this toil I had an opportunity of seeing, in is situated about an hour's distance from that city), Mr. Buckingham was due

season; that is the following month of June. Extensive fields of ripe particularly struck with the appearance of several small and detached melons and cucumbers then adorned the sides of the river. They grew in square towers in the midst of the vine lands. These, his guide informed such abundance, that the sailors freely helped themselves. Some guard, hím, were used as watch-towers, whence watchmen to this day look out, in however, is placed upon them. Occasionally, but at long and desolate in. order to guard the produce of the lands from depredation. This fact will tervals, we may observe a little hut made of reeds, just capable of containexplain the use and intention of the tower mentioned in Matt. xxi. 33. and ing one man; being, in fact, little inore than a fence against a north wind. Mark xii. 1. Similar towers were seen by Captains Irby and Mangles, as in these I have observed, sometimes, a poor old man, perhaps lame, they passed between numerous vineyards, some of which appeared to be feebly protecting the property. It exactly illustrates Isaiah i. 8. And the antique. Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 342.

daughter of Zion is left..... as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. The • At one time the wine of Helbon (which place Strabo terms Chalybon) abundance of these most necessary vegetables brings to mind the murwas held in such repute, that it was appropriated exclusively

to the use of murs of the Israelites; Num. xi. 5, 6. We remember.... the cucumbers, the kings of Persia. Strabon, Geographia, tom. ii. p. 1043. edit. Oxon. and the melons, and the teeks, and the onions, and the garlick ; but nou

• Lebanon and its vicinity still produce excellent wine-at least a dozen our soul is dried away." Jowett's Researches in the Mediterranean, sorts, all of which are cheap. Carne's Letters from the East, p. 239. &c. p. 129.

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blessing which was ascribed to the peculiar favour of God. GOOD SEED is the Son of Man; the FIELD is the world; the (Psal. Tii. 8. cxxviii. 3. Jer. xi. 16. Hos. xiv. 6.) The oil, GOOD SEED are the children of the kingdom; the TARES are the extracted from it by a press, enable the Jews to carry on an children of the wicked one ;' the enemy that sowed

them is the extensive commerce with the Tyrians (Ezek. xxvii. 17. com- devil; the harvest is the end of the world ; and the REAPERS pared with 1 Kings v. 11.); they also sent presents of oil to are the angels. As therefore the TAREs are gathered and burnt the kings of Egypt. (Hos. xii. 1.) The berries of the olive in the fire, so shall it be in the end of the world. Whose Fan iş tree were sometimes plucked or carefully shaken off by the in his hand, and he will thoroughly PURGE his FLOOR, and hand before they were ripe. (Isa. xvii. 6. xxiv. 13. Deut. GATHER his wheat into the GARNER, but he will BURN UP the xxiv. 20.) It appears from Mic. vi. 15. that the presses for CHAFF with UNQUENCHABLE FIRE. By what an apt and awful extracting the oil were worked with the feet; the best and similitude does St. Paul represent 'God's rejection of the purest oi, in Exod. xxvii. 20. termed pure oil-olive beaten, Jews and admission of the heathens, by the boughs of an was that obtained by only beating and squeezing the olives, olive being lopped off, and the scion of a young olive without subjecting them io the press.

ingrafted into the old tree! (Rom. xi. 17.&c.)”—a pracAmong the judgments with which God threatened the tice which still obtains in the Morea or Peloponnesus;5 Israelites for their sins, it was denounced, that though they " and, by continuing the same imagery, how strictly does he had olive trees through all their coasts, yet they should not caution the Gentiles against insolently exulting over the muanoint themselves with the oil, for the olive should cast her tilated branches and cherishing the vain conceit that the fruit (Deut. xxviii. 40.); being blasted (as the Jerusalem boughs were lopped off merely that they might be ingrafted ;. Targum explains it) in the very blossom, the buds should for if God spared not the native branches, they had greater drop off for want of rain, or the fruit should be eaten with reason to fear lest he would not spare them; that they should worms. Maimonides observes, that the idolaters in those remember that the Jews through their wilful disbelief of countries pretended by certain magical arts to preserve all Christianity were cut off, and that they, the Gentiles, if they manner of fruit, so that the worms should not gnaw the vines, disgrace their religion, would in like manner forfeit the nor either buds or fruits fall from the trees (as he relates their divine favour, and their present flourishing branches be also words out of one of their books): in order, therefore, that he cut down! To inspire the Gentile Christians with humility, might deter the Israelites from all idolatrous practices, Moses he concludes with assuring them that the Jewish nation, pronounces that they should draw upon themselves those very though they had experienced the severity of God, as he calls punishments, which they endeavoured by such means to it, were not totally forsaken of the Almighty : that the avoid.

