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11. Gen. xviii. 4. xix. 2.), and the guests were anointed with drank wine, while the descendants are obliged to abstain from oil. David alludes to this in Psal. xxiii. 5. The same prac- it; and we are well assured that the effect of this exhilarating tice obtained in our Saviour's time. Thus we find Mary beverage was to communicate rio little vivacity to the chaMagdalene approaching him at an entertainment, and, as a racters of the ancient Asiatics, at least to that of the Hebrews. mark of the highest respect and honour she could confer, (See Isa. xxx. 29. Jer. vii. 34. xxx. 19. Amos vi. 4,5.) The breaking an alabaster vase full of the richest perfume and ancient Asiatics, among whom we include the Hebrews, were pouring it on his head.? Our Lord's vindication to Simon, delighted with singing, with dancing, and with instruments of the behaviour of this woman, presents us with a lively of music. Promenading, so fashionable and so agreeable in idea of the civilities in those times ordinarily paid to guests colder latitudes, was wearisome and unpleasant in the warm on their arrival, but which marks of friendship and respect climates of the East, and this is probably one reason why had (it seems) been neglected by this Pharisee, at whose the inhabitants of those climates preferred holding intercourse house Jesus Christ then was. He turned to the woman, and with one another, while sitting near the gate of the city, or said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine beneath the shade of the fig tree and the vine. (1 Sam. xxii. house, and thou gavest me No WATER FOR MY FEET, but she 6. Micah iv. 4.). It is for the same reason also that we so hath WASHED MY FEET with her tears, and wiped them with the frequently hear in the Hebrew Scriptures of persons sitting hairs of her head. Thou gavest me no kiss: but this woman, down, as in the following passage : Blessed is the man that since I came in, hath not ceased to KISS MY FEET. Mine head standeth not in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the with oil thou didst not anoint, but this woman hath ANOINTED scornful. (See Psal. i. 1. cvii. 32. lxxxix. 7. cxi. 1. lxiv. 2. MY FEET with ointment. (Luke vii. 44–46.) To this prac- 1. 20. xxvi. 5.) tice of anointing, Solomon alludes (Prov. xxvii. 9.); and “ The bath was always very agreeable to the inhabitants among the Babylonians it was usual to present sweet odours. of the East (Ruth iii. 3. 2 Sam. xi. 2. 2 Kings v. 10.); and (Dan. ii. 46.). "It is still the custom in Egypt, among the it is not at all surprising that it should have been so, since it Arabs and other nations, thus to treat their guests, and, is not only cooling and refreshing, but is absolutely neceswhen they are about to depart, to burn the richest perfumes. sary in order to secure a decent degree of cleanliness in a cliThe ceremony of washing the feet is still observed among the mate where there is so much exposure to dust. The bath is Christians of Assalt in Palestine, towards all strangers who frequently visited by eastern ladies, and may be reckoned come amongst them as guests or visitors. An elevated seat, among their principal recreations. Those Egyptians, who in the corner of the room, was considered as the post of lived at the earliest period of which we have any account, honour. (Isa. xxxviii. 2.): Among the Asiatic sovereigns were in the habit of bathing in the waters of the Nile. (Exod. it is a common custom to give both garments and money to ji
. 5. vii. 13—25.). It was one of the civil laws of the Heambassadors, and persons of distinction whom they wish to brews, that the bath should be used. The object of the law, honour: hence they keep in their wardrobes several hundred without doubt, was to secure a proper degree of cleanliness changes of raiment ready for presents of this kind. This among them. (Lev. xiv. 2. xv. 1–8. xvii. 15, 16. xxii. 6. usage obtained in Egypt, where Joseph gave changes of Num. xix. 7.) We may, therefore, consider it as probable, raiment to his brethren, and to his brother Benjamin three that public baths, soon after the enactment of this law, were hundred pieces of silver, besides five changes of raiment. erected in Palestine, of a construction similar to that of those (Gen. xlv. 22.) That such were given by way of reward which are so frequently seen at the present day in the East. and honour, see Judg. xiv. 12. 19. Rev. vi. 11. and vii. 9. 14.6 “The Orientals, when engaged in conversation, are very
III. “ Conversation, in which the ancient Orientals indulged candid and mild, and do not feel themselves at liberty dílike other men, in order to beguile the time, was held in the rectly to contradict the person with whom they are conversing, gate of the city. Accordingly, there was an open space near although they may at the same time be conscious that he is the gate of the city, as is the case at the present day in Mau- telling
them falsehoods. The ancient Hebrews, in particular, ritania, which was fitted up with seats for the accommodation very rarely used any terms of reproach more severe than of the people. (Gen. xix. 1. Psal. lxix. 12.) Those who those of you (satan), adversary or opposer, 797 (Racau), conwere at leisure occupied a position on these seats, and either temptible, and sometimes saj (naBAL), fool, an expression amused themselves with witnessing those who came in and which means a wicked man or an atheist. (Job ii. 10. Psal. those who went out, and with any trifling occurrences that xiv. 1. Isa. xxxii. 6. Matt. v. 22. xvi. 23.). When any thing might offer themselves to their notice, or attended to the ju- was said, which was not acceptable, the dissatisfied person dicial trials, which were commonly investigated at public replied, let it suffice thee (Deut. iii. 26.), or, it is enough, places of this kind, viz. the gate of the city. (Gen. xix. 1. (Luke xxii. 38.) In addressing a superior, the Hebrews did xxxiv. 20. Psal. xxvi. 4, 5. lxix. 12. cxxvii. 5. Ruth iv. 11. not commonly use the pronouns of the first and second perIsa. xiv. 31.) Intercourse by conversation, though not very sen; but, instead of I, they said thy servant, and instead of frequent, was not so rare among the ancient Orientals, as thou, they employed the words my lord. Instances of this among their descendants of modern Asia, except perhaps in mode of expression occur in Gen. xxxii. 4. lxiv. 16. 19. xlvi. Palestine. Nor is this to be wondered at, since the fathers 34. Dan. x. 17. and Luke i. 38. 1 "The oriental method of washing is universally different from that
“ The formula of assent or affirmation was as follows: but the servant pours water from a pitcher upon the hands of his master by the traveller Aryda, that this is the prevailing mode of a practised in the West. Nowhere is water poured previously into a basin; Thou hast said, or thou hast rightly said. We are informed round to all the guests, with a pitcher and with a vessel to receive the person's expressing his assent or affirmation to this day, in the in 2 Kings i. 11. The same service is repeated when the repast is wish to assert any thing in express terms. This explains the water falling from the hands, and performs the office attributed to Elisha," vicinity of Mount Lebanon, especially where he does not
. It is worthy of remark that Otto of Roses, which is the finest perfume answer of the Saviour to the high-priest Caiaphas in Matt. covers so firmly luted to the top, that it requires force
and breaking to Son of God, and replied,
ou utes, thou hast said. imported from the East at this time, is contained in pots or vases, with xxvi. 64., when he was asked, whether he was the Christ the separate them, before the perfume can be poured out. Does not this explain the action of Mary Magdalene?
