saida, Gadara, Gerasa, Geshur, and Jabesh-Gilead. This tribe was greatly indebted to the bravery of Jair, who took threescore cities, besides several small towns or villages, which he called Havoth-Jair, or the Dwellings of Jair. (1 Chron. ii. 23. Num. xxxii. 41.)

The remaining nine tribes and a half were settled on the western side of the Jordan.

The canton of the tribe of JUDAH was bounded on the east by the Dead Sea; on the west, by the tribes of Dan and Simeon, both of which lay between it and the Mediterranean Sea; on the north, by the canton of the tribe of Benjamin; and on the south, by Kadesh-Barnea, and the Desert of Paran or Zin. Judah was reckoned to be the largest and most populous of all the twelve tribes; and its inhabitants were the most valiant; it was also the chief and royal tribe, from which, in subsequent times, the whole kingdom was denominated. The most remarkable places or cities in this tribe were Adullam, Azekah, Bethlehem, Bethzor, Debir or Kiriath-sepher, Emmaus, Engedi, Kiriatharba or Hebron, Libnah, Makkedah, Maon, Massada, Tekoah, and Ziph.

The inheritance of the tribes of DAN and of SIMEON was within the inheritance of the tribe of Judah, or was taken out of the portion at first allotted to the latter. The boundaries of these two tribes are not precisely ascertained; though they are placed by geographers to the north and south-west of the canton of Judah, and consequently bordered on the Mediterranean Sea. The principal cities in the tribe of Dan, were Ajalon, Dan or Lesham, Eltekeh, Eshtaol, Gath-rimmon, Gibbethon, Hirshemesh, Joppa, Modin, Timnath, and Zorah. The chief cities in the tribe of Simeon, were Ain, Beersheba, Hormah, and Ziklag.

The canton allotted to the tribe of BENJAMIN lay between the tribes of Judah and Joseph, contiguous to Samaria on the north, to Judah on the south, and to Dan on the west, which last parted it from the Mediterranean. It did not contain many cities and towns, but this defect was abundantly supplied by its possessing the most considerable, and the metropolis of all the city of Jerusalem. The other places of note in this tribe were Anathoth, Beth-el, Gibeah, Gibeon, Gilgal, Hai, Mizpeh, Ophrah, and Jericho.

names of their respective presidents, are enumerated in 1 Kings iv. 7-19. From the produce of these districts every one of these officers was to supply the king with provisions for his household, in his turn, that is, each for one month in the year. The dominions of Solomon extended from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt, they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life. (1 Kings iv. 21.) Hence it appears that the Hebrew monarch reigned over all the provinces from the river Euphrates to the land of the Philistines, even to the frontiers of Egypt. The Euphrates was the eastern boundary of his dominions; the Philistines were westward, on the Meditterranean Sea; and Egypt was on the south. Solomon therefore had, as his tributaries, the kingdoms of Syria, Damascus, Moab, and Ammon; and thus he appears to have possessed all the land which God had covenanted with Abraham to give to his posterity.

VI. Under this division the Holy Land continued till after the death of Solomon, when ten tribes revolted from his son Rehoboam, and erected themselves into a separate kingdom under Jeroboam, called the KINGDOM OF ISRAEL. The two other tribes of Benjamin and Judah, continuing faithful to Rehoboam, formed the KINGDOM OF JUDAH. This kingdom comprised all the southern parts of the land, consisting of the allotments of those two tribes, together with so much of the territories of Dan and Simeon as were intermixed with that of Judah: its royal city or metropolis was Jerusalem, in the tribe of Benjamín. The kingdom of Israel included all the northern and middle parts of the land, occupied by the other ten tribes; and its capital was Samaria, in the tribe of Ephraim, situated about thirty miles north-east of Jerusalem. But this division ceased, on the subversion of the kingdom of Israel by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, after it had subsisted two hundred and fifty-four years.

VII. The Holy Land fell successively into the hands of the Syrian kings, the Greeks and Romans. IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST it was divided into five separate provinces, viz. Galilee, Samaria, Judæa, Peræa, and Idumæa.

1. GALILEE. This portion of the Holy Land is very frequently mentioned in the New Testament: its limits seem to have varied at different times. It comprised the country formerly occupied by the tribes of Issachar, Naphtali, and Asher, and by part of the tribe of Dan; and is divided by Josephus into Upper and Lower Galilee.

Upper Galilee abounded in mountains; and from its vicinity to the cities of Tyre and Sidon, it is called the Coasts of Tyre and Sidon. (Mark vii. 31.) The principal city in this region was Cæsarea Philippi; through which the main road lay to Damascus, Tyre, and Sidon.