branches, though cut down and robbed of their ancient hoThe ancient Hebrews were very fond of GARDENS, which nours, were not abandoned to perish : when the Jews returned are frequently mentioned in the Sacred Writings, and derive from their infidelity they would be ingrafted :an omnipotent their appellations from the prevalence of certain trees; as the hand was still able to reinsert them into their original stock. garden of nuts and of pomegranates. (Sol. Song vi. 11. iv. 13.) For if thou, O heathen, the scion of an unfruitful wild olive, The modern inhabitants of the East take equal delight in wert cut out of thy own native barren tree, and, by a process gardens with the ancient Hebrews, on account of the refresh- repugnant to the ordinary laws of nature, wert ingrafted into ing shade and delicious fruits which they afford, and also the fruitful generous olive-how much more will not those, because the air is cooled by the waters of which their gar- who naturally belong to the ancient stock, be, in future time, dens are never allowed to be destitute. (1 Kings xxi. 2.2 Kings ingrafted into their own kindred olive! With what singular xxy. 4. Eccles. ii. 5, 6. John xviii. 1. xix. 41.) The Jews beauty and propriety is the gradual progress of religion in the were greatly attached to gardens, as places of burial: hence soul, from the beginning to its maturity, represented by seed they frequently built sepulchres in them. (2 Kings xxi. 18. committed to a generous soil, which, after a few successions Mark xv. 46.), A pleasant region is called a garden of the of day and night, imperceptibly vegetates—peeps above the Lord, or of God, that is, a region extremely pleasant. See surface-springs higher and higher-and spontaneously proexamples in Gen. xiii. 10. Isa. li. 3. and Ezek. xxxi. 8.2 ducing, first, the verdant blade-then the ear-afterwards the

VII. The sacred poets derive many beautiful ALLUSIONS swelling grain, gradually filling the ear (Mark iv. 27, 28.);6 and Images from the rural and domestic economy of the and when the time of harvest is come, and it is arrived at its Jews; and as the same pursuits were cherished and followed maturity, it is then reaped and collected into the storehouse. by them during the manifestation of our Redeemer, “it is Beautiful illustrations and images like these, taken from rural natural to imagine that in the writings of Jews there must life, must seal the strongest impressions, particularly upon occur frequent allusions to the implements and arts of agri- the minds of Jews, who were daily employed in these occuculture, and to those rustic occupations which in general pations, from which these pertinent similes and expressive formed the study and exercise of this nation. Hence the comparisons were borrowed."? beautiful images and apt. similitudes in the following passages :No one having put his hand to the PLOUGH and looking back is fit for the kingdom of God.-Ye are God's HUSBANDRY, or cultivated field. A workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.-Wherefore lay apart all filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness, and receive

SECTION II. with meekness the engrafied word.Whatsoever a man soWETH, that shall he REAP: he that sowETH to the flesh-lives a sensual ON THE ARTS CULTIVATED BY THE HEBREWS OR JEWS. life-shall from the flesh REAP destruction, but he that SOWETH to the spiritlives a rational life—shall from the spirit REAP I. Origin of the arts.--State of them from the deluge to the time ererlasting life.-Consider the ravens, they sow not, neither do of Moses.-II. State of the arts from the time of Moses until they REAP, or gather into barns, yet your heavenly Father