“ To spit in company in a room, which was covered with a See several instances of this custom in Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. carpet, was an indication of great rusticity of manners; but in pp. 378–392. * Buckingham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, p. 24.
case there was no carpet, it was not accounted a fault in a • Bp. Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 242, 243.
person, provided he spat in the corner of the room. The • Jahn, Archæol. Bibl. 88 176, 177. Harwood, vol. ii. p. 117. 1. " It is no uncommon thing," says the Rev. Mr. Jowett, " to see an in his face, is to be understood literally, the more so on this
expression, therefore, in Deut. xxv. 7–9., viz. he shall spit with their feet drawn under them, upon the bare earth, passing whole account, because in other places, where spitting, buffeting, hours in idle conversation. Europeans would require a chair ; but the na: &c. are mentioned, they occur under circumstances, where tives here prefer the ground: in the heat of summer and autumn it is there existed a great excitement of feeling, and because there of a tree. Richly adorned females, as well as men, may often be seen are not wanting instances of even greater rudeness and viothus amusing themselves. As may naturally be expected, with whatever lence, than that of spitting in one's face. (Matt. xxvi. 67. care they may at first sitting down choose their place, yet the flowing dress Mark xiv. 65. comp. i Kings xxii. 24. Isa. lvii. 4. Ezek. ii. arise, adjust themselves, shake off the dust, and then sit down again." 6. xxv. 6. 2 Sam. xvi. 6,7.) The Orientals, as is very well This usage beautifully illustrates Isa. lii. 2 Shake thyself from the dust- known, are fond of taking a nap at noon, to which they are arise-sit down, 0 Jerusalem. The sense of these expressions, to an Oristrongly invited by the oppressive heat of their climate. to the dust of suffering and oppression, is commanded to arise and shake (2 Sam. iv. 5. xi. 2. Matt. xiii. 25.) The phrase, to cover herself from that dust ; and then, with grace and dignity, and composure one's feet, is used in certain instances to express the custom and security, to sit down to take, as it were, again, her seat and her rank of retiring to rest or sleeping at this time. (Judg. iii. 24. her, and trampled her to the earth.” Jowett's Christian Researches in 1 Sam. xxiv. 4.)"8 Syria, pp. 282, 283.
& Mr. Uphain's translation of Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, pp. 194—196
IV. The Jews rose early, about the dawn of day, when ment in the house.10 The lightest bread, which was made of they breakfasted. They dined about eleven in the forenoon, the finest flour, and was made quickly upon the hearth, they and supped at five in the afternoon. From this circum- called cakes (Gen. xviii. 6.); the larger and coarser sort were stance of their breakfasting so early, Dr. Lightfoot endeavours called loaves. (1 Sam. xxi. 3.) The cakes were anciently to account for the language of the evangelists John (xix. 14.) baked upon the hearth (Gen. xviii
. 6.) : afterwards, this was and Mark (xv. 25.) concerning our Lord's crucifixion. The done upon the coals, being probably laid upon some grate. former notices the time from the preparation of the passover ;|(1 Kings xix. 6.) But the Holy Bread was baked in an oven. and the latter, the time of the day. The preparation began at|(Lev. ii. 4.) The fuel, used for this and other culinary purthe dawn or cock-crowing. From this custom, too, the term poses, consisted of thorns, wood of all kinds, and in general, to rise early denotes diligence, either in doing good or evil. as their sure supply, the dung of cows, asses, or camels,uí Supper appears to have been the principal meal among the dried and collected into heaps (Lam. iv. 5.): grass, also, was Jews, as it was among the Greeks and Romans.
