marriage ; and the door was shut,' and all admittance was re- | amuse themselves with one another's conversation, the men fused to the imprudent virgins. The solemnities here de- did not spend their time merely in eating and drinking; for scribed are still practised by the Jews in Podolia, and also by their custom was to propose questions and hard problems, by the Christians iu Syria, 4 and in Egypt. These companions resolving which they exercised the wit and sagacity of the of the bridegroom and bride are mentioned in Psal. xlv. 9. company. This was done at Samson's marriage, where he 14., and Cant. v. 1. 8. John the Baptist calls them the proposed a riddle to divert his company. (Judg. xiv. 12.) friends of the bridegroom. (John iii. 29.).

At nuptial and other feasts it was usual to appoint a person From the parable, in which a great king is represented as to superintend the preparations, to pass around among the making a most magnificent entertainment at the marriage of guests to see that they were in want of nothing, and to give his son, we learn that all the guests, who were honoured with the necessary orders to the servants. Ordinarily, he was not. an invitation, were expected to be dressed in a manner suit- one of the guests, and did not recline with them; or, at least, able to the splendour of such an occasion, and as a token of he did not take his place among them until he had performed just respect to the new-married couple—and that after the all that was required of him. (Ecclus. xxxii. 1.). This officer procession in the evening from the bride's house was con- is by St. John (ii. 8, 9.) termed 'ApXkTPIRMyos, and 'Hy cuuevos by cluded, the guests, before they were admitted into the hall the author of the book of Ecclesiasticus: as the latter lived where the entertainment was served up, were taken into an about the year 190 B. C., and while the Jews had intercourse apartment and viewed, that it might be known if any stranger with the Greeks, especially in Egypt, it is most probable had intruded, or if any of the company were apparelled in that the custom of choosing a governor of the feast passed raiments unsuitable to the genial solemnity they were going from the Greeks to the Jews. Theophylact's remark on to celebrate; and such, if found, were expelled the house John ii. 8. satisfactorily explains what was the business of with every mark of ignominy and disgrace. From the know- the dpXITPIXACS :-" That no one might suspect that their taste ledge of this custom the following passage receives great light was so vitiated by excess as to imagine water to be wine, and lustre. When the king came in to see the guests, he dis- our Saviour directs it to be tasted by the governor of the feast, covered among them a person who had not on a wedding- who certainly was sober; for those, who on such occasions garment.—He called him and said, Friend, how camest thou are intrusted with this office, observe the strictest sobriety, in hither, not having a wedding-garment ? and he was speech that every thing may, by their orders, be conducted with less :-he had no apology to offer for this disrespectful neglect. regularity and decency."

The king then called to his servants, and bade them bind him At a marriage-feast to which Mr. Buckingham was invited, hand and foot—to drag him out of the room—and thrust him he relates that when the master of the feast came, he was out into midnight darkness.” (Matt. xxii. 12.)6

6 seated as the stranger guest immediately beside him: and “ The Scripture, moreover, informs us that the marriage on the ejaculation of B’Ism Allah' being uttered, he dipped festivals of the Jews lasted a whole week;" as they do to this his fingers in the same dish, and had the choicest bits placed day among the Christian inhabitants of Palestine. Laban before him by his own hands, as a mark of his being consisaid, It must not be so done in our country to give the younger dered a friend or favourite; for this is the highest honour that before the first-born. Fulfil her week, and we will give thee can be shown to any one at an eastern feast.”. this also. (Gen. xxix. 26, 27.) And Samson said unto them, “Two interesting passages of Scripture derive illustration I will now put forth a riddle unto you : if you can certainly from this trait of eastern manners. The first is that, in which declare it me within the SEVEN DAYS of the feast, and find it the Saviour says, “When thou art bidden of any man to a out, then I will give you thirty sheets, and thirty change of wedding, sit not down in the highest room (that is, place or garments. (Judg. xiv. 12.). This week was spent in feast- station), lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden of ing, and was devoted to universal joy; To the festivity of him; and he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, this occasion our Lord refers:--Can the children of the bride- Give this man place: and thou begin with shame to take the chamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but lowest room. But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may them, and then shall they fast." (Mark ii. 19, 20.):

say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have The eastern people were very reserved, not permitting the worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.' young women at marriages to be in the same apartments with (Luke xiv. 8–10.) In a country where the highest importthe men; and, therefore, as the men and women could not ance is attached to this distinction, the propriety of this ad1 Mr. Ward has given the following description of a Hindoo wedding; our own; and

the honour is still as much appreciated through

vice is much more striking than if applied to the manners of the Gospel. "At a marriage, the precession of which I saw some years out Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia, at the present day, as ago, the bridegroom came from a distance, and the bride lived at Seram. it was in those of the Messiah. The other passage is that, pore, to which place the bridegroom was to come by water. After waiting in which, at the celebration of the passover, Jesus says (Matt. very words of Scripture, "Behold, the bridegroom cometh! Go ye out to xxvi. 23.), He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, meet him.'. All the persons employed now lighted their lamps, and ran the same shall betray me. As there are but very few, and them had lost their lights, and were unprepared, but it was then too late to these always the dearest friends, or most honoured guests, seek them, and the cavalcade moved forward to the house of the bride, at who are seated sufficiently near to the master of the feast to which place the company entered a large and splendidly illuminated area, dip their hands in the same dish with him (probably not more friends, dressed in their best apparel, were seated upon mats. The bride than three or four out of the twelve disciples at the last groom was carried in the arms of a friend, and placed on a superb seat in supper enjoyed this privilege), the baseness of the treachery the midst of the company, where he sat a short time, and then went into is much increased, when one of those few becomes a betrayer; the house, the door of which was immediately shut, and guarded by Se: and in this light the conduct of Judas was, no doubt, meant was I so struck with our Lord's beautiful parable, as at this moment to be depicted by this pregnant expression."}} And the door was shut!" (Ward's View of the History, &c. of the Hin- V. Marriage was dissolved among the Jews by DIVORCE 03 Álber, Hermeneut. Vet. Test: pp. 1200, 201. Bruning, Antiq. Græc. p. fered this because of the hardness of their heart, but from the

as well as by death.12 Our Saviour tells us, that Moses suf• At Kamenetz-Podolskoi, Dr. Henderson relates, “we were stunned beginning it was not so (Matt. xix. 8.); meaning that they by the noise of a procession, led on by a band of musicians playing on tambourines and cymbals, which passed our windows. On inquiry, we

were accustomed to this abuse, and to prevent greater evils, learned that it consisted of a Jewish bridegroom, accompanied by his such as murders, adulteries, &c. he permitted it: whence it young friends, proceeding to the house of the bride's father, in order to should seem to have been in use before the law; and we see convey her hone to her future residence. In a short time they returned that Abraham dismissed Hagar, at the request of Sarah. It deeply veiled, was led along in triumph, accompanied by her virgins, each appears that Samson's father-in-law understood that his with candie in her hand, who, with the young inen, sang and danced be: daughter had been divorced, since he gave her to another. illustration of the important parable recorded in the twenty-fifth chapter (Judg, xv. 2.). The Levite's wife, who was dishonoured at of the Gospel of Matthew; and we were particularly reminded of the ap | Gibeah, had 'forsaken her husband, and never would have propriate nature of the injunction which our Saviour gives us to watch and returned, if he had

not gone in pursuit of her. (Judg. xix. 2, 3.) the arrival of the bridegroom." Biblical Researches, p. 217.

9 Robinson's Greek Lexicon, voce 'ApXitpixa.ivos. Alber, Interpretatio * See Mr. Jowett's Christian Researches

in Syria, pp. 87, 88.

Sacræ Scripturæ, tom. ix. p. 83. See Mr. Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, Egypt, &c. vol. i. p. 10 Theophylact as cited in Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon, voce 'Apotpo. 335. third edition. & Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 122.

11 Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. I. pp. 406, 407. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria and Palestine, p. 95.

12 Among the Bedouin Arabs, a brother finds himself more dishonoured Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 123. Brunings states that the Jews dis. by the seduction of his sister than a man by the infidelity of his wife. tinguish between a bride who is a virgin and one who is a widow; and This will account for the sanguinary revenge taken by Simeon and Levi that the nuptial feast of the former lasted a whole week, but for the latter upon the Shechemites for the defilement

of their sister Dinah. (Gen. it was limited to threc days. Antiq. Hebr. p. 71.

xxxiv. 25-31.) See D'Arvieux's Travels in Arabia the Desart, pp. 243, 241.

κλινος, .

Solomon speaks of a libertine woman, who had forsaken her the Pharisees, who came to our Lord, tempting him, ana husband, the director of her youth, and (by doing so contrary saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife to her nuptial vows) had forgotten the covenant of her God. for every cause—for any thing whatever that may be dis(Prov. ii. 17.) Ezra and Nehemiah obliged a great number. agreeable in her? (Matt. xix. 3.) Upon cur Lord's answer of the Jews to dismiss the foreign women, whom they had to this inquiry, that it was not lawful for a man to repudiate married contrary to the law (Ezra x. 11, 12. 19.); but our his wife, except for her violation of the conjugal honour, the Saviour has limited the permission of divorce to the single disciples (who had been educated in Jewish prejudices and case of adultery. (Matt. v. 31, 32.) Nor was this limitation principles) hearing this, said — If the case of the man be so unnecessary; for at that time it was common for the Jews to with his wife, if he be not allowed to divorce her except only dissolve this sacred union upon very slight and trivial pre- for adultery, it is not good to marry! (Matt. xix. 10.) This tences. A short time before the birth of Christ, a great dis- facility in procuring divorces, and this caprice and levity pute arose among the Jewish doctors concerning the interpre- among the Jews, in dissolving the matrimonial connexion, tation of the Mosaic statutes relative to divorce; the school is confirmed by Josephus, and unhappily verified in his own of Shammai contending that it was allowable only for gross example: for he tells us that he repudiated his wife, though misconduct or for violation of nuptial fidelity, while the school she was the mother of three children, because he was not of Hillel taught that a wife might be repudiated for the pleased with her behaviour.! slightest causes. To this last-mentioned school belonged



1. Child-birth.— Circumcision.-Naming of the Child.-II. Privileges of the First-born.—III. Nurture of Children.-IV.

Power of the Father over his Children.-Disposition of his Property.V. Adoption. I. In the East (as indeed in Switzerland and some other II. “The FIRST-BORN, who was the object of special affecparts of Europe, where the women are very robust), child- tion to his parents, was denominated, by way of eminence, birth is to this day an event of but little difficulty; and mo- the opening of the womb. In case a man married a widow thers were originally the only assistants of their daughters, who by a previous marriage had become the mother of chilas any further aid was deemed unnecessary. This was the dren, the first-born as respected the second husband was the case of the Hebrew women in Egypt. (Exod. i. 19.). It is child that was eldest by the second marriage. Before the evident from Gen. xxxv. 17. and xxxviii. 28. that midwives time of Moses, the father might, if he chose, transfer the were employed in cases of difficult parturition; and it also right of primogeniture to a younger child, but the practice appears that in Egypt, from time immemorial, the care of occasioned much contention (Gen. xxv. 31, 32.), and a law delivering women was committed to - female midwives. was enacted overruling it. (Deut. xxi. 15–17.) The first(Exod. i. 15. et seq.) From Ezek. xvi. 4. it seems to have born inherited peculiar rights and privileges.-1.' He received been the custom to wash the child as soon as it was born, a double portion of the estate. Jacob in the case of Reuben, to rub it with salt, and to wrap it in swaddling-clothes his first-born, bestowed his additional portion upon Joseph, (The Armenians, to this day, wash their new-born infants in by adopting his two sons. (Gen. xlviii. 5–8.)" This was salt and water, previously to dressing them.). The birth- done as a reprimand, and a punishment of his incestuous day of a son was celebrated as a festival, which was solem- conduct (Gen. xxxv. 22.); but Reuben, notwithstanding, nized every succeeding year with renewed demonstrations was enrolled as the first-born in the genealogical registers. of festivity and joy, especially those of sovereign princes. (1 Chron. y. 1.)—2. The first-born was the priest of the (Gen. xl. 20. Job i. 4. Matt. xiv. 6.) The birth of a son or whole family. The honour of exercising the priesthood was of a daughter rendered the mother ceremonially unclean for transferred, by the command of God communicated through a certain period : at the expiration of which she went into Moses, from the tribe of Reuben, to whom it belonged by the tabernacle or temple, and offered the accustomed sacri- right of primogeniture, to that of Levi, (Num. iii. 12–18. fice of purification, viz. a lamb of a year old, or, if her cir- viii. 18.) In consequence of this fact, that God had taken cumstances would not afford it, two turtle doves, or two the Levites from among the children of Israel, instead of all young pigeons. (Lev. xii. 1–8. Luke ii. 22.)

the first-born, to serve him as priest, the first-born of the On the eighth day after its birth the son was circumcised, by other tribes were to be redeemed, at a valuation made by the which rite it was consecrated to the service of the true God priest not exceeding five shekels, from serving God in that (Gen. xvii. 10. compared with Rom. iv. 11.): on the nature capacity. (Num. xviii. 15, 16. compared with Luke ii. 22. of circumcision, see pp. 110, 111. supra. At the same time et seq.) —3. The first-born enjoyed an authority over those the male child received a name (as we have already re- who were younger, similar to that possessed by a father marked in p. 111.): in many instances he received a name (Gen. xxv. 23. et seq. 2 Chron. xxi. 3. Gen. xxvii. 29.), from the circumstance of his birth, or from some peculiari- which was transferred in the case of Reuben by Jacob their ties in the history of the family to which he belonged (Gen. father to Judah. (Gen. xlix. 8–10.) The tribe of Judah, xvi. 11. xxv. 25, 26. Exod. ii. 10. xviii. 3, 4.); and some accordingly, even before it gave kings to the Hebrews, was times the name had a prophetic meaning. (Isa. vii. 14. viii. every where distinguished from the other tribes. In conse3. Hos. i. 4. 6. 9. Matt. i. 21. Luke i. 13. 60. 63.)

quence of the authority which was thus attached to the first

born, he was also made the successor in the kingdom. There 1 Josephus de Vita sua, c. 76. Home's History of the Jews, vol. ii. p. was an exception to this rule in the case of Solomon, who, Dissert. tom. 1. PP: 390, 391. The following are some of hbie principal at the special appointment of God. It is very easy to see in 358. Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 125. Calinet's Dissertation sur le Divorce, though a younger brother, was made his successor by David the period referred to :-1. "It is cominanded to divorce a wife, that is not view of these facts, how the word first-born came to express of good behaviour, and is not modest, as becomes a daughter of Israel," sometimes a great, and sometimes

the highest dignity.”': (Isa. Hillel saith, if the wife cook her husband's food illy, by over-salting it, or xiv, 30. Psal. Ixxxix. 27. Rom. viii. 29. Col. 1. 15–18. over-roasting it, she is to be put away.”—4. Yea, ir, by any stroke from Heb. xii. 23. Rev. i. 5. 11. Job xviii. 13.) the hand of God, she become dumb or sottish," &c.-5. R. Akibah said, "If any man sees a woman handsomer than his own wife, he may_put ber themselves, and, it should seem from various passages of

III. In the earliest ages, mothers suckled their offspring foot's Horæ Hebraica, on Matt. v. 31.–Works, vol. xi. p. 118. 8vo. edit.) Scripture, until they were nearly or quite three years old : on

This last was the cause assigned by Josephus for repudiating his wife in the day the child was weaned, it was usual to make a feast. 427-430. 443-447. Lewis's Origines Hebrææ, vol. ii. pp. 240-310. Cal custom of feasting obtains in Persia to this day. In case

This chapter is compiled from Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. i. pp. (2 Macc. vii. 27. 1 Sam. i. 22–24. Gen. xxi. 8.) The same met's Dictionary, article Adoption. Bruning, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 1–11. the mother died before the child was old enough to be Parean, Antiquitas Hebraica, part iv. c. 6. de liberorum procreatione et educatione, pp. 442-446. Harmer's Observations, vol. iv. p. 433. Morier's Second Journey,

• Jahn's Archäologia Biblica, by Mr. Upham, $ 163. p. 106.

• Morier's Second Journey, p. 107.

weaned, or was unable to rear it herself, nurses were em- | wishes or will in the presence of witnesses, and probably in ployed ; and also in later ages when matrons became too the presence of the future heirs, as Jacob did, in Gen. delicate or too infirm to perform the maternal duties. These xlviii.; and this, Michaelis is of opinion, seems to be what nurses were reckoned among the principal members of the is called giving the inheritance to his sons, in Deut. xxi. 16. family; and, in consequence of the respectable station which Testaments were not written until long after that period. they sustained, are frequently

, mentioned in sacred history. The following regulations obtained in the disposition of proSee Gen. xxxv. 8. 2 Kings xi. 2. 2 Chron. xxii. 11. perty :

The daughters rarely departed from the apartments appro- 1. “As it respected sons : The property or estate of the priated to the females, except when they went out with an father, after his decease, fell into the possession of his sons, urn to draw water, which was the practice with those who who divided it among themselves equally; with this excepbelonged to those humbler stations in life, where the ancient tion, that the eldest son received two portions.” It appears, simplicity of manners had not lost its prevalence. (Exod. ii. however, from Luke xv. 12. that sons might demand and 16. "Gen. xxiv. 16. xxix. 10. 1 Sam. ix. 11, 12. John iv. 7.) receive their portion of the inheritance during their father's They spent their time in learning those domestic and other lifetime; and that the parent, though aware of the dissipated erts, which are befitting a woman's situation and character, inclinations of the child, could not legally refuse the applicatill they arrived at that period in life, when they were to bé tion. sold, or by a better fortune given away, in marriage. (Prov. 2. “ As it respected the sons of concubines :- The portion, xxxi. 13. 2 Sam. xiii. 7.) The daughters of those who by which was given to them, depended altogether upon the feeltheir wealth had been elevated to high stations in life, so far ings of the father. Abraham gave presents, to what amount from going cut to draw water in urns, might be said to spend is not known, both to Ishmael and to the sons whom he had the whole of their time within the walls of their palaces. In by Keturah, and sent them away before his death. It does imitation cf their mothers, they were recupied with dressing, not appear that they had any other portion in the estate; but with singing, and with dancing; and, if we may judge from Jacob made the sons, whom he had by his concubines, heirs the representations of modern travellers, their apartments as well as the others. (Gen. xxi. 8–21. xxv. 146. xlix. 1were sometimes the scenes of vice. (Ezek. xxiii. 18.) They 27.) Moses laid no restrictions upon the choice of fathers in went abroad but very rarely, as already intimated, and the this respect; and we should infer that the sons of concubines more rarely, the higher they were in point of rank, but they for the most part received an equal share with the other sons, received with cordiality female visitants. The virtues of a from the fact, that Jephthah, the son of a concubine, comgood woman, of one that is determined, whatever her station, plained, that he was excluded without any portion from his to discharge each incumbent duty, and to avoid the frivolities father's house. (Judg. xi. 1–7.) and vices at which we have briefly hinted, are mentioned in 3. “As it respected daughters :- The daughters not only terms of approbation and praise in Prov. xxxi. 10—31. had no portion in the estate, but, if they were unmarried,

The sons remained till the fifth year in the care of the were considered as making a part of it, and were sold by their women; then they came into the father's care, and were brothers into matrimony. In case there were no brothers, or taught not only the arts and duties of life, but were instructed they all had died, they took the estate (Num. xxvii. 1—8.): in the Mosaic law, and in all parts of their country's religion. if any one died intestate, and without any offspring, the pro(Deut. vi. 20—25. xi. 19.). Those who wished to have perty was disposed of according to the enactments in Num. them further instructed, provided they did not deem it pre- xxvii. 8—11. ferable to employ private teachers, sent them away to some 4.“ As it respected servants :„The servants or the slaves priest or Levite, who sometimes had a number of other child in a family could not claim any share in the estate as a right, dren to instruct. It appears from 1 Sam. i. 24–28. that but the person who made a will might, if he chose, make them there was a school near the holy tabernacle, dedicated to the his heirs. (Comp. Gen. xv. 3.). Indeed, in some instances, instruction of youth.

those who had heirs, recognised as such by the law, did not IV. " The authority to which a father was entitled ex- deem it unbecoming to bestow the whole or a portion of their tended not only to his wife, to his own children, and to his estates on faithful and deserving servants. (Prov. xvii. 2.). servants of both sexes, but to his children's children also. It 5. “ As it respected widous : The widow of the deceased, was the custom anciently for sons newly married to remain like his daughters, had no legal right to a share in the estate. at their father's house, unless it had been their fortune to The sons, however, or other relations, were bound to afford marry a daughter, who, having no brothers, was heiress to her an adequate maintenance, unless it had been otherwise an estate ; or unless by some trade, or by commerce, they arranged in the will. She sometimes returned back again to had acquired sufficient property to enable them to support her father's house, particularly if the support, which the heirs their own family. It might of course be expected, while gave her, was not such as had been promised, or was not suffithey lived in their father's house, and were in a manner the cient. (Gen. xxxviii. 11. compare also the story of Ruth.) pensioners on his bounty, that he would exercise his autho- The prophets very frequently, and undoubtedly not without rity over the children of his sons as well as over the scns cause, exclaim against the neglect and injustice shown to themselves.” In this case the power of the father “ had no widows."2. (Isa. 1. 17. X. 2. Jer. vii. 6. xxli. 3. Ezek.xxii. narrow limits, and, whenever he found it necessary to rescrt 7. comp. Exod. xxii. 22—24. Deut. x. 18. xxiv. 17.) to measures of severity, he was at liberty to inflict the ex- V. Where there were no scns to inherit property, it appears tremity of punishment. (Gen. xxi. 14. xxxviii. 24.) This from various passages of the New Testament, that ADOPTION, power was so restricted by Moses, that the father, if he „or the taking of a stranger into a family, in order to make judged the son worthy of death, was bound to bring the him a part of it, acknowledging him as a son and heir to the cause before a judge. But he enacted,

at the same time, that estate, was very generally practised in the East, in the time the judge should pronounce sentence of death upon the son of our Saviour. Adoption, however, does not appear to have if on inquiry it could be proved, that he had beaten or cursed been used by the elder Hebrews: Moses is silent concerning his father or mother, or that he was a spendthrift, or saucy, it in his law; and Jacob's adoption of his two grandsons, or contumacious, and could not be reformed. (Exod. xxi. 15. Ephraim and Manasseh (Gen. xlviii. 1.), is rather a kind of 17. Lev. xx. 9. Deut. xxi. 18—21.) The authority of the substitution, by which he intended, that the two sons of parents, and the service and love due to them, are recognised J. seph should have each his lot in Israel, as if they had been in the most prominent and fundamental of the moral luws his own sons, Thy, two sons, Ephraim and Munasseh, are of the Jewish polity, viz. the Ten Commandments. (Exod. mine ; as Reuben and Simeon they shall be mine. But as he XX. 12.)

gave no inheritance to their father Joseph, the effect of this “ The son, who had acquired property, was commanded to adoption extended only to their increase of fortune and inheexhibit his gratitude to his parents, not only by words and ritance; that is, instead of one part, giving them (or Joseph, in feeling, but by gifts. (Matt. xv. 5, 6. Mark vii. 11–13.) by means of them) two parts. "Two other kinds of adoption The power of the father over his offspring in the ancient among the Israelites are mentioned in the Scriptures; viz. times was not cnly very great for the time being, and while 1. The first consisted in the obligation of a surviving he sojourned with them in the land of the living, but he was brother to marry the widow of his brother, who had died with allowed also to cast his eye into the future, and his prophetic out children (Deut. xxv. 5. Ruth iv. 5. Matt. xxii. 24.); so curse or blessing possessed no little efficacy." (Gen. xlix. that the children of this marriage were considered as belong2-28.)

ing to the deceased brother, and went by his name; a practice It appears from 1 Kings xx. 1. (marginal rendering) that, in more ancient than the law, as appears in the history of Tamar; the disposition of his effects, the father expressed his last but this manner of adopting was not practised among the · Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, by Mr. Ipham, &$ 166, 167.

· Jahn's Archäologia Biblica, by Mr. Upham, $ 168.

Greeks and Romans : neither was that kind of adoption in children of God. Thus St. Paul writes (Rom. viii. 15.), Ye tended by Sarah, Leah, and Rachel; when they gave their have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, handmaidens to their husbands. (Gen. xvi. 2. xxx. 3.) Father. We wait for the adoption of the children of God. And

2. Various instances of another kind of adoption are re-(Gal. iv, 4, 5.). God sent forth his Son to redeem them that corded in the Old Testament, viz. that of a father having a were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. daughter only, and adopting her children. Thus, in 1 Chron. Among the Mohammedans the ceremony of adoption is ii. 21, 22., Macbir the grandson of seph, who is called performed, by causing the adopted to pass through the shirt of father of Gilead (that is, chief of that town), gave his daugh- the person who adopts him. For this reason, to adopt among ter to Hezron, who married her when he was threescore years the 'Turks is expressed by saying—to draw any one through old, and she bare him Segub. And Segub begat Jair, who one's shirt; and an adopted son is called by them Akietogli, had three-and-twenty cities in the land of Gilead. Jair the son of another life because he was not begotten in this. acquired a number of other cities, which made up his posses- Something like this is observable among the Hebrews: Elisions to threescore cities. (Josh. xiii. 30. 1 Kings iv. 13.) jah adopted the prophet Elisha, by throwing his mantle over However, both he and his posterity, instead of being reckoned him (1 Kings xix. 19.); and when Elijah was carried off in to the family of Judah as they ought to have been by their a fiery chariot, his mantle, which he let fall, was taken up by paternal descent from Hezron, are reckoned as sons of Ma- Elisha his disciple, his spiritual son, and adopted successor chir the father of Gilead. It further appears from Num. xxxii. in the office of prophet. (2 Kings ii. 15.) 41. that this very Jair, who was in fact the son of Segub, the This circumstance seems to be illustrated by the conduct son of Hezron, the son of Judah, is expressly called Jair the of Moses, who dressed Eleazar in Aaron's sacred vestments, son of Manasseh, because his maternal great-grandfather was when that high-priest was about to be gathered to his fathers; Machir, the son of Manasseh. In like manner, we read that indicating thereby, that Eleazar succeeded in the functions of Mordecai adopted Esther his niece: when her father and the priesthood, and was, in some sort, adopted to exercise mother were dead, he took her for his own daughter. So the that dignity. The Lord told Shebna, the captain of the temdaughter of Pharaoh adopted Moses, and he became her son, ple, that he would deprive him of his honourable station, and (Exod. ii. 10.), So we read in Ruth iv. 17. that Naomi had substitute Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, in his room. (Isa. à son: a son is born to Naomi : when, indeed, it was the son xxii. 21.) I will CLOTHE HIM WITH THY ROBE, and strengthen of Ruth, and only a distant relation (or, in fact, none at all) him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his to Naomi, who was merely the wife of Elimelech, to whom hand. St. Paul, in several places, says, that real Christians Boaz was kinsman.

put on the Lord Jesus ; and that they put on the new man, in By the propitiation of our Saviour, and the communication order to denote their adoption as sons of God. (Rom. xii. 14. of the merits of his death, penitent sinners become the adopted | Gal. iii. 26, 27.)




I. Slaves, how acquired.—II. Their Condition among the Hebrews.—III. And among other Nations.—IV. Of hired Servants

- Customs relating to them and to Slaves alluded to in the New Testament.–V. Different kinds of Slaves or Servants mentioned in the Scriptures.

I. SLAVERY is of very remote antiquity; and when Moses II. Slaves received both food and clothing, for the most gave his laws to the Jews, finding it already established, part of the meanest quality, but whatever property they though he could not abolish it, yet he enacted various salutary acquired belonged to their lords: hence they are said to be laws and regulations. The Israelites, indeed, might have worth double the value of a hired servant. (Deut. xv. 18,) Hebrew servants or slaves, as well as alien-born persons, but They formed marriages at the will of their master, but their these were to be circumcised, and were required to worship children were slaves, who, though they could not call him a the only true God (Gen. xvii. 12, 13.), with the exception of father (Gal. iv. 6. Rom. viii. 15.), yet were attached and the Canaanites.

faithful to him as to a father, on which account the patriarchs Slaves were acquired in various ways; 1. By Captivity, trusted them with arms. (Gen. xiv. 14. xxxii. 6. xxxiii. 1.) which is supposed to have been the first origin of slavery If a married Hebrew sold himself, he was to serve for six (Gen. xiv. 14. Deut. xx. 14. xxi. 10, 11.); 2. By Debt, when persons being poor were sold for payment of their debts trade by name, as sinful in a very high degree. The apostle, St. Paul, (2 Kings iv. I. Matt. xviii. 25.); 3. By committing a Theft, having spoken of persons that were lawless and disobedient, ungodly and without the power of making restitutíon (Exod. xxii. 2, 3. ral characters and descriptions of men to whom he applies those very Neh. v. 4, 5.); 4. By Birth, when persons were born of general epithets; and they are these, - murderers of fathers, murderers married slaves. These are termed born in the house (Gen. xiv. of mothers, man-slayers, they that defile themselves with mankind, men14. xv. 3. xvii. 23. xxi. 10.), home-born (Jer. ii. 14.), and the at least of its most productive modes. But

I go further ; 1 maintain that sons or children of handmaids. (Psal. lxxxvi. 16. cxvi. 16.) this text, rightly interpreted, condemns and prohibits the slave-trade gene. Abraham had three hundred and eighteen slaves of this de- rally in all its modes: it ranks the slave-trade in the descending scale

of scription; 5. Man-stealing was another mode by which persons English Bible gives men-stealers, is av&parodioins. Our translators have were reduced into slavery. The seizing or stealing of a free- taken the word in its restricted sense which it bears in the Attic law; in born Israelite, either to treat him as a slave or to sell him as which the Sixx ávSpamostruou was a criminal prosecution for the specific a slave to others, was absolutely and irremissibly punished ology of the Holy Scripture, especially in the preceptive part

, is a popular with death by the law of Moses. (Exod. xxi. 16. Deut. xxiv. phraseology; Xv8pxToStotis, in its popular sense, is a person who 7.) Although the Gospel is intended to make no change or and

exactly corresponding to the Greek.".. "The Greek word is so ex difference in the civil circumstances of mankind who are con- plained by the learned grammarian Eustathius, and by other grammarians verted from paganism to Christianity, the master and the of the first authority. Although the Athenians scrupled not to possess slave being equally called, as St. Paul argues at length in themselves of slaves, yet the trade in slaves among them was infamous." 1 Cor. vii. 17-24.; yet the same apostle (1 Tim. i. 9, 10.), modern critic is too important to be withheld from the reader :-"By when enumerating various classes of offenders who are obnox-v&p27080FT+05 the best cominentators are agreed is meant, those who ious to law, expressly denounces men-stealers, avdg27EDIFTRIS

, kidnapped and sold into slavery free persons. Now this was regarded by those who kidnap men, to sell them for slaves: in other And as all the crimes here mentioned are of the most heinous kind, and as words slave-traders.3

robbery does not elsewhere occur in the list, so kvapu 0819Tuis seems as 1 D'llerbelot Bibl. Orient. p. 47.

put for robbery of the worst sort. Let then the slave-traders (Christians,

alas!) of our times tremble: for all, who in any way participate in that abo. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 418, 449. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. i. minable traffic, are iv8p270800T*; since they thereby uphold a system, pp. 158-164. • "The New Testament,” says Bishop Horsley, in one of his speeches

which perpetually engenders

man-stealing." (Bloomfield's Annotations the

New Test. vol. viii. p. 201.)-By the act of parliament 3 & 4 Gul. iv. in the House of Lords,"contains

an express reprobation of the slave. I chap. 73. slavery was ABOLISHED throughout the British Colonies.

they performed. Thus in Acts xii. 20. we meet with a cham- xx. 9, 10.), 'A pertencupy cs, or vine-dressers (Luke xiii. 7.); or berlain; ... Blastus, o eti TÕU XOTwves, who had charge of the upper, or door-keepers. (Mark xiii. 34. John xviii. 16, 17.) royal bedchamber, or, in modern language, the royal cham- But, whatever was the nature of their service, each was reberlain. These persons often had great influence with their quired to prosecute that particular work which was deemed masters. Those, who had large flocks of sheep and herds most suitable for him by his master or lord, whether the of cattle, which they intrusted to polyestes, inferior shepherds, latter was at home or abroad (Mark xiii. 34. Luke xii. 42. appointed a chief shepherd, åpcerrospiny, to superintend them. xiv. 17. xvii. 7, 8.), with all honesty and fidelity. (Tit. ii. In 1 Pet. v. 4. this appellation is applied to the chief teacher 9, 10.)2 of religion, that is, Jesus Christ, who is to come as judge. Among the Greeks those slaves who had conducted themKings are often termed ci trospekves Tcy Aswv, because they watch selves well were manumitted, or released from bondage. for the safety and welfare of their subjects; and the same The Greeks termed those who were thus liberated area Jepcus, figure is transferred to religious teachers, who strive by their or freed men ; which word is applied by St. Paul to him who instructions and exhortations to promote the highest interests is called into the church of Christ, while a slave, in order to of mankind. The reporro and oixcvspers appear to be synony- denote that he is free indeed, as being made by Christ a parmous terms for him who had the chief charge or oversight taker of all the privileges of the children of God. (1 Cor. vii. of the property or domestic affairs of any one. This class 22.) In some of the Grecian states, the son and heir was of men had authority over the slaves of a family, and seem permitted to adopt brethren, and communicate to them the to have sometimes been slaves themselves. (Luke xii. 42. same privileges which he himself enjoyed. To this some 1 Cor. iv. 2.) Besides the general care of affairs, the boys commentators have supposed that Jesus Christ refers in John of a family also appear to have been intrusted to their charge; viii. 32. at least in regard to pecuniary matters. (Gal. iv. 4.) Lastly, when slaves proved ungrateful to their former masSchleusner considers the timportos in this passage as the ters or patrons, they might be again reduced into bondage, guardian appointed by the law or by the magistrate, and the both among the Greeks and Romans. To this usage St. cixsvopas as one who was appointed by win. Opposed to Paul may refer when he exhorts the Galatian believers in slaves were the 'Epyetur or hired labourers (Matt. xx. 1.), Christ not to suffer the judaizing teachers again to entangle whether they were [6c03.01, or cultivators of the soil (Luke them in the yoke of bondage. (Gal. v. 1.)3



1. Forms of Salutation and Politeness.-Reverence to Superiors.-II. Mode of receiving Guests or Visitors.-III. Conversation

and Bathing.-IV. Food and Entertainments.—V. Mode of Travelling.VI. Hospitality a sacred Duty among the Jews. Account of the Tesseræ Hospitales of the Greeks and Romans. I. “ Various are the modes of address and politeness | no man by the way (Luke x. 4.), he designed only by this which custom has established in different nations. The prohibition that they should employ the utmost expedition ; Orientals were very exact in the observances of outward de- that they should suffer nothing to retard and impede.them in corum : and we may collect, from several passages in the their progress from one place to another; and should not Old and New Testament, that their salutations and expres- lavish those precious moments, which ought to be devoted sions of regard on meeting each other were extremely tedious to the sacred and arduous duties of their office, in observing and tiresome, containing many minute inquiries concerning the irksome and unmeaning modes of ceremonious interthe person's welfare, and the welfare of his family and course. Not that our Lord intended that his disciples should friends; and when they parted, concluding with many reci- studiously violate all common civility and decency, and inprocal wishes of happiness and benediction on each other.”: dustriously offend against all the rules of courteousness and The ordinary formulæ of salutation were— The Lord be with decorum, since he commanded them upon their entrance into thee ! The Lord bless thee ! —and Blessed be thou of the Lord! any house to salute it (Matt. x. 12.), and observe the cusbut the most common salutation was Peace (that is, may all tomary form of civility in wishing it peace (Luke x. 5.) or manner of prosperity) be with thee! (Ruth ìi. 4. Judg. xix. universal happiness. This injunction, to salute no one on the 20. 1 Sam. xxv. 6. Psal. cxxix. 8.) In the latter ages of road, means only that they should urge their course with the Jewish polity, much time appears to have been spent in speed, and not suffer their attention to be diverted from the the rigid observance of these ceremonious forms, for which duties of their commission. There is a passage in the Old the modern inhabitants of the East continue to be remark- Testament parallel to this, and which beautifully illustrates able. “When our Lord, therefore, in his commission to the it. Elisha, despatching his servant Gehazi to recover the seventy, whom he despatched into the towns and villages of son of the Shunamite, strictly enjoins him to make all the Judæa to publish the Gospel, strictly ordered them to salute expedition possible, which is thus expressed : Gird up thy

loins and take my staff in thine hand, and go thy way. lj i See Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 488.

thou meet any man, salute him not, and if any salute thee, an2 Robinson's Gr. Lexicon, in vocibus; Slosch's Compendium Archæologiæ Novi Testamenti, pp. 45, 46.

*swer him not again. (2 Kings iv. 29.) * Bruning, Compendium Græcarum à profanis Sacrarum, p. 86. Kuinöel,

“ In all countries these modes of address and politeness, * of the minute, not to say frivolous, inquiries and salutations above and homage, yet through constant use and frequency of repe

though the terms are expressive of the profoundest respect says the Rev. Mr. Jowett, “has his "Alla ybârakek,' "God bless you tition soon degenerate into mere verbal forms and words of Conversation is sometiines among strangers made up of a very large pro course, in which the heart has no share. They are a frivoportion of these phrases; for example, Good morning.' Answer, May lous unmeaning formulary, perpetually uttered without the house by your presence. "Are you happy ?'Happy; and you, also.. mind's ever annexing, any idea to them. To these empty,

am comfortable, it insignificant forms, which men mechanically repeat at meetyou are. These sentences are often repeated; and, after any pause, it is ing or taking leave of each other, there is a beautiful allusion usual to turn to your neighbour and resume these courtesies many times.” Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 90.

in the following expression of our Lord in that consolatory talkative when they meet an acquaintance, and salute him. This custom them dejected and disconsolate, on his plainly

assuring them Serious and taciturn as the natives of the East usually are, they grow discourse which he delivered to his apostles when

he saw Africa. A inodern travelier relates the reciprocal salutations with

which that he would soon leave them and go to the Father. Peace those are received who return with the caravans. People go a great I leave with you : my peace I give unto you :- not as the world way to meet them: as soon as they are perceived, the questioning and giveth, give Í unto you. (John xiv. 27.) Since I must shortly salutation begins, and continues with the repetition of the same phrasese be taken from you, I now bid

you adieu, sincerely wishing you peace! How fares it with you? The higher the rank of the person you every happiness; not as the world giveth, give I unto Journal. Stolberg's

History of Religion, vol. iii. p 183. Burder's Oriental you; not in the unmeaning ceremonial manner the world Literature, vol. i. p. 486.

repeats this salutation : for my wishes of peace and happiness

on John viii. 32.

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