the captivity.—III. State of the arts after the captivity.feedeth them. I am the good SHEPHERD, and know my SHEEP, IV. Account of some of the arts practised by the Jews.and am known of mine.Fear not, LITTLE FLOCK, it is your 1. Writing ;-Materials used for this purpose ;-Letters ; Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. How striking Form of books.—2. Engraving.-3. Puinting.–V. Music is the parable of the sower, which, by seed, scattered promis- and musical instruments.—VI. Dancing. cuously, and in every direction by a husbandman, and meeting a various fate, according to the respective nature 1. The arts, which are now brought to such an admirable of the soil into which it fell, represents

the different re state of perfection, it is universally allowed, must have origiception which Gospel doctrine would experience in the nated partly in necessity and partly in accident. At first they world, according to the different dispositions and principles must have been very imperfect and very limited; but the of that mind into which it was admitted! He that soweth the

5 The Rev. John Hartley, who travelled in Greece in 1828, says,—"I had 1 More Nevoch. p. 3. c. 37.

my attention directed to the practice of grafting the olive trees, to which Ikenii Antiquitates Iebr. pp. 583--589. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 406 St. Paul alludes. (Roin. xi. 17. 20. 23, 2.) Logothetes” (his friend and 411. Jahn et Ackerinann, Archeol. Bibl. SS 57–70.

guide) "showed me a few wild olives; but by far the greater number are 3 1 Cor. iii. 9. @sou gewpyhov

such as have been grafted. He informs me that it is the universal practice * 2 Tim. ii. 15. Eppulav opfo TOMOUVTL. A beautiful and expressive in Greece to graft, from a good tree, upon the wild olive." (Missionary image taken from a husbandınan (sprutys) drawing his furrow even, and Register, May, 1830, p. 225.) cutting the ground in a direct line. Ernesti says, that the cognate words 6 Seminis inodo spargenda sunt, quod quamvis sit exiguum, cum occu. opio Topic is used by Clemens Alexandrinus, Eusebius, and others, for pavit idoneum locum, vires suas explicat, et ex minimo in maximos auctus op toobe-right doctrine. Instit. Interp. Nov. T'est. p. 109. (Edit. 1792.) diffunditur. Senecæ Opera, tom. ii. epist. 38. p. 134. edit. Gronovii. 1672. A similar remark is also made by Schecisner, voee op SOTOMEW,

* Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 107-112.

inquisitive and active mind of man, seconded by his wants, (in the commencement of his reign, Solomon was obliged to soon secured to them a greater extent, and fewer imperfec- send to Hiram king of Tyre for a skilful artist (2 Chron. ii. tions. Accordingly, in the fourth generation after the crea- 7.), by whose direction the model of the temple and all the tion of man, we find mention made of artificers in brass and curious furniture of it was both designed and finished. From iron, and also of musical instruments. (Gen. iv. 21, 22.) the Syrians the Israelites must have learned much, because, Those communities, which, from local or other causes, could long after the reign of Solomon, there were numerous native not flourish by means of agriculture, would necessarily direct artisans employed in carpentry and building (2 Kings xii

. their attention to the encouragement and improvement of the 11–13. xxii. 4—6.); and among the captives carried away arts. These, consequently, advanced with great rapidity; by Nebuchadnezzar, all the craftsmen and smiths are generally and were carried to a high pitch so far back as the time of noticed. (2 Kings xxiv. 14.) But besides these, mention is Noah; as we may learn from the very large vessel built made of particular manufactures, as potters (Jer. xviii. 2–4.), under his direction, the construction of which shows that they fullers (2 Kings xviii. 17. Isa. vii. 3. Mal. iii. 2. Mark ix. must have been well acquainted with some at least of the 3.), bakers (Jer. xxxvii. 21. Hos. vii. 4.), and barbers. mechanical arts. They had also, without doubt, seen the (Ezek. v. 1.) operations of artificers in other ways besides that of building, III. During the captivity many Hebrews (most commonly and after the deluge imitated their works as well as they those to whom a barren tract of the soil had been assigned) could. Hence it is, that shortly after that event, we find applied themselves to the arts and to merchandise. Subse. mention made of utensils, ornaments, and many other things quently, when they were scattered abroad among different which imply a knowledge of the arts. Compare Gen. ix. 21. nations, a knowledge of the arts became so popular, that the xi. 1—9. xii. 7, 8. xiv. 1—16. xvii. 10. xviii. 4—6. xix. 32. Talmudists taught that all parents ought to teach their chilxxxi. 19. 27. 34.