employed for the same purpose. (Matt. vi. 30.) The knowFrom the whole of the sacred history, it is evident that the ledge of this circumstance illustrates Eccles. vii. 6. Psal. food of the Jews was of the simplest nature, consisting prin- lviii, 9. Amos iv. 11, Zech. iii. 2. Isa. vii. 4. and especially cipally of milk, honey, rice, vegetables, and sometimes of Ezek. iv. 12. In order to show the extremity of distress, to locusts, except at the appointed festivals, or when they offered which the Jews would be reduced in the captivity, the protheir feast-offerings; at these times they ate animal food, of phet was to prepare the most common provisions and to bake which they appear to have been very fond (Num. xi. 4.), the bread with human dung. Nothing could paint more when (as is done at this day throughout the East) the guests strongly a case of extreme necessity than this; and the Jews dipped their hands in the dish. (Ruth ii. 14. Matt. xxvi. 23. would so understand this sign,!2 John xiii. 26.)! The pottage of lentiles and bread, which The Hebrews were forbidden to eat many things which Jacob had prepared, and which was so tempting to the im- were, and are, eaten by other nations; some animals being patient Esau as to make him sell his birthright, shows the unclean according to the Mosaic Law (those, for instance, simplicity of the ordinary diet of the patriarchs.- (Gen. xxv, which were either actually impure and abominable, or were 34. The same diet is in use among the modern Àrabs, and esteemed so); others being set apart for the altar, certain in the Levant. Isaac in his old age longed for savoury meat, parts of which it was, consequently, not lawful to eat. which was accordingly prepared for him (Gen. xxvii. 4. 17.) ; The regulations concerning clean and unclean animals are but this was an unusual thing. The feast with which Abra- principally recorded in Lev. xi. and Deut. xiv.; and accordham entertained the three angels was a calf, new cakes ing to them, the following articles are reckoned unclean, and, baked on the hearth, together with butter (ghee), and milk.8 consequently, are interdicted to the Hebrews; viz. 1. Quadru(Gen. xviii. 6, 7.) We may form a correct idea of their peds, which do not ruminate, or which have cloven feet;ordinary articles of food by those which were presented to 2. Serpents and creeping insects; also certain insects which David on various occasions by Abigail (1 Sam. xxv. 18.), sometimes fly, and sometimes advance upon their feet; but by Ziba (2 Sam. xvi. 1.), and by Barzillai. (2 Sam. xvii: locusts, in all their four stages of existence, are accounted 28, 29.)
clean;—3. Certain species of birds, many of the names of The most useful and strengthening, as well as the most which are obscure;—4. Fishes without scales, and also those common, article of food, was, doubtless, bread. Frequent without fins ;–5. All food, all liquids, standing in a vessel, mention is made of this simple diet in the Holy Scriptures, and all wet seed into which the dead body of any unclean which do not often mention the flesh of animals: though this beast had fallen ;-6. All food and liquids, which stood in is sometimes included in the eating of bread, or making a meal, the tent or chamber of a dying or dead 'man, remaining as in Matt. xv. 2. Mark iii. 20. vii. 2. Luke xiv. 1. and John meanwhile in an uncovered vessel (Num. xix. 15.); vi. 23. Sometimes the ears were gathered and the grain 7. Every thing which was consecrated by any one to idols eaten, before the corn was reaped; in the earliest times, after (Exod. xxxiv. 15.): it was this prohibition, that in the priit had been threshed and dried, it was eaten without any fur- mitive church occasioned certain dissensions, upon which ther preparation. This was called parched corn. Subse- Paul frequently remarks, especially in 1 Cor. viii. 10.;quently, the grain was pounded in a mortar, to which prac. 8. A kid boiled in the milk of its mother. (Exod. xxiii. 19. tice Solomon alludes. (Prov. xxvii. 22.) In later times, xxxiv. 26. Deut. xiv. 21.). This was prohibited either to however, it was in general ground into flour, fermented with enforce the duty of humanity to animals, or to guard the leaven, and made into bread; though on certain occasions, as Hebrews against some idolatrous or superstitious practice of at the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, they baked the heathen nations. unleavened bread. (Exod. xii. 34–39.) In the East the The consecrated animal substances interdicted to the Hegrinding of corn was, and still is, the work of female slaves: brews were, 1. Blood (Lev. xvii. 10. xix. 26. Deut. xii
. it is extremely laborious, and is esteemed the lowest employ- 16–23, 24. xv. 23.) ;—2. Animals which had either died of
disease or had been torn by wild beasts, though strangers Potter's Antiquities of Greece, vol. ii. p. 353. and Dr. Adam's Summary of 26.);-3. The fat covering the intestines, termed the net or 1. Compare Mark vi. 21. Luke xiv. 16. and John, xii. 2., and see Abp; might eat them if they chose (Exod. xxii. 31. Deut. xiv.
* The ancients used honey instead of sugar, and seem to have relished caul;—4. The fat upon the intestines, called the mesentery, it much. Hence it is figuratively used as an image of pleasure and happi. &c. ;-5. The fat of the kidneys ;-6. The fat tail or rump ness in Psal. cxix. 103. Prov. xxiv, 13, 14. and Sol. Song iv, 11. When taken of certain sheep. (Exod. xxix. 13—22. Lev. iii. 4–9, 10. ix. (Prov. xxv. 16.) to express fastidiousness, or any nauseating sensation. 19.)13 (Jabn's Biblical Archæology, $ 77.) In consequence of the too liberal use Many ingenious conjectures have been assigned for these diseases. May not this effect be alluded to in Prov. xxv. A. 1 (Emerson's in inquiries of this kind, expressly inform
us, that the design clades Islands in the Levant, many of them are affected with scrofulous prohibitions ; but the Scriptures, which are our safest guide In later times, when the Jews were dispersed among the heathen Lev. xx. 24-26. I am the Lord your God, who have sepa
of them was both moral and political. This is declared in offered to idols and sold in shambles,
they therefore subsisted entirely on rated you from other people , ye shall therefore put difference et see examples in Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 418. and Jowett's Christian selves abominable by beast or by fowl, or by any living ihing
between clean beasts and unclean ; and ye shall not make yourResearches in Syria, p. 284. • Irby's and Mangles Travels, p. 275.