To the north of the canton of Benjamin lay that allotted to the tribe of EPHRAIM, and that of the other HALF TRIBE OF MANASSEH. The boundaries of these two districts cannot be ascertained with precision. The chief places in Ephraim, were Bethoron the Nether and Upper, Gezer, Lydda, Michmash, Naioth, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh, and TimnathSerah. After the schism of the ten tribes, the seat of the kingdom of Israel being in Ephraim, this tribe is frequently used to signify the whole kingdom. The chief places in the half tribe of Manasseh, were Abel-meholath, Bethabara, Bethsham (afterwards called Scythopolis), Bezek, Endor, Enon, Gath-timmon, Megiddo, Salim, Ophrah, and Tirzah. To the north, and more particularly to the north-east of the half tribe of Manasseh, lay the canton of ISSACHAR, which was bordered by the celebrated plain of Jezreel, and its northern boundary was Mount Tabor. The chief cities of Issachar, were Aphek, Bethshemesh, Dothan, Kishon, Jez-mais. reel, Naim or Nain, Ramoth, and Shunem.

On the north and west of Issachar resided the tribe of ZEBULUN. Its chief places were Bethlehem, Cinnereth or Chinnereth, Gath-hepher, Jokneam, Remmon-Methoar, and Shimroncheron.

Lower Galilee was situated in a rich and fertile plain, between the Mediteranean Sea and the Lake of Gennesareth: according to Josephus, this district was very populous, containing upwards of two hundred cities and towns. The principal cities of Lower Galilee, mentioned in the New Testament, are Tiberias, Chorazin, Bethsaida, Nazareth, Cana, Capernaum, Nain, Cæsarea of Palestine, and Ptole

Galilee was most honoured by our Saviour's presence. "Hither Joseph and Mary returned with him out of Egypt, and here he resided until his baptism by John. (Matt. ii. 22, 23. Luke ii. 39-51. Matt. iii. 13. Luke iii. 21.) Hither he returned after his baptism and temptation (Luke iv. 14.): and, The tribe of ASHER was stationed in the district to the after his entrance on his public ministry, though he often north of the half tribe of Manasseh, and west of Zebulun; went into other provinces, yet so frequent were his visits to consequently it was a maritime country. Hence it was said this country, that he was called a Galilean. (Matt. xxvi. 69.) (Judg. v. 17.) that Asher continued on the sea-shore, and abode The population of Galilee being very great, our Lord had in his creeks. Its northern boundary was Mount Libanus or many opportunities of doing good; and being out of the Lebanon; and on the south it was bounded by Mount Car-power of the priests at Jerusalem, he seems to have preferred mel, and the canton of Issachar. Its principal cities were it as his abode. To this province our Lord commanded his Abdon, Achshaph, Helkath, Mishal, and Rehob. This tribe apostles to come and converse with him after his resurrection never possessed the whole extent of district assigned to it, (Matt. xxviii. 7. 16.): and of this country most, if not the which was to reach to Libanus, to Syria, and Phoenicia, and whole, of his apostles were natives, whence they are all styled included the celebrated cities of Tyre and Sidon. by the angels men of Galilee." (Acts i. 11.)

Lastly, the tribe of NAPHTALI or Nephtali occupied that district in the northern part of the land of Canaan, which lay between Mount Lebanon to the north, and the sea of Cinnereth (or Gennesareth) to the south, and between Asher to the west, and the river Jordan to the east. Its chief places were Abel or Abel-Beth-Maachanathaim. Hammoth-dor, Harosheth of the Gentiles, Kedesh, and

The Galileans spoke an unpolished and corrupt dialect of the Syriac, confounding and using y (ain) or (aleph), > (caph) for (beth), n (tau) for (daleth); and also frequently changed the gutturals. This probably proceeded from their great communication and intermixture with the neighbouring nations. It was this corrupt dialect that led to the

V. The next remarkable division was made by king SOLO- 1 Well's Geography of the Old and New Testament, vol. ii. p. 137. MON, who divided the kingdom, which he had received from 2 Dr. Lightfoot, to whom we are indebted for the above remark, has his father David, into twelve provinces or districts, each un-given several instances in Hebrew and English, which are sufficiently amus ing. One of these is as follows: A certain woman intended to say before der a peculiar officer. These districts, together with the the judge, My Lord, I had a picture, which they stole; and it was so great VOL. II.


which afforded shelter to numerous thieves and robbers.
(3.) ITURA anciently belonged to the half tribe of Ma-
nasseh, who settled on the east of Jordan: it stood to the east
of Batanæa and to the south of Trachonitis. Of these two
cantons Philip the son of Herod the Great was tetrarch at
the time John the Baptist commenced his ministry. (Luke
iii. 1.) It derived its name from Jetur the son of Ishmael
(1 Chron. i. 31.), and was also called Auranitis from the city
of Hauran. (Ezek. xlvii. 16. 18.) This region exhibits ves-
tiges of its former fertility, and is most beautifully wooded
and picturesque. The Ituræans are said to have been skil
ful archers and dexterous robbers.