dren some art or handicraft. They indeed mention many II. Egypt in the early age of the world excelled all other learned men of their nation, who practised some kind of nations in a knowledge of the arts. Although the Hebrews manual labour, or, as we should say, followed some trade. during their residence in Egypt applied themselves to the Accordingly, we find in the New Testament, that Joseph the rearing of cattle, yet they could not remain four hundred husband of Mary was a carpenter, and that he was assisted years in that country without becoming initiated to a consi- by no less a personage than our Saviour in his labours. (Matt.

derable degree into that knowledge which the Egyptians xiii. 55. Mark vi. 3.) Simon is mentioned as a tanner in the - possessed. Among other labours

imposed upon them, was city of Joppa.? (Acts ix. 43. x. 32.) Alexander, a learned the building of treasure cities (Exod. i. 11–14.), and, ac- Jew, was a copper-smith (2 Tim. iv. 14.); Paul and Aquila cording to Josephus, they were employed in erecting pyra- were tent makers, FUNGICI. Not only the Greeks, but the mids.° Moses, it is true, did not enact any special laws in Jews also, esteemed certain trades infamous. At any rate, favour of the arts, nor did he interdict them or lessen them in the Rabbins reckoned the driver of asses and camels, barbers, the estimation of the people; on the contrary, he speaks in sailors, shepherds, and inn-keepers, in the same class with the praise of artificers. (Exod. xxxv. 30—35. xxxvi. 1. et robbers. Those Ephesians and Cretans, who were lovers seq. xxxviii. 22, 23, &c.) The grand object of Moses, in a of gain, arXpixecdeus (1 Tim. iii

. 8. Tit. i. 7.), were men, as temporal point of view, was to promote agriculture, and he we may learn from ancient writers, who were determined to thought it best, as was done in other nations, to leave the arts get money, in however base a manner. In the apostolic age, to the ingenuity and industry of the people.

the more eminent Greek tradesmen were united into a society Soon after the death of Joshua, a place was expressly al- (Acts xix. 25.)3 lotted by Joab, of the tribe of Judah, to artificers : for in the IV. ACCOUNT OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTS PRACTISED genealogy of the tribe of Judah, delivered in 1 Chron. iv. 14., BY THE Jews. we read of a place called the Valley of Craftsmen, and (verse 1. WRITING.–We meet with no notice of this art in the 21. 23.) of a family of workmen of fine linen, and another Old Testament before the copy of the law was given by God of potters: and when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchad- to Moses, which was written that is, engraven) on two tables nezzar, the enemy carried away all the craftsmen and smiths. of stone by the finger of God (Exod. xxxi. 18.), and this is (2 Kings xxiv. 14.) But as a proof that their skill in manu- called the writing of God. (Exod. xxxii. 16.)" It is, there. factures, and trade therein, could not be very extensive, we fore, probable that God himself was the first who taught find that the prophet Ezekiel (chap. xxvii.), in describing the letters to Moses, who communicated the knowledge of them affluence of the goods which came to Tyre, makes mention to the Israelites, and they to the other eastern nations. En of nothing brought thither from Judæa, except wheat, oil, graving or sculpture seems, therefore, to be the most ancient grapes, and balm, which were all the natural products of way of writing, of which we have another very early instance their ground. It appears that the mistress of the family in Exod. xxxix. 30., where we are told that “holiness to usually made the clothing for her husband, her children, and the Lord” was written on a golden plate, and worn on the herself, and also for sale. (Exod. xxxv. 25. 1 Sam. ii. 19. high-priest's head. And we find that the names of the Prov. xxxi. 18—24. Acts ix. 39.) Employment, conse- twelve tribes were commanded to be written on twelve rods. quently, as far as the arts were concerned, was limited chiefly (Num. xvii. 2.) To this mode of writing there is an alluto those who engaged in the more difficult performances; for sion in Ezek. xxxvii. 16. In later times the Jews made instance, those who built chariots, hewed stones, sculptured use of broad rushes or flags for writing on, which grew in idols or made them of metal, or who made instruments of great abundance in Egypt, and are noticed by the prophet gold, silver, and brass, and vessels of clay, and the like. Isaiah when foretelling the confusion of that country. (Isa. (See Judg. xvii. 4. Isa. xxix. 16. xxx. 14. Jer. xxviii. 13.) In the time of Saul, mention is made of smiths, who manufactured implements of agriculture as well as arms; but who all who followed it were required to mention the same before their marriage,