that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated from you as In the island of Santorin, Mr. Emerson speaks of soup made of lentils; unclean : and ye shall be holy unto me, for I the Lord am holy, pottage of Jacob, mentioned in Gen. xxv. 30. 34. (Letters
from the Egean
, As if the Almighty had said, “ I have selected you from, and
ith the red and have severed you from other people that ye should be mine, * A young kid seethed in milk is to this day, a delicacy set before have exalted you far above, the heathen and idolatrous world. strangers by the Bedouin Arabs. Buckingham's Travels among the Arab Let it be your care to conduct yourselves worthy of this dis
"Milk and honey were the chief dainties of the ancients, as they still are tinction. Let the quality of your food, as well as the rites of among the Arabs, and especially the Bedouins. Hence the land or Canaan is described as a land flowing with milk and honey. (Exod. iii. 8.) Butter 10 Bp. Lowth’s Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 291. is also an article much in use, as is attested by all modern travellers. See 11 "Mahomet, our camel-driver, made bread: he kneaded the dough in particularly Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, p. 385. Irby's and Mangles' a leathern napkin; and, mixing a good deal of salt with it, made a flat round Travels in Egypt, &c. pp. 263. 481, 482.
cake, about half an inch thick, and baked it on dried camels" dung." • Thus, in Gen. xviii. 5. and 1 Sam. xxviii. 22. we read, I will fetch a mor. Irby's and Mangles Travels, p. 172. A similar mode of preparing cakes is sel of BREAD.-Gen. xxi. 14. Abraham took BREAD, and a bottle of water, described by Mr. Rae Wilson. Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. ii. p. and gave it unto Hagar.-Gen. xxxvii. 25. They sat down to EAT BREAD. 156. 3d edition. -Gen. xliii. 31. Joseph said, Set on BREAD.-Exod. ii. 20. Call him that he 19 Boothroyd's translation of the Bible, vol. i. p. 60. may EAT BREAD.-Exod. xvi. 3. We did EAT BREAD to the full.-Deut. ix. 9. 13 Jabn, Archæol. Bibl. 6 143. The Mosaic ordinances respecting clean I neither did EAT BREAD, nor drink water.---1 Sam. xxviii. 20. Saul had and unclean beasts are fully considered by Michaelis, Commentaries EATEX NO BREAD all the day, &c.
vol. ii pp. 219-31.
your worship, display your peculiar and holy character. Let which, though it has the same general meaning as the Heeven your manner of eating be so appropriate, so pure, so brew word, especially signifies palm wine. nicely adjusted by my law, as to convince yourselves and all The patriarchs, like the modern inhabitants of the East, the world, that you are indeed separated from idolaters, and were accustomed to take their meals under the shade of trees. devoted to me alone.” Agreeably to this declaration Moses Thus Abraham stood by the angels under the tree, and they tells the Israelites (Deut. xiv. 3, 3. 31.), The LORD hath did eat. (Gen. xviii. 8.) The ancient Hebrews did not eat chosen you to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the indifferently with all persons; they would have been polluted nations that are upon the earth. Thou shalt not eat any abomi- and dishonoured in their own opinion, by eating with people nable thing. Ye shall not eat any thing that dieth of itself; ye of another religion, or of an odious profession. In Joseph's shall give it to a stranger or sell it to an alien, for ye are a holy time, they neither ate with the Egyptians nor the Egyptians people. In other words, “ Since God has invested you with with them (Gen. xliii. 32.); nor in our Saviour's time with singular honour and favour, you ought to reverence your the Samaritans (John iv. 9.); and the Jews were scandalized selves: you ought to disdain the vile food of heathen idola- at Jesus Christ's eating with publicans and sinners. (Matt. ters. Such food you may lawfully give or sell to foreigners, ix. 11.) As there were several sorts of meats, whose use but a due self-respect forbids you to eat it.” The immediate was prohibited, they could not conveniently eat with those and primary intention of these and other similar regulations who partook of them, fearing some pollution by touching was to break the Israelites of the ill habits to which they had them, or if by accident any part of them should fall upon been accustomed in Egypt, or which they had indulged while them. The ancient Hebrews at their meals had each his in that country; and to keep them for ever distinct from that separate table. When Joseph entertained his brethren in corrupt people, both in principles and practices, and by parity Egypt, he seated each of them at his particular table, and he of reason from all other idolatrous nations. Another reason himself sat down separately from the Egyptians who ate for the distinction was, that, as the Jews were peculiarly with him: but he sent to his brethren, out of the provisions devoted to God, they should be reminded of that relation by which were before him. (Gen. xliii. 31. et seq.). 'Elkanah, a particularity of diet, which should serve emblematically as Samuel's father, who had two wives, distributed their pora sign of their obligation to study moral purity. Further, tions to them separately. (1 Sam. i. 4, 5.). In Homer, each it has been suggested, as a reason for the distinctions be- of the guests has his little table apart; and the master of the tween clean and unclean food, not only that the quality feast distributes meat to each. We are sure that this is still of the food itself is an important consideration (clean animal's practised in China ; and many in India never eat out of the affording a copious and wholesome nutriment, while unclean same dish, nor on the same table, and they believe they cananimals yield a gross nutriment, which is often the occasion not do so without sin; and this, not only in their own country, of scrofulous and scorbutic disorders); but also, that to the but when travelling, and in foreign lands.? The antique eating of certain animals may be ascribed a specific influence manners which we observe in Homer we likewise perceive on the moral temperament."