detection of Peter as one of Christ's disciples. (Mark xiv. | country of Damascus on the north. It abounded with rocks, 70.) The Galileans are repeatedly mentioned by Josephus as a turbulent and rebellious people, and upon all occasions ready to disturb the Roman authority. They were particularly forward in an insurrection against Pilate himself, who proceeded to a summary mode of punishment, causing a party of them to be treacherously slain, during one of the great festivals, when they came to sacrifice at Jerusalem. This character of the Galileans explains the expression in St. Luke's Gospel (xiii. 1.), whose blood Pilate mingled with their sacrifices; and also accounts for his abrupt question, when he heard of Galilee, and asked if Jesus were a Galilean? (Luke xxiii. 6.) Our Redeemer was accused before him of seditious practices, and of exciting the people to revolt; when, therefore, it was stated, among other things, that he had been in Galilee, Pilate caught at the observation, and inquired if he were a Galilean; having been prejudiced against the inhabitants of that district by their frequent commotions, and being on this account the more ready to receive any (5.) BATANEA, the ancient kingdom of Bashan, was situat charge which might be brought against any one of that ob-ed to the north-east of Gaulonitis, and was celebrated for its noxious community.2 excellent breed of cattle, its rich pastures, and for its stately oaks: the precise limits of this district are not easy to be defined. A part of it is now called the Belka, and affords the finest pasturage, being every where shaded with groves of noble oaks and pistachio trees. It was part of the territory given to Herod Antipas, and is not noticed in the New Tes tament.

Galilee of the Nations, or of the Gentiles, mentioned in Isa. ix. 1. and Matt. iv. 15., is by some commentators supposed to be Upper Galilee, either because it bordered on Tyre and Sidon, or because the Phoenicians, Syrians, Arabs, &c. were to be found among its inhabitants. Others, however, with better reason, suppose that the whole of Galilee is intended, and is so called, because it lay adjacent to idolatrous nations.3

(4.) GAULONITIS was a tract on the east side of the lake of Gennesareth and the river Jordan, which derived its name from Gaulan or Golan the city of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. xx. 8.) This canton is not mentioned in the New Testament.

(6.) PEREA, in its restricted sense, includes the southern part of the country beyond Jordan, lying south of Ituræa, east of Judæa and Samaria; and was anciently possessed by the two tribes of Reuben and Gad. Its principal place was the strong fortress of Macharus, erected for the purpose of checking the predatory incursions of the Arabs. This fortress, though not specified by name in the New Testament, is memorable as the place where John the Baptist was put to death. (Matt. xiv. 3-12.)

2. SAMARIA. The division of the Holy Land thus denominated, derives its name from the city of Samaria, and comprises the tract of country which was originally occupied by the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh within Jordan, lying exactly in the middle between Judæa and Galilee; so that it was absolutely necessary for persons who were desirous of going expeditiously from Galilee to Jerusalem, to pass through this country. This sufficiently explains the remark of St. John (iv. 4.), which is strikingly confirmed by Josephus.4 The three chief places of this district, noticed in the Scriptures, are Samaria, Sichem, or Schechem, and Anti-ities as part of the region of Peræa. Concerning its limits, patris.

3. JUDEA. Of the various districts, into which Palestine was divided, Judea was the most distinguished. It comprised the territories which had formerly belonged to the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, and to part of the tribe of Dan; being nearly coextensive with the ancient kingdom of Judah. Its metropolis was JERUSALEM and of the other towns or villages of note contained in this region, the most remarkable were Arimathea, Azotus or Ashdod, Bethany, Bethlehem, Bethphage, Emmaus, Ephraim, Gaza, Jericho, Joppa, Lydda, and Rama.

4. The district of PEREA comprised the six cantons of Abilene, Trachonitis, Ituræa, Gaulonitis, Batanæa, and Peræa, strictly so called, to which some geographers have added Decapolis.

(1.) ABILENE was the most northern of these provinces, being situated between the mountains of Libanus and AntiLibanus, and deriving its name from the city Abila, or Abela. It is supposed to have been within the borders of the tribe of Naphtali, although it was never subdued by them. This canton or territory had formerly been governed as a kingdom (Baam) by a certain Lysanias, the son of Ptolemy and grandson of Mennæus; but he being put to death B. c. 36, through the intrigues of Cleopatra, Augustus placed over it another Lysanias, a descendant (as it appears) of the former, with the title of tetrarch. (Luke iii. 1.) The emperor Claudius afterwards made a present of this district to king Agrippa, or at least confirmed him in the possession of it.

(2.) TRACHONITIS was bounded by the Desert Arabia on the east, Batanæa on the west, Ituraa on the south, and the that if you had been placed in it, your feet would not have touched the ground. But she so spoiled the business with her pronunciation, that, as the glosser interprets it, her words had this sense-Sir, slave, I had a beam, and they stole thee away; and it was so great, that if they had hung thee on it, thy feet would not have touched the ground. Lightfoot's Chorographical Century of the Land of Israel, ch. Ixxxvii. (Works, vol. ii. p. 79.) See additional examples in Buxtorf's Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum et Rabbinicum, p. 434.

Josephus, Antiq. book xviii. c. 3. § 2. and Mr. Whiston's note there. In another place. (book xvii. c. 10 § 2.), after describing a popular tumult, he says, A great number of these were GALILEANS and Idumæans.

2 Gilly's Spirit of the Gospel, or the Four Evangelists elucidated, p. 328. Kuinöel in loc. Robinson's Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament, voce г.

Antiq. book xx. c. 5. § 1. De Bell. Jud. oook ii. c. 12. § 3.