The trade of a tanner was esteemed by the Jews so contemptible, that were carried off by the Philistines, in order that they might under the penalty of the nuptials being void. It is recorded in the Misna, be enabled to keep the Israelites more effectually in subjec- that

, after the death of a man whose brother had exercised the trade of a tion. (1 Sam. xiii. 19–22.). Among the Hebrews, artificers tanner, the wise men of Sidon determined, that the widow

of the deceased

was permitted to decline intermarrying with that brother. Townsend's were not, as among the Greeks and Romans, servants and armony of the New Test vol. ii. p. 103. slaves, but men of some rank and wealth : and as luxury and 3. Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, by Mr. Upham, $$ 80–81. Pareau, Antiq. riches increased, they became very numerous. (Jer, xxiv. 1.

Iebr pp. 419_423.

- We know that the inbabitants of Yemen or the Sonthern Arabia were xxix.2.2Kings xxiv. 14.) Building and architecture, however, accustomed in the remotest ages, to inscribe their laws and wise sayings did not attain much perfection prior to the reign of the accom-upon stone. See Meidanii Proverb. Arab. p. 45. (cited in Burder's Orien. plished Solomon. We read, indeed, before the Israelites came tal Literature, vol. i. p. 198.) and Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod. into the land of Canaan, that Bezaleel and Aholiab (who were • Writing on billets or sticks was practised by the Greeks. Plutarch, in employed in the construction of the tabernacle) excelled in his Life of Solon (Vitæ, tom. I. p. 20. ed. Bryan.), and Aulus Gellius (Noct

. all manner of workmanship (Exod. xxxv. 30—35.), but we preserved at Athens, were inscribed on tablets of wood called Arones. In are there told, that they had their skill by inspiration from later times a sinilar mode of writing was practised by the aboriginal BriGod, and it does not appear that they had any successors; tons, who cut their letters upon sticks, which were most commonly squared, for in the days of Solomon, when the Hebrews were at rest fained either fonror three lines. (See Ezek. xxxvii. 16.) The squares were from all their enemies, and were perfectly at liberty to follow used for general subjects, and for stanzas of four lines in poetry, the tri

. out improvements of every kind, yet they had no professed lateral ones were adapted to triades, and for a peculiar kind of ancient artists that could undertake the work of the temple, so that, were calledo-Iriban or triplet, and Englyn Miluryr or the warrior's

a kind of frame, which was called Peithynen or elucidator; and was so · Antiq. lib. ii. c. 9. $ 1.

contrived that each stick might be turned for the facility of reading, the At Karitena, it is still usual for schoolboys to have a small clean book. (Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 306. 8vo, edit.) The Ceylonese some board, on which the master writes the alphabet, or any other lesson, times make use of the palm leaf, but generally prefer that of the Talipot which he intends his

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xix. 6, 7.) Writing on palm and other leaves is still prac- was made at Pergamos, whence it was called Charta Pergatised in the East.