in Scripture, with regard to eating, drinking, and entertain. Their ordinary beverage was water, which was drawn from ments. We find great plenty, but little delicacy; great the public wells and fountains (John iv. 6, 7.), and which respect and honour paid to the guests by serving them plenwas to be refused to no one. (Matt. xxv. 35.). The water of tifully: thus Joseph sent his brother Benjamin a portion five the Nile, in Egypt, after it has been deposited in jars to times larger than his other brethren ; and "Samuel set a whole settle, all modern travellers attest,2 is singularly delicious as quarter of a calf before Saul. From Neh. viii. 10. 12. and well as extraordinarily wholesome, and is drunk in very large Esth. ix. 19. 22. it appears to have been customary to send a quantities; while that of the few wells, which are found in portion of what remained from their public feasts to those for that country, is not potable, being both unpleasant and insalu- whom nothing was prepared, or who were by any circumbrious. When the modern inhabitants depart thence for any stances prevented from being present at them. The women time, they speak of nothing but the pleasure they shall find did not appear at table in entertainments with the men. This on their return, in drinking the water of the Nile. The would have been then, as it is at this day throughout the knowledge of this circumstance gives a peculiar energy to East, an indecency. Thus Vashti the queen made a feast for those words of Moses, when he denounced to Pharaoh, that the women in the royal house, which belonged to Ahasuerus the waters of the Nile should be turned into blood, even in (Esth. i. 9.), while the Persian monarch was feasting his the very filtering vessels; and that the Egyptians should nobles. loathe to drink of the water of the river. (Exod. vii. 17–19.) In India, feasts are given in the open halls and gardens, That is, they should loathe to drink of that water which they where a variety of strangers are admitted, and much famiused to prefer to all the waters of the universe, and so eagerly liarity is allowed. This easily accounts for a circumstance to long for, and should prefer to drink of well-water, which in the history of Christ which is attended with considerable in their country is so detestable. After the settlement of the difficulty ;—the penitent Mary. coming into the apartment Israelites in Canaan, they drank wine of different sorts, where he was, and anointing his feet with the ointment, and which was preserved in skins. Red wine seems to have been wiping them with the hairs of her head. (Luke vii. 44.) the most esteemed. (Prov. xxiii. 31. Rev. xiv. 20.) In the This familiarity is not only common, but is far from being time of Solomon, spiced wines were used, mingled with the deemed either disrespectful or displeasing:: From the parajuice of the pomegranate. (Song viii. 2.)! When Judæa was bles of the nuptial feast (Matt. xxii. 2—4.) and of the great under the dominion of the Romans, medicated wines (as we supper (Luke xiv. 16, 17.) it appears anciently to have been have seen) were given to those who were to be crucified, in the custom for the parties invited not to go to the entertainorder to blunt the edge of pain, and stun the acuteness of ment until it was announced to be ready. A similar usage sensibility,The strong drink'n' (shecer), mentioned in obtains in modern Persia; when Sir Harford Jones, during Lev. x. 9., and many other passages of Holy Writ, means his political mission thither in 1808-9, dined with the Khan any kind of fermented liquors, whether prepared from corn, of Bushire, the envoy and his suite did not go to the khan's dates, apples, or any other kind of fruits. One of the four residence, until the latter had sent a messenger to say that prohibited drinks among the Mohammedans is called sakur, the entertainment was ready for his reception. From 1 Sam.
xvi. 11. (marginal rendering) and Psal. cxxviii. 3. it should 1 Tappan's Lectures on Heb. Antiq. pp. 260–204. Dr. Harris's Nat. seem that the ancient Hebrews sat down round about a mat Hist, of the Bible, pp. xxxi.-xxxvii
. (American edit.) or pp. xxiv:-xxx. of or low table, cross-legged, in the same manner as is still the London edition. See also the Rev. W. Jones's Zoologia Ethica. practised in the East: afterwards, however, they imitated
* See particularly Betzoni's Researches in Egypt, p. 325. 4to. edit. Tur the Persians and Chaldæans, who reclined on table-beds while ner's Tour in the Levant, vol. ii. p. 511. and Dr. Richardson's Travels eating; some traces of which are observable in the Book of
• İlarmer's Observations, vol. iii. pp, 561–566. See also a Narrative of Proverbs (xxiii. 1.), in Amos (vi. 4.7.), Ezekiel (xxiii. 41,), the Pacha of Egypt's Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar, by an American, and Tobit (ii. 4.); but this practice was not general. We pp. 150, 151. (London, 1822. 8vo.)
see expressions in the sacred authors of those times, which ** Spiced wines were not peculiar to the Jews. The celebrated Persian poet, llafiz, speaks of wine-"richly biiter, richly sweet." The Romans prove that they also sat at table. At Ahasuerus’s banquet lined their vessels (amphora) with odorous gums, to give the wine a warı bitter Navour; and it is said that the Poles and Spaniards adopt a similar & C. B. Michaelis, Dissertatio Philologica naturalia quædam et artificilia method, in order to impart to their wines a favourite relish. (Odes of codicis sacri ex Alcorano illustrans, $ 12. In Pott's and Ruperti's Sylloge Hafiz, translated by Noti, p. 30. note.) The juice of the pomegranate tree is Commentationen Theologicarum, tom. ii. pp. 43, 50. often employed
in the East, to give a pleasant sub-acid flavour to a variety 1 See examples in Ward's View of the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. of beverages; and where the laws of the Koran are not allowed to inter- ii. p. 315. Renaudot, Notes sur le Voyage des deux Arabes à la Chine, pose, or their prohibitions are disregarded, a delicious wine is frequently pp. 123, 124. inanufactured from this juice alone. Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. pp. 8 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii. pp. 183. 190. 145, 146.