(7.) The canton of DECAPOLIS (Matt. iv. 25. Mark v. 20. and vii. 31.), which derives its name from the ten cities it contained, is considered by Reland and other eminent author

and the names of its ten cities, geographers are by no means agreed; but, according to Josephus (whose intimate knowledge of the country constitutes him an unexceptionable authority), it contained the cities of Damascus, Otopos, Philadelphia, Raphana, Scythopolis (the capital of the district), Gadara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, and Gerasa.

5. IDUMEA. This province was added by the Romans, on their conquest of Palestine. It comprised the extreme southern part of Judæa, together with some small part of Arabia.7 During the Babylonish captivity, being left destitute of inhabitants, or not sufficiently inhabited by its natives, it seems to have been seized by the neighbouring Idumæans; and though they were afterwards subjugated by the powerful arms of the Maccabees and Asmonaan princes, and embraced Judaism, yet the tract of country, of which they had thus possessed themselves, continued to retain the appellation of Idumæa in the time of Christ, and, indeed, for a considerable subsequent period. Ultimately the Idumæans became mingled with the Ishmaelites, and they were jointly called Nabathæans, from Nebaioth, a son of Ishmael.s

VIII. Of the whole country thus described, JERUSALEM was the metropolis during the reigns of David and Solomon: after the secession of the ten tribes, it was the capital of the kingdom of Judah, but during the time of Christ and until the subversion of the Jewish polity, it was the me. tropolis of Palestine.

1. Jerusalem is frequently styled in the Scriptures the Holy City (Isa. xlviii. 2. Dan. ix. 24. Neh. xi. 1. Matt. iv 5. Rev. xi. 2.), because the Lord chose it out of all the tribes of Israel to place his name there, his temple and his worship

6 Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. 408, 409. London, 1821. 4to. Mr. Burckhardt, who visited this region in the years 1810 and 1812, has described its present state, together with the various antiquities which still remain. See his Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, pp. 51-119. 211-310. London, 1822. 4to.

For a copious and interesting illustration of the fulfilment of prophecy concerning Idumæa, from the statements of modern travellers, see Mr Keith's Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion from Prophecy, pp. 172-220.

8 Besides the authorities incidentally cited in the preceding pages, the following works have been consulted for this chapter, viz. Relandi Palæstina, tom. i. pp. 1-204. (Traj. ad Rhen. 1714); Ancient Universal History, vol. ii. pp. 452-465.476-486. (Lond. 1748); Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Novi Testamenti, pp. 497-518.; Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introduction to the New Testament (Bp. Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, vol. 52.; Spanhemii Introductio ad Geographiam Sacram, pp. 1–81."

Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiv. c. 13. xv. c. 4. xix. c. 5. Bell. Jud. lib. i. iii. pp. 262-278.); Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica breviter descripta, pp. 44c. 13.

(Deut. xii. 5. XIV. 23. xvi. 2. xxvi. 2.); and to be the centre of union in religion and government for all the tribes of the commonwealth of Israel. It is held in the highest veneration by Christians for the miraculous and important transactions which happened there, and also by the Mohammedans, who to this day never call it by any other appellation than ElKods, or El Khoudes, that is, The Holy, sometimes adding the epithet Al-Sherif, or The Noble. The most ancient name of the city was Salem, or Peace (Gen. xiv. 18.): the import of Jerusalem is, the vision or inheritance of peace, and to this it is not improbable that our Saviour alluded in his beautiful and pathetic lamentation over the city. (Luke xix. 41.) It was also formerly called Jebus from one of the sons of Canaan. (Josh. xviii. 28.) After its capture by Joshua (Josh. x.) it was jointly inhabited both by Jews and Jebusites (Josh. xv. 63.) for about five hundred years, until the time of David; who having expelled the Jebusites, made it his residence (2 Sam. v. 6-9.), and erected a noble palace there, together with several other magnificent buildings, whence it is sometimes styled the City of David (1 Chron. xi. 5.) By the prophet Isaíah (xxix. 1.) Jerusalem is termed Ariel, or the Lion of God; but the reason of this name, and its meaning, as applied to Jerusalem, is very obscure and doubtful. It may possibly signify the strength of the place, by which the inhabitants were enabled to resist and overcome their enemies; in the same manner as the Persians term one of their cities Shiraz, or the Devouring Lion. Being situated on the confines of the two tribes of Benjamin and Judah, Jerusalem sometimes formed a part of the one, and sometimes of the other; but, after Jehovah had appointed it to be the place of his habitation and temple, it was considered as the metropolis of the Jewish nation, and the common property of the children of Israel. On this account it was, that the houses were not let, and all strangers of the Jewish nation had the liberty of lodging there gratis, by right of hospitality. To this custom our Lord probably alludes in Matt. xxvi. 18. and the parallel passages.

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2. The name of the whole mountain, on the several hills and hollows of which the city stood, was called MORIAH, or vision; because it was high land, and could be seen afar off, especially from the south (Gen. xxii. 2-4.); but afterwards that name was appropriated to the most elevated part on which the temple was erected, and where Jehovah appeared to David. (2 Chron. iii. 1. 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 17.) This mountain is a rocky limestone hill, steep of ascent on every side, except the north; and is surrounded on the other sides by a group of hills, in the form of an amphitheatre (Psal. 2.), which situation rendered it secure from the earthquakes that appear to have been frequent in the Holy Land (Psal. xlvi. 2, 3.), and have furnished the prophets with many elegant allusions. On the east, stands the MOUNT OF OLIVES, fronting the temple, of which it commanded a noble prospect (Matt. xxiv. 2, 3. Luke xix. 37-41.), as it does to this day of the whole city, over whose streets and walls the eye roves as if in the survey of a model. This mountain, which is frequently noticed in the evangelical history, stretches from north to south, and is about a mile in length. The olive is still found growing in patches at the foot of this mountain, to which it gives its name. Its summit commands a view as far as the Dead Sea, and the mountains beyond Jordan. On the descent of this mountain our Saviour stood when he beheld the city and wept over it; on this mountain it was that he delivered his prediction concerning the downfall of Jerusalem (Luke xix. 41-44.); and the army of Titus encamped upon the very spot where its destruction had been foretold. Dr. Clarke discovered some Pagan remains This is a contraction from Medinet-el-KADESs, that is, the Sacred City. Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. p. 177. Burckhardt in his map terms Jerusalem Khodess. 2 Relandi Palæstina, tom. ii. p. 833. Schulzii Archeologia Biblica, p. 20. Beausobre and L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 142. Bp. Lowth, on Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 206. Schulzii Archæologia Biblica, p. 21. Beausobre and L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 143.


Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 5. "It is not difficult to conceive," says the Rev. W. Jowett, who, in December, 1823, surveyed Jerusalem from this mountain, "observing from this spot the various undulations and slopes of the ground, that when Mount Zion, Acra, and Mount Moriah, constituted the bulk of the city, with a deep and steep valley surrounding the greater part of it, it must have been considered by the people of that age as nearly impregnable. It stands beautiful for situation! It is, indeed, builded as city that is compact together. (Ps. cxxii. 3.) The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world would not have believed, that the adversary and the enemy should have entered into the gates of Jerusalem. (Lam. iv. 12. B. C. 588.) This was said nearly two thousand four hundred years ago. And when, 650 years after, Titus besieged and took this devoted city, he exclaimed on viewing the vast strength of the place, 'We have certainly had God for our assistant in this war: and it was no other than God who ejected the Jews out of these fortifications: for what could the hands of men, or

on this mountain; and at its foot he visited an olive ground, always noticed as the garden of Gethsemane. "This place," says he, "is, not without reason, shown as the scene of our Saviour's agony the night before his crucifixion (Matt. xxvi. Mark xiv. Luke xxii. John xviii.), both from the circum stance of the name it still retains, and its situation with regard to the city." Here he found a grove of olives of immense size covered with fruit, almost in a mature state." Between Olivet and the city lies the deep valley of Kedror through which flows the brook of that name which is noticed in a subsequent page.

On the south side stood the MOUNT OF CORRUPTION, where Solomon, in his declining years, built temples to Moloch, Chemosh, and Ashtaroth (1 Kings xi. 7. 2 Kings xxiii. 13.): it was separated from the city by the narrow valley of Hin nom (Josh. xviii. 16. Jer. xix. 2.), where the Israelites burnt their children in the fire to Moloch (Jer. vii. 31. and xxxii. 35.): thence made the emblem of hell, GEHENNA, or the place of the damned. (Matt. v. 22. xxiii. 33. Mark ix. 43.) Towards the north, according to Eusebius and Jerome, and without the walls of the city, agreeably to the law of Moses (Lev. iv.), lay CALVARY or GOLGOTHA, that is, the place of a skull (Matt. xxvii. 33.), so called by some from its fancied resemblance to a skull, but more probably because criminals were executed there. Calvary, which now groans beneath the weight of monastic piles, was probably open ground, cultivated for gardens (John xix. 41.), at the time when He, who suffered without the gate (Heb. xiii. 12.), there poured out his soul unto death.10

The southern quarter, originally "the city of David,' built on Mount Zion," Josephus calls the upper city; and the house of Millo was what he calls the upper market.12 3. We have no particulars recorded concerning the nature of the fortifications of Jerusalem, previously to the time of the pious and patriotic governor, Nehemiah; though such there undoubtedly must have been, from the importance and sanctity of the city, as the metropolis of the country, and the seat of the Jewish worship. After the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, they rebuilt Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by the Chaldæans; and in the account of the rebuilding of the wall, under the direction of Nehemiah, ten gates are distinctly enumerated, viz. three on the south, four on the east, and three on the western side of the wall. The three gates on the south side were, 1. The Sheep Gate (Neh. iii. 1.), which was probably so called from the victims, intended for sacrifice, being conducted through it to the second temple. Near this gate stood the towers of Mesh and Hananeel. The pool of Bethesda was at no great distance from this gate, which was also called the Gate of Benjamin.-2. The Fish Gate (Neh. iii. 3. xii. 39.), which was also called the First Gate.-3. The Old Gate, also called the Corner Gate. (Neh. iii. 6. xii. 39. 2 Kings xiv. 13. Jer. xxxi. 38.)

The gates on the eastern side were, 1. The Water Gate any machines do, towards overthrowing these towers?" Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. (Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 256. London, 1825. 8vo.)

the gardens of Gethsemane were of a miserable description, surrounded Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 365, 366. 8vo. edit. In 1818, however, with a dry stone fence, and provided with a few olive trees, without either pot-herbs or vegetables of any kind. Richardson's Travels along the Mediterranean and Parts adjacent, in 1816-17-18. vol. ii. p. 366. London, 1822. 8vo. Mr. Carne, who visited Palestine a few years later, describes this spot as being "of all gardens the most interesting and hallowed, but how neglected and decayed! It is surrounded by a kind of low hedge, but the soil is bare no verdure grows on it, save six fine venerable olive trees, which have stood here for many centuries." Letters from the East, p.

To this St. Paul delicately alludes in his Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii. 12, 13.), where he says that Christ, as a sacrifice for sin, suffered without the gate; and when he exhorts the Hebrew Christians to go forth unto him without the camp, that is, out of Jerusalem, this city being regarded by the Jews as the camp of Israel. (Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 156.)

Schulzii Archæologia Biblica, p. 23. Relandi Palæstina, tom. ii. p. 8€0. 10 Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 255.

11 When Dr. Richardson visited this sacred spot in 1818, he found one part of Mount Zion supporting a crop of barley, another was undergoing the labour of the plough; and the soil turned up consisted of stone and lime mixed with earth, such as is usually met with in the foundation of ruined cities. "It is nearly a mile in circumference, is highest on the west side, and towards the east falls down in broad terraces on the upper part of the mountain, and narrow ones on the side, as it slopes down towards the brook Kedron. Each terrace is divided from the one above it by a low wall of dry stone, built of the ruins of this celebrated spot. The terraces near the bottom of the hill are still used as gardens, and are watered from the pool of Siloam. They belong chiefly to the small village of Siloa, immediately opposite. We have here another remarkable instance of the special fulfil ment of prophecy :-Therefore shall Zion for your sakes be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps. (Micah iii. 12.)" Dr. Richardson's Travels along the Mediterranean, &c. vol. ii. p. 348. "The sides of the Hill of Zion have a pleasing aspect, as they possess a few olive trees and rude gardens; and a crop of corn was growing there." Carne's Letters, p. 265. 12 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 425-429. Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 4.

(Neh. iil. 26.), near which the waters of Etam passed, after | to the spot where the fountain of Siloam took its rise. We having been used in the temple service, in their way to the have no account of any gates being erected on the northern brook Kedron, into which they discharged themselves.-2. side.1 The Horse Gate (Neh. iii. 28. Jer. xxxi. 40.), which is sup- 4. Previously to the fatal war of the Jews with the Roposed to have been so called, because horses went through it mans, we learn from Josephus, that the city of Jerusalem in order to be watered.-3. The Prison Gate (xii. 39.), pro- was erected on two hills, opposite to one another, with a valbably so called from its vicinity to the prison.-4. The Gateley between them, which he subsequently calls the Valley of Miphkad. (Neh. iii. 31.) the Cheesemongers. The loftiest of these hills contained the The gates on the western side were, 1. The Valley Gate Upper City ( ava ros); and the other called Acra, contained (Neh. iii. 13.), also termed the Gate of Ephraim, above the Lower City ( nära Tóns), which seems to have been the which stood the Tower of Furnaces (Neh. iii. 11. xii. 38.); most considerable part of the whole city. Over against this and near it was the Dragon Well (Neh. ii. 13.), which may was a third hill, lower than Acra, and formerly divided from have derived its name from the representation of a dragon, the other by a broad valley;3 which was filled up with earth out of whose mouth the stream flowed that issued from the during the reign of the Asmonæans or Maccabean princes, in well.-2. The Dung Gate (Neh. iii. 13.), which is supposed order to join the city to the temple. As population increased, to have received its name from the filth of the beasts that and the city crept beyond its old limits, Agrippa joined were sacrificed, being carried from the temple through this to it a fourth hill (which was situated to the north of the gate.-3. The Gate of the Fountain (Neh. iii. 15.), had its temple), called Bezetha, and thus still further enlarged name either from its proximity to the fountain of Gihon, or Jerusalem.

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At this time the city was surrounded by three walls on such parts as were not encompassed with impassable valleys, where there was only one wall. The first wall began on the north side, at the tower called Hippicus, whence it extended to the place called the Xistus, and to the councilhouse, and it terminated at the western cloister of the temple. But, proceeding westward, in a contrary direction, the historian says, that it began at the same place, and extended through a place called Bethso, to the gate of the Essenes, then taking a turn towards the south, it reached to the place called Ophlas, where it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple. The second wall commenced at the gate Gennath, and encompassed only the northern quarter of the city, as far as the tower Antonia. The third wall began at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the city, passed by the tower Psephinus, till it came to the monument of Helena, queen of Adiabene. Thence it passed by the sepulchres of the kings; and, taking a direction round the south-west corner, passed the Fuller's Monument, and joined the old wall at the valley of Kedron. This third wall was commenced by Agrippa, to defend the newly erected part of the city called Bezetha; but he did not finish

1 Observationes Philologicæ ac Geographicæ. pp. 21-29.

2 De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 6.

Amsteladami, 1747. 8vo.

SITANTEIX Capazy! Seeproμevos änλy poτspov, are the words of Josephus; which Pritius renders alia lata valle ante divisus (Introd. ad Nov. Test. p. 522.)," formerly divided by another broad valley." The rendering above given is that of Mr. Whiston.

it, from apprehension of incurring the displeasure of the emperor Claudius. His intention was to have erected it with stones, twenty cubits in length by ten cubits in breadth; so that no iron tools or engines could make any impression on them. What Agrippa could not accomplish, the Jews subsequently attempted: and, when Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans, this wall was twenty cubits high, above which were battlements of two cubits, and turrets of three cubits, making in all an altitude of twenty-five cubits. Numerous towers, constructed of solid masonry, were erected at certain distances: in the third wall, there were ninety; in the middle wall, there were forty; and in the old wall, sixty. The towers of Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, erected by Herod the Great, and dedicated to the memories of his friend, his brother, and his wife, were pre-eminent for their height, their massive architecture, their beauty, and the conveniences with which they were furnished. According to Josephus the circumference of Jerusalem, previously to its siege and destruction by the Romans, was thirty-three furlongs, or nearly four miles and a half: and the wall of circumvallation, constructed by order of Titus, he states to have been thirty-nine furlongs, or four miles eight hundred and seventy-five paces.4

4 M. D'Anville has elaborately investigated the extent of Jerusalem, as described by Josephus, in his learned "Dissertation sur l'Etendue de l'ancienne Jerusalem et de son Temple," the accuracy of whose details Vis count Chateaubriand has attested in his Itinerary to and from Jerusalem. This very rare dissertation of 'Anville is reprinted in the Bible de Vence, tom. vi. pp. 43-84. 5th edition.

At present, a late traveller states that the circumference of | by God to persons labouring under the most desperate disJerusalem cannot exceed three miles.1


5. During the time of Jesus Christ, Jerusalem was adorned (2.) The Pool of Siloam (John ix. 7.) was two-fold, viz. with numerous edifices, both sacred and civil, some of which Upper and Lower. The Upper Reservoir or Pool (Isa. vii. are mentioned or alluded to in the New Testament. But its 3.), called the King's Pool in Neh. ii. 14., probably watered chief glory was the temple, described in a subsequent part the king's gardens (Neh. iii. 15.), while the Lower Pool of this volume; which magnificent structure occupied the seems to have been designed for the use of the inhabitants. northern and lower top of Sion, as we learn from the Psalm- Both these reservoirs were supplied from the fountain of Si1st (xlviii. 2.); Beautiful for situation, the joy (or delight) loam: but which of them is to be understood in John ix. 7. of the whole earth, is Mount Sion. On her north side is the city it is now impossible to determine.14 of the great king. Next to the temple in point of splendour, was the very superb palace of Herod, which is largely described by Josephus ; it afterwards became the residence of the Roman procurators, who for this purpose generally claimed the royal palaces in those provinces which were subject to kings. These dwellings of the Roman procurators in the provinces were called Prætoria:4 Herod's palace therefore was Pilate's prætorium (Matt. xxvii. 27. John xviii. 28.): and in some part of this edifice was the armoury or barracks of the Roman soldiers that garrisoned Jerusalem, whither Jesus was conducted and mocked by them. (Matt. xxvii. 27. Mark xv. 16.) In the front of this palace was the tribunal, where Pilate sat in a judicial capacity to hear and determine weighty causes; being a raised pavement of mosaic work (spa), the evangelist informs us that in the Hebrew language it was on this account termed Gabbatha (John xix. 13.), i. e. an elevated place. In this tribunal the procurator Florus sat, A. D. 66; and, in order to punish the Jews for their seditious behaviour, issued orders for his soldiers to plunder the upper market-place in Jerusalem, and to put to death such Jews as they met with; which commands were executed with savage barbarity.

On a steep rock adjoining the north-west corner of the temple stood the Tower of Antonia, on the site of a citadel that had been erected by Antiochus Epiphanes in order to annoy the Jews; and which, after being destroyed by them, was rebuilt by the Maccabean prince John Hyrcanus, B. c. 135.9 Herod the Great repaired it with great splendour, uniting in its interior all the conveniences of a magnificent palace, with ample accommodations for soldiers. This citadel (in which a Roman legion was always quartered) overlooked the two outer courts of the temple, and communicated with its cloisters by means of secret passages, through which the military could descend and quell any tumult that might arise during the great festivals. This was the guard to which Pilate alluded, as already noticed. (Matt. xxvii. 65.) The tower of Antonia was thus named by Herod, in honour of his friend Mark Antony: and this citadel is "the castle" into which St. Paul was conducted (Acts xxi. 34, 35.), and of which mention is made in Acts xxii. 24. As the temple was a fortress that guarded the whole city of Jerusalem, so the tower of Antonia was a fortress that entirely commanded the temple.10

Besides the preceding edifices, Josephus mentions a house or palace at the extremity of the upper city, which had been erected by the princes of the Asmonean family, from whom it was subsequently called the Asmonæan Palace. It appears to have been the residence of the princes of the Herodian family (after the Romans had reduced Judæa into a province of the empire), whenever they went up to Jerusalem. In this palace, Josephus mentions Berenice and Agrippa as residing," and it is not improbable that it was the residence of Herod the tetrarch of Galilee when he went to keep the solemn festivals at that city; and that it was here that our Saviour was exposed to the wanton mockery of the soldiers, who had accompanied Herod thither, either as a guard to his person, or from ostentation. (Luke xxiii. 7-11.)12

There were several pools at Jerusalem (up), two of which are mentioned in the New Testament, viz.

(1.) The Pool of Bethesda, which was situated near the sheep-gate or sheep-market (John v. 2.), not far from the temple. It had five porticoes, for the reception of the sick; and it was most probably called Bethesda, or the house of mercy, from the miraculous cures there mercifully vouchsafed

1 Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 103.

2 Antiq. Jud. lib. xv. c. 9. § 3. De Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 21. § 1. et lib. v. c.
4. § 3.
Cicero contra Verrem, action. ii. lib. v. c. 12. (op. tom. iv. p. 96. ed.

Ibid. lib. v. c. 35. et 41. (tom. iv. pp. 125. 142.)
Compare Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 15. § 5. c. 17. § 8.
Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 14. §8.

Ibid. Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 5. §4.

Ibid. lib. xv. c. 11. § 4.

8 Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 6. § 6.

10 De Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 5. § 8.

11 De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 15. § 1. and c. 16. § 3.

12 Schulzii Archæologia Biblica, pp. 27-30.

6. During the reigns of David and Solomon, Jerusalem was the metropolis of the land of Israel; but after the defection of the ten tribes under Jeroboam, it was the capital of the kings of Judah, during whose government it underwent various revolutions. It was captured four times without being demolished, viz. by Shishak, sovereign of Egypt, (2 Chron. xii.), from whose ravages it never recovered its former splendour; by Antiochus Epiphanes, who treated the Jews with singular barbarity; by Pompey the Great, who rendered the Jews tributary to Rome; and by Herod, with the assistance of a Roman force under Sosius. It was first entirely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, and again by the Emperor Titus, the repeated insurrections of the turbulent Jews having filled up the measure of their iniquities, and drawn down upon them the implacable vengeance of the Romans. Titus ineffectually endeavoured to save the temple: it was involved in the same ruin with the rest of the city, and, after it had been reduced to ashes, the foundations of that sacred edifice were ploughed up by the Roman soldiers. Thus literally was fulfilled the prediction of our Lord, that not one stone should be left upon another that should not be thrown down. (Matt. xxiv. 2.)is On his return to Rome, Titus was honoured with a triumph, and to commemorate his conquest of Judæa, a triumphal arch was erected, which is still in existence. Numerous medals of Judæa vanquished were struck in honour of the same event. The Emperor Adrain erected a city on part of the former site of Jerusalem, which he called Elia Capitolina: it was afterwards greatly enlarged and beautified by Constantine the Great, who restored its ancient name. During that emperor's reign the Jews made various efforts to rebuild their temple; which, however, were always frustrated: nor did better success attend the attempt made, A. D. 363, by the apostate emperor Julian. An earthquake, a whirlwind, and a fiery eruption, compelled the workmen to abandon their design.

From the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans to the present time, that city has remained, for the most part, in a state of ruin and desolation; "and has never been under the government of the Jews themselves, but oppressed and broken down by a succession of foreign masters-the Romans, the Saracens, the Franks, the Mamelukes, and last by the Turks, to whom it is still subject. It is not, therefore, only in the history of Josephus, and in other ancient writers, that we are to look for the accomplishment of our Lord's predictions: we see them verified at this moment before cur eyes, in the desolate state of the once celebrated city and temple of Jerusalem, and in the present condition of the Jewish people, not collected together into any one country, into one political society, and under one form of government, but dispersed over every region of the globe, and every where treated with contumely and scorn.”1

7. The modern city of Jerusalem contains within its walls several of the hills, on which the ancient city is supposed to have stood; but these are only perceptible by the ascent and descent of the streets. When seen from the Mount of Olives, on the other side of the valley of Jehoshaphat, it presents an inclined plane, descending from west to east. An embattled wall, fortified with towers and a Gothic castle, encompasses the city all round, excluding, however, part of Mount Sion, which it formerly enclosed. Notwithstanding its seemingly strong position, it is incapable of sustaining a severe assault, because, on account of the topography of the land, it has no means of preventing the approaches of an enemy; and, on the other hand, it is commanded, at the distance of a gunshot, by the Djebel Tor, or the Mount of Olives, from which

13 Parkhurst's Lexicon voce. Bp. Pearce (and after him, Dr. Booth. royd), Jahn, Rosenmüller, Kuinöel, and other modern commentators, have supposed the pool of Bethesda to have been a medicinal bath. The reader will find a brief statement, and satisfactory refutation of this notion in Dr. Bloomfield's Annotations on the New Testament, vol. iii. pp. 148–156. 14 Robinson's Gr. Lexicon to the New Test. voce Ziwa.

18 For a full view of the predictions of Jesus Christ concerning the destruction of Jerusalem and their literal fulfilment, see vol. i. Appendix, No. VI. chap. ii. sect. iii.

16 Bp. Porteus's Lectures on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, vol. ii. p. 215

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