mena. It is probable that the Jews learned the use of it The other eastern nations made use chiefly of parchment, from them, and that this is what is meant by a roll (Ezra vi. being the thin skins of animals carefully dressed." The best 2.), and a roll of a book (Jer. xxxvi. 2.), and a scroll rolled

together (Isa. xxxiv. 4.): for it could not be thin and weak end of each running out alternately on both sides of the frame. The sub- paper, but parchment which is of some consistency, that joined cut

was capable of being thus rolled up. St. Paul is the only person who makes express mention of parchment. (2 Tim. iv. 13.) In Job xix. 24. and in Jer. xvii. 1. there is mention made of pens of iron, with which they probably made the letters, when they engraved on lead, stone, or other hard substances: but for softer materials they, in all probability, made use of quills or reeds; for we are told of some in the tribe of Zebulun who handled the pen of the writer. (Judg. v. 14.) David alludes to the pen of "a ready writer (Psal. xlv. 1.), and Baruch, as we are told, wrote the words of Jeremiah with ink in a book. (Jer. xxxvi. 18.) It is highly probable that several of the prophets wrote upon tablets of wood, or some similar substance. (Compare Isa. xxx. 8. and Habakkuk ii. 2.) Such tablets, it is well known, were in use long before the time of Homer (who lived about one hundred and fifty years before the prophet Isaiah). Zecharias, the father of John the Baptist, when required to name his son, asked for a writing-table, fiax:S (Luke i. 63.); and such tablets were also in use among the Romans and other ancient nations, and are yet to be seen in modern Greece, where they are called by the same name.4. They were not finally disused in western Europe until the fourteenth century of the Christian æra. They were, in general, covered with wax, a1 the writing was executed with styles or pens, made of guld, silver, brass, iron, copper, ivory, or bone, which at one end were pointed for the purpose of in

scribing the letters, and smooth at the other extremity for the purpose of erasing. In Barbary the children, who are

sent to school, write on a smooth thin board slightly daubed over with whiting, which may be wiped off or renewed at

pleasure. The Copts, who are employed by the great men Is an engraved

specimen of ancient Britis: writmg, copied from Dr. Fry's of Egypt in keeping their accounts, &c. make use of a kind reading in the modern orthography of Wales, with a correct translation :- of pasteboard, from which the writing is occasionally wiped “Aryv y doeth yw pwyll:

off with a wet sponge. To this mode of writing there is an Bid ezain alltud:

allusion in Neh. xiii. 14., and especially in Num. v. 23. ; Cyvnewid a haelion :

where, in the case of the woman suspected of adultery, who
Diengid rhywan eid rhygadarn:
Enwawg meiciad o' i voc:
Goiaen awel yo nghyving:

ters more visible and distinct, they rub them over with oil mixed with Hir oreistez i ogan :

pulverized charcoal, which process also renders thein so permanent, that Llawer car byw i Indeg."

They never can be effaced. When one slip is insufficient to contain all that they intend to write on any particular subject, the Ceylonese string several together by passing a piece of twine through them, and attach them to a board in the same way as we file

newspapers. (Percival's Account of the "The weapon of the wise is reason:

Island of Ceylon, p. 205.) The Bramin manuscripts, in the Telinga lan. Let the exile be moving :

guage, sent to Oxford from Fort St. George, are written on the leaves of Commerce with generous ones:

the Ampana, or Palma Malabarica. In the Maldive Islands, the natives Let the very feeble run away; let the very powerful proceed: are said to write on the leaves of the Macarciquean, which are a fathom and The swineherd is proud of his swine :

a half (nine feet) long, and about a foot broad; and in other parts of the A gale is almost ice in a narrow place:

East Indies, the leaves of the plantain tree are employed for the saine Long penance to slander:

purpose. The frail Indeg has many living relations.”

2 The eminent antiquary, Montfaucon, informs us that in 1699 he bought

at Rome a book wholly composed of lead, about four inches in length, by A continuation of this mode of writing may be found in the Runic or Clog, three inches in width, and containing Egyptian Gnostic figures and unin(a corruption of Log) Almanacks, which prevailed among the northern telligible writing. Not only the two pieces which formed the cover, but nations of Europe so late even as the sixteenth

century. See a description also all the leaves (six in number), the stick inserted into the rings which and engraving of one in Dr. Plot's Natural History of Staffordshire, pp. held the leaves together, the hinges, and the nails, were all of lead, without 418-422.

exception. Antiquité Expliquée, tom. ii. p. 378. It is not known what has 1 In the Sloanian Library, there are upwards of twenty manuscripts become of this curious article. written on leaves, written in the Sanskrit, Burman, Peguan, Ceylonese, 3 "The most ancient people, before the invention of books and before the and other languages. (Ayscough's Catalogue of the Sloane Library, pp. use of sculpture upon stones and other small fragments, represented things 904–906.) In Tanjore and other parts of India, the palmyra leaf is used. great and noble upon entire rocks and mountains: the custom was not laid (Dr. C. Buchanan's "Christian Researches in Asia," pp. 70, 71. 8vo. edit.) aside for many ages. Semiramis, to perpetuate her memory, is reported The common books of the Burmans, like those of the Hindoos, particu. to have cut a whole rock into the shape of herself. Hannibal, long after the larly of such as inhabit the southern parts of India, are composed of the invention of books, engraved characters upon the Alpine rocks, as a testipalmyra leaf, on which the letters are engraved with a stylus. (Symes's mony of his passage over them; which characters were remaining about Account of an Embassy to Ava, vol. ii. p. 409. 8vo.) In their more elegant two centuries ago, according to Paulus Jovius. It appears particularly to books, the Burmans write on sheets of ivory, or on very fine white palmy have been the custom of the northern nations, from that remarkable inra leaves: the ivory is stained black, and the margins are ornamented with scription inentioned by Saxo, and several ages after him delineated and gilding, while the characters are enamelled or gilt. On the

palmyra leaves published by Olaus Wormius. It was inscribed by Harold Ilyldeland, to the characters are in general of black enamel : and the ends of the leaves the memory of his father, and was cut out in the side of a rock, in Runic and margins are painted with flowers in various bright colours. A hole characters, each letter of the inscription being a quarter of an ell long, and through both ends of each leaf serves to connect the whole into a volume the length of the whole thirty-four ells." (Wise's Letter to Dr. Mead, by means of two strings, which also pass through the two wooden boards p. 25.) The custom was eastern as well as northern, as appears from that that serve for binding. In the finer binding of these kinds of books, the remarkable instance which occurs in Captain Hamilton's Account of the boards are lacquered; the edges of the leaves are cut smooth and gilt, East Indies, vol. ii. p. 241. The author, after giving a short history of the and the title is written on the upper board. The two boards are by a knot successful attack which the Dutch made upon ihe island of Amoy in China, or jewel secured at a little distance from the boards, so as to prevent the A. D. 1645, adds, "This history is written in large China characters on the book from falling to pieces, but sufficiently distant to admit of the upper face of a smooth rock, that faces the entrance of the harbour, and may be leaves being turned back, while the lower ones are read. The more ele- fairly seen as we pass out and into the harbour." Burder's Oriental Literagant books are in general wrapped up in silk cloth,

and bound round by a ture, vol. I, p. 535.

scholars to read. As soon as one lesson is finished, tree, on account of its superior breadth and thickness. From these leaves, the writing is marked out or scraped out; and the board may thus be con. which are of immense size, they cut out slips from a foot to a foot and a tinually einployed for writing new lessons. Not only does this instrument half long, and

about two inches broad. These slips being snioothed and harmonize in its use with the writing-lable mentioned in Luke i. 63.; but all excrescences pared off with the knife, they are ready for use without the Greeks call it by the very same name, rivaxidrov." Rev. John Hartany other preparation : a fine-pointed steel pencil, like a bodkin, and set ley's Tour in Greece, in 1928. (Missionary Register, May, 1830. pp. 231, 232.) in a wooden or ivory handle, ornamented according to the owner's taste, On this subject and on the substances generally employed for writing, is employed to write, or rather, to engrave, their characters on these tall both in ancient and modern times, see an Introduction to the study of Bibpot slips, which are very thick and tough. In order to render the charac. liography, by the author of this work, vol. i. pp. 31–72.

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