: Morier's Journey through Persia in the Years 1808-9, p. 73. London, See p. 71. of this volume,
Esth. i. 6.) the company lay on beds, and also at that which receive guests. (Gen. xix. 1.) When the inhabitants of SoEsther gave the king and Haman. (Ésth. vii. 8.) Our Sa- dom meant to insult his guests he went out, he spoke to viour in like manner reclined at table (as already described them, he exposed himself to their fury, and offered rather to in p. 154.), when Mary Magdalene anointed his feet with give up his own daughters to their brutality than his guests. perfume (Matt. xxvi. 7.), and when John, at the last supper, Gen. xix. 5—9.) The same is observable in the old man rested his head on his bosom. (John xiii. 25.). Previously of Gibeah, who had received the young Levite and his wife. to taking food, it was usual to implore the divine blessing, (Judg. xix. 16, 17.) St. Paul (Heb. xiii. 2.), uses Abraas we see by the example of Samuel, which is alluded to in ham's and Lot's example to encourage the faithful to the 1 Sam. ix. 13.; and it should seem from 1 Tim. iv. 4. that exercise of hospitality, saying, that they who have practised the same laudable practice obtained in the time of the apostle it have merited the honour of receiving angels under the form Paul.
of men. In the East, on account of the intense heat of the The modern Jews, before they sit down to table, after the weather during summer, they were accustomed to travel by example of their ancestors, carefully wash their hands. They night. The circumstance will explain the parable of the imspeak of this ceremony as being essential and obligatory. portunate guest who arrived at midnight (Luke xi, 5–8.); After meals they wash them again. When they sit down to in which the rites of hospitality, common among the Orientable, the master of the house, or chief person in the company, tals, are generally recognised and supposed to be acted upon, taking bread, breaks it, but does not divide it; then putting his though not in so prompt a manner as was usual.s hand on it, he recites this blessing: Blessed be thou, O Lord The primitive Christians made one principal part of their our God, the king of the world, who producest the bread of the duty to consist in the exercise of hospitality. Our Saviour earth. Those present answer, Amen. Having distributed tells his apostles, that whoever received them received himthe bread among the guests, he takes the vessel of the wine self; and that whosoever should give them even a glass of in his right hand, saying, Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, water, should not lose his reward. (Matt. xxv. 41. 45.) At king of the world, who hast produced the fruit of the vine. the day of judgment, he will say to the wicked, Depárt, ye They then repeat the 23d Psalm. They take care, that after cursed, into everlasting fire: I was a stranger, and ye received meals there shall be a piece of bread remaining on the table: me not; ..... inasmuch as ye have not done it unto the least the master of the house orders a glass to be washed, fills it of these, ye have not done it unto me. St. Peter (1 Eph. iv. 9.) with wine, and elevating it, says, Let us bless him of whose requires the faithful to use hospitality to their brethren withbenefits we have been partaking; the rest answer, Blessed out murmuring and complaint. St. Paul in several of his be he, who has heaped his favours on us, and by his good- Epistles recommends hospitality, and especially to bishops. ness has now fed us. Then he recites a pretty long prayer, (1 Tim. iii. 2. Tit. i. 8.). The primitive Christians were so wherein he thanks God for his many benefits vouchsafed to ready in the discharge of this duty that the very heathens adIsrael: beseeches him to pity Jerusalem and his temple, to mired them for it. They were hospitable to all strangers, restore the throne of David, to send Elias and the Messiah, but especially to those of the same faith and communion. to deliver them out of their_long captivity. All present Believers scarcely ever travelled without letters of recomanswer, Amen. They recite Psal. xxxiv. 9, 10.; and then, mendation, which testified the purity of their faith ; and this after passing the glass with a little wine in it round to those procured them a hospitable reception wherever the name of present, he drinks what is left, and the table is cleared.2 Jesus Christ was known. Calmet is of opinion, that the two
V. When persons journeyed, they provided themselves last Epistles of St. John may be such kind of letters of comwith every necessary, as there were no inns for the reception munion and recommendation as were given to Christians who of travellers. Women and rich men frequently travelled on travelled. asses or camels, which carried not only their merchandise, Instances of hospitality among the early Greeks abound in but also their household goods and chattels, and queens were the writings of Homer, whose delineations of manners and carried in palanquins (Cant. iii. 7.) ;; and it appears that the customs reflect so much light on the Old Testament, espeJews often travelled in caravans or companies (as the inhabi- cially on the Pentateuch; and that ancient hospitality, which tants of the East do to this day), especially when they went the Greeks considered as so sacred and inviolable, is still parup to Jerusalem at the three great annual festivals. The tially preserved. When the traveller makes a second tour Psalms of Ascensions, or of Degrees, as they are commonly through the country, he can hardly do any thing more offenentitled (cxx.—cxxxiv.), are supposed to have received this sive to the person by whom he was entertained in his first appellation from the circumstance of their being sung by the journey, than by not again having recourse to the kindness more devout Jews, when they were ascending or travelling of his former host. Travelling would, indeed, be impractiup to the Holy City on these occasions. The company, cable in Greece, if it were not facilitated by this noble sentiamong which Joseph and Mary supposed Jesus to have been ment; for the Protogerio are not found in all parts of the on their return from the passover, when he was twelve years country, and the miserable khans or caravansaries are geneold (Luke ii. 42–44.), was one of these caravans. The rally constructed only in towns or on highways. Ceylonese travel in a similar way 'at festivals to particular Travelling, in the greater part of Greece, seems to have places of worship.5
been, anciently at least, as difficult as it is at the present day; VI. In the East, anciently, as well as in modern times, and that circumstance gave rise to the laws of hospitality. there were no inns, in which the traveller could meet with This reciprocal hospitality became hereditary, in families refreshment. Shade from the sun, and protection from the even of different nations; and the friendship which was thus plunderers of the night, is all that the caravansaries afford. contracted was not less binding than the ties of affinity, or Hence hospitality was deemed a sacred duty incumbent upon of blood. Those between whom a regard had been cemented every one. The Sacred Writings exhibit several instances by the intercourse of hospitality were provided with some of hospitality exercised by the patriarchs, and the writings particular mark, which, being handed down from father to of modern travellers show that similar hospitality still exists son, established a friendship and alliance between the famiin the East. Abraham received three angels, invited them, lies for several generations; and the engagement thus entered served them himself, and stood in their presence ; Sarah his into could not be dispensed with, unless publicly disavowed wife took care of the kitchen, and baked bread for his guests. in a judicial manner, nothing being considered so base as a (Gen. xviii. 2, 3, &c.) Lot waited at the city.gates to 1 See Buxtorf's Synag. and Leo of Modena, part ii. c. 10.
the hospitable conduct of Abraham, related in Gen. xviii. "When we • Calmet's Dissertations, tom. i. pp. 312-330.
alighted at his tent-door, our horses were taken from us by his son, a
young man well dressed in a scarlet cloth benish and a shawl of silk for a 3 In our cominon version Top (Matah) is rendered bed. Mr. Harmeriurban. The sheik, his father, was sitting beneath the awning in front of first suggested that a palanquin was intended; and he has been followed the tent itself; and, when we entered, rose up to receive us, exchanging by Dr. Good in his version of Solomon's Song: The mode of travelling or the salute
of welcome, and not seating himself until all his guests were taking the air in a couch, litter, or vehicle of this naine, supported on the accommodated." "Soon afterwards, warm cakes prepared on the shoulders of slaves or servants, is extremely common all over the East at hearth, cream, honey, dried raisins, butter, lebben, and wheat boiled the present day, and is unquestionably of immemorial date. These palan in milk, were served to the company. Neither the sheik himself nor quins are often of most elegant and superb manufacture, as well as most any of his family partook with us, but stood around to wait upon their voluptuously
soft and easy of this description was the conch or palan- guests.” Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. pp. 30. 32. (8vo. quin
of Solomon. Good's translation of the song of Solomon, p. 103. edit.) • See the various passages of Harmer's Observations, referred to in his & Captains Irby and Mangles on two occasions partook of Arab hospi. Index, article Cararans. Ward's History of the Hindous, vol. ii. p. 338. tality, in a manner which strikingly illustrates the parable above cited Fragments supplementary to Calmet, No. I.
"We arrived at a camp late at night ; and, halting before a tent, found the > Callaway's Oriental Observations, p. 74.
owner, with his wife and children, had just retired to rest : when it was • See Light's Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 82. Mr. Belzoni's Researches in astonishing to see the good humour with which they
all arose again, and Egypt, p. 61. Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, pp. 24. 295.
kindled a fire, the wife commencing to knead the dough and prepare our Mr. Buckingham has described an interesting trait of oriental hospi- supper, our Arabs making no apology, but taking all as a matter of course, tality in an Arab sheik of Barak, the chief of a Turcoman tribe dwelling though the nights were bitterly
cold." Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, &c. la the vicinity of Aleppo, on the plain of Barak, which is very timilar to 1 p. 278
violation of it. This mark was the cou@cace Çevexcr of the privileges of them, besides the person for whom they were Greeks, and the tessera hospitalis of the Latins. "The oupeberov intended, this circumstance gives a beautiful and natural exwas sometimes an astragal, probably of lead, which being planation of the following passage in Rev. ii. 17. where it is cut in halves, one half was kept by the host, and the other said, To him that overcometh, will I give a white stone, and in by the person whom he had entertained. On subsequent the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth, saving occasions they or their descendants, by whom the symbol he that receiveth it. In this passage the venerable translators was recognised, gave or received hospitality on comparing of our authorized version, by rendering it a white stone, seem the two tallies. Mr. Dodwell found some half astragals of to have confounded it with the calculus or small globular stone, lead in Greece, which had probably served for this pur- which was commonly used for balloting, and on some other pose. 3
occasions. The original words are fnpov EuXCV, which do not The ancient Romans divided a tessera lengthwise, into two specify either the matter or the form, but only the use of it. equal parts, as signs of hospitality, upon each of which one By this allusion, therefore, the promise made to the church of the parties wrote his name, and interchanged it with the at Pergamos seems to be to this purpose : "To him that other. The production of this, when they travelled, gave a overcometh, will I give a pledge of my affection, which shall mutual claim to the contracting parties and their descendants, constitute him my friend, and entitle him to privileges and for reception and kind treatment at each other's houses, as honours, of which none else can know the value or extent.” occasion offered. These tesseræ were sometimes of stone, And to this sense the following words very well agree, which shaped in the form of an oblong square; and as they were describe this stone or tessera, as having in it a new name carefully and privately kept, so that no one might claim the written, which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it.4
ON THE OCCUPATIONS, LITERATURE, STUDIES, AND SCIENCES OF THE HEBREWS.
RURAL AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE JEWS.
I. MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE by the Jews.—Various Animals reared by them.—II. Laws of Moses respecting AGRICULTURE.
III. Manures known and used by the Jews.-IV. Their Mode of ploughing, sowing, and reaping.–V. Different Ways of threshing out Corn.-VI. Vineyards, and the Culture of the Vine and Olive.-Gardens.-VII. Allusions in the Scriptures to the rural and domestic Economy of the Jews. JUDÆA was eminently an agricultural country; and all the xiii. 6.); and strifes between the different villagers and herdsMosaic statutes were admirably calculated to encourage agri- men of Syria still exist, as well as in the days of those paculture as the chief foundation of national prosperity, and also triarchs.s Jacob, also, must have had a great number, since to preserve the Jews detached from the surrounding idolatrous he could afford a present to his brother Esau of five hundred nations.
and eighty head of cattle. (Gen. xxxii. 13—17.). It was 1. After they had acquired possession of the promised
• Ward's Dissertations upon several
passages of the Sacred Scriptures, land, the Jews applied themselves wholly to agriculture and pp. 229-232. London, 1759. Svo. Dr. T. M. Harris's Dissertation on the the tending of cattle, following the example of their ances- Tessera Hospitalis of the Ancient
Romans, annexed to his Discourses on tors, the patriarchs, who (like the Arabs, Bedouins, Turco (Massachusetts), Anno Lucis 5801. This writer has also given several mans, and numerous tribes of eastern Asia) were generally proofs of the prevalence of a similar practice among the ancient
Chrishusbandmen and shepherds, and whose chief riches consisted lians, who
carried the tessera with them in their
travels as an introduction in cattle, slaves, and the fruits of the earth. Adam brought wards, heretics, to enjoy those privileges, counterfeited the tessera. The sup his two sons to husbandry, Cain to the tilling of the Christians then altered the inscription. This was frequently done till the ground, and Abel to the feeding of sheep. (Gen. iv. 2.) Jabal Nicene Council gave their sanction to those marked with the initials of the was a grazier of cattle, of whom it is said, that he was the words lxTapipos, Agios Ilisuus; which B. Hildebrand calls Tessere father of such as dwell in tents (ver. 20.),
that is, he travelled i. p. 325. Amst. 1743), feigned himself a Christian, that he might not only with his cattle from place to place, and for that end invented be clothed and fed by the Christians, but also be assisted on his travels, the use of tents, which he carried with him for shelter. and enriched by their generosity; but his artifice was detected and ex After the Deluge, Noah resumed his agricultural labours, evangelization, answered all the purposes, and saved all the trouble, of which had been interrupted by that catastrophe. (Gen. ix. formal written certificates, and introductory letters of recommendation. 20.) The chief wealth of the
patriarchs consisted in cattle. The danger of its being used by impostors, as in the case of Peregrinus, (Gen. xiii. 2. compared with Job i. 3.) Abraham and Lot produce it but upon special occasions. Notwithstanding the simplicity of must have had vast herds of cattle, when they were obliged this method, it continued in use until the time of Burchardis, archbishop to separate because the land could not contain them (Gen. charge. (Harris's Sermons, &c. pp. 319, 320.)
1 The astragal was a bone of the hinder feet of cloven-footed animals. 5 Richardson's Travels along the Mediterranean, vol. ii. p. 196. Plin. Nat. Hist. b. xi. cc. 45, 46.
6 The following description of the reinoval of an Arab horde will afford] Jacobi Nicholai Loensis Miscell. Epiphill. p. 4. c. 19. Samuelis Petiti the reader a lively idea of the primitive manners of the patriarchs :-"It Miscel. b. 2. c. i. Note on v, 613. Euripid. Medea, ZsVoss TE TELTELY
was entertaining enough to see the horde of Arabs decamp, as nothing συμβολ', οι δρασoυσι σ' ευ.
could be more regular. First went the sheep and goat-herds, each with : Mr. Dodwell's Classical Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 519. Plautus, in his their flocks in divisions, according as the chief of each family directed; play called Pænulus (act 5. sc. 2.), represents Hanno, the Carthaginian, as then followed the camels and asses, loaded with the tents,
furniture, and retaining a symbol of hospitality reciprocally with Antidamas of Calydon; kitchen utensils; these were followed by the old nien, women, boys, and but Antidamas being dead, he addresses himself to his son Agorastocles, girls, on foot. The children that cannot walk are carried on the backs of and says,
the young women, or the boys and girls; and the smallest of the lambs and “Si ita est, tesseram
kids are carried under the arms of the children. To each tent belong Conferre, si vis, hospitalem-eccam attuli.”
many dogs, among which are some greyhounds; some tents have from
ten to fourteen dogs, and from twenty to thirty men, women, and children, Agorastocles answers :
belonging to them. The procession is closed by the chief of the tribe, whom "Agedum hoc estende, est par probe, nam habeo domum." they called Emir and Father (enir means prince), mounted on the very best To which Hanno :
horse, and surrounded by the heads of each family, all on horses, with
many servants on foot. Between each family is a division or space of one "O mi hospes, salve multum, nam mihi tuus pater
hundred yards, or more, when they migrate; and such great regularity is Pater tuus ergo hospes Antidamas fuit ;
observed, that neither camels, asses, sheep, nor dogs, mix, but each keeps Hæc mihi hospitalis tessera cum illo fuit.”
to the division to which it belongs without the least trouble. They had Agorastocles proceeds :
been here eight days, and were going four hours' journey to the north“Ergo bic apud me hospitium tibi præbebitur.”
west, to another spring of water. This tribe consisted of about eight
hundred and fifty men, women, and children. Their flocks of sheep and "If this be the case, here is the tally of hospitality, which I have goats were about five thousand, besides a great number of camels, horses, brought; compare it if you please.-Show it me; it is indeed the tally to and asses. Horses and greyhounds they breed and train up for sale : they that which I have at home ;-My dear host, you are heartily welcome: for neither kill nor sell their ewe lambs. At set times a chapter in the Koran your father Antidamas was my host : this was the token of hospitality be. is read by the chief of each
family, either in or near each tent, the whole iween him and me; and you shall, therefore, be kindly received in my family being gathered round and very attentive." Parson's Travels from house." Ibid. p. 520.
Aleppo to Bagdad, pp. 109, 110. London, 1808. 4to.