particular cases? David went up the Mount of Olives, as a jof God of great price. (1 Pet. iii. 3.) On the contrary, the mourner and a fugitive; and Absalom, fleeing in battle, men in those times universally wore their hair short, as apmight have lost his cap or bonnet. It is certain, that the pears from all the books, medals, and statues that have been qus (TSANIPH), or turban, was common both to men and wo- transmitted to us. This circumstance, which formed a prinmen. (Job xxix. 14. Isa. iii. 23.)

cipal distinction in dress between the sexes, happily illusLong hair was in great esteem among the Jews. The hair trates the following passage in St. Paul (1 Cor. xi. 14, 15.): of Absalom's head was of such prodigious length, that in his Doth not even nature itself teach you, that if a man have LONG flight, when defeated in battle, as he was riding with great hair it is a shame to him. But if a woman have LONG HAIR speed under the trees, it caught hold of one of the boughs; it is a GLORY to her : for her hair is given her for a covering. in consequence of which he was lifted off his saddle, and his - The Jewish and Grecian ladies, moreover, never apmule running from beneath him, left him suspended in the peared in public without a veil. Hence St. Paul severely air, unable to extricate himself. (2 Sam. xviii. 9.), 'The censures the Corinthian women for appearing in the church plucking off the hair was a great disgrace among

the Jews; without a veil, and praying to God uncovered, by which they and, therefore, Nehemiah punished in this manner those threw off the decency and modesty of the sex, and exposed Jews who had been guilty of irregular marriages, in order to themselves and their religion to the satire and calumny of put them to the greater shame. (Neh. xiii. 25.) Baldness the heathens. The whole passage beautifully and clearly was also considered as a disgrace. (2 Sam. xiv. 26. 2 Kings exhibits to the reader's ideas the distinguishing customs ii. 23. Isa. iii. 24.) On festive occasions, the more opulent which then prevailed in the different dress and appearance perfumed their hair with fragrant unguents. (Psal. xxiii. 5. of the sexes." (Compare 1 Cor. xi. 13-16.): Eccl. ix. 8. Matt. vi. 17. xxvi. 7.) And it should seem, V. Their legs were bare, and on the feet they wore SANfrom Cant. v. 11., that black hair was considered to be the DALS, or soles made of leather or of wood, and fastened around most beautiful.

the feet in various ways, after the oriental fashion. (Gen. The Jews wore their beards very long, as we may see xiv. 23. Exod. xii. 11. Isa. v. 27. Mark vi. 9. John ì. 27. from the example of the ambassadors, whom David sent to Acts xii. 8.). As luxury increased, magnificent sandals conthe king of the Ammonites, and whom that ill-advised king stituted, in the East, a part of the dress of both males and caused to be shaved by way of affront. (2 Sam. x. 4.) And females, who could afford such a luxury. (Cant. vii. 1. as the shaving of them was accounted a great indignity, so Ezek. xvi. 10.) The sandals of Judith were so brilliant, the cutting off half their beards, which made them still more that, notwithstanding the general splendour of her bracelets, ridiculous, was a great addition to the affront, in a country rings, and necklaces, these principally succeeded in captiwhere beards were held in such great veneration.

vating the ferocious Holofernes. (Judith x. 4. xvi. 9.)5 On In the East, especially among the Arabs and Turks, the entering a sacred place it was usual to lay them aside (Exod. beard is even now reckoned the greatest ornament of a man, iii. 5. Josh. v. 15.), as is the practice among the Mohammeand is not trimmed or shaven, except in cases of extreme dans in the East to this day. When any one entered a house, grief: the hand is almost constantly employed in smoothing it was customary to take off the sandals, and wash the feet. the beard and keeping it in order, and it is often perfumed as (Gen. xviii. 4. xix. 2.) A similar custom obtains in India if it were sacred. Thus, we read of the fragrant oil, which at the present time. Among persons of some rank it was ran down from Aaron's beard to the skirts of his garment. the office of servants to take off the sandals

of guests, and (Psal. cxxxiii. 2. Exod. xxx. 30.): A shaven beard is re- (after washing their feet) to return them to the owners on puted to be more unsightly than the loss of a nose; and a their departure. (Matt. iii. 11. Mark v. 7. Luke iii 16. John man who possesses a reverend beard is, in their opinion, in- xiii. 4, 5. 14–1). 1 Tim. v. 10.) Persons, who were in capable of acting dishonestly. If they wish to affirm any deep affliction, went barefoot (2 Sam. xv. 30. xix. 24. Isa. thing with peculiar solemnity, they swear by their beard'; xx. 2—4.); which, under other circumstances, was consiand when they express their good wishes for any one, they, dered to be ignominious and servile. (Deut. xxv. 9, 10. Isa, make use of the ensuing formula—God preserve thy blessed xlvii. 2. Jer. ii. 25.) beard! From these instances, which serve to elucidate VI. Seals or SIGNETS, and Rings, were commonly worn many other passages of the Bible besides that above quoted, by both sexes. we may readily understand the full extent of the disgrace Pliny? states that the use of Seals or Signets was rare at the wantonly inflicted by the Ammonitish king, in cutting off time of the Trojan war; but among the Hebrews they were half the beards of David's ambassadors. Niebuhr relates, of much greater antiquity, for we read that Judah left his that if any one cut off his beard, after having recited a fatha, signet as a pledge with Tamar. (Gen. xxxviii. 25.) The or prayer, which is considered in the nature of a vow never ancient Hebrews wore their seals or signets, either as rings to cut it off, he is liable to be severely punished, and also to on their fingers, or as bracelets on their arms, a custom which become the laughing-stock of those who profess his faith. still obtains in the East. Thus the bride in the Canticles The same traveller has also recorded an instance of a modern (viii. 6.) desires that the spouse would wear her as a seal on Arab prince having treated a Persian envoy in the same man- his arm. Occasionally, they were worn upon the bosom by ner as Hanun treated David's ambassadors, which brought a means of an ornamental chain or ligature fastened round the powerful army upon him in the year 1765.2 The not trim- neck. To this custom there is an allusion in Prov. vi. 21. ming of the beard was one of the indications by which the The expression to set as a seal upon the heart, as a seal upon Jews expressed their mourning. (2 Sam. xix. 24.). the arm (Cant. viii. 6.), is a scriptural expression denoting

“ All the Grecian and Roman women, without distinction, the cherishing of a true affection ; with the exhibition of those wore their hair long. On this they lavished all their art, constant attentions which bespeak a real attachment. Comdisposing it in various forms, and embellishing it with divers

3 Mr. Emerson's account of the dress of the younger females in the ornaments. In the ancient medals, statues, and basso-re- house of the British consul in the Isle of Milo, in the Levant, strikingly lievos, we behold those plaited tresses which the apostles illustrates the above-cited passages of St. Peter. He describes their hair Peter and Paul condemn, and see those expensive and fan- as being PLAITED into long triple bands, and then twisted round the head, tastic decorations which the ladies of those times bestowed or left to flow gracefully behind them. They also wore four or five gowns upon their head-dress. This pride of braided and plaited and other GARMENTS, HEAPED ON with less taste than profusion, and all are tresses, this ostentation of jewels, this vain display of finery, secured at the waist by a velvet stomacher, richly embroidered, and glitthe apostles interdict, as proofs of a light and little mind, and terims with gilded spangles. (Emerson’s Letters from the Ægean, vol. ii. inconsistent with the modesty and decorum of Christian + Harwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. ii. pp. 101-103. women. St. Paul, in his first Epistle to Timothy, in the the island or Ceylon in particular, " the shoes

of brides are made of.velvet,

3 Dr. Good's Sacred Idyls, pp. 147. 172. In ihe East generally, and in passage where he condemns it

, shows us in what the pride richly ornamented with gold and silver, not unlike a pair in the tower for of female dress then consisted. I will, says he, that women London) worn by queen Elizabeth.” Callaway's Oriental Observ. p. 47. adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and tions

on this subject :-"I never understood the full meaning of our Lord's sobriety, not with BROIDERED HAIR,, or GOLD, or PEARLS, or words, as recorded in John xiii

. 10., until I beheld the better sort of natives COSTLY ARBAY : but (which becometh women professing godli- return home after performing their

customary ablutions. The passage ness) with good works, (i Tím. ii. 9.) St. Peter in like man- reads thus: “He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is ner ordains, that the adorning of the fair sex should not be necessarily contract in their progress some portion of dust on their feet; so much that outward adorning of PLAITING the hair, and of and this is universally the case, however nigh their dwellings may be tó wearing of GOLD, OG PUTTING ON OF APPAREL : but let it be the mount a low stool, and pour a small vessel of water over their feet

, to hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even cleanse them froni the soil they may have contracted in their journey the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight homewards ; if they are of the higher order of society; a servant performs

it for them, and then they are clean every whit." Statham's Indian · Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. i. p. 147.3d edition.

tions, p. 81. London, 1832. 12mo. • Descript de l'Arabie, p. 61.

- Nat. list. lib. xxxiii. c. 1.


pare also Hag. ii. 23. Jer. xxxii. 24. The Ring is men- 5. Another female ornament was a ChaiN about the neck tioned in Isa. iii. 21., and also in the parable of the prodigal, | (Ezek. xvi. 11.), which appears to have been used also by where the father orders a ring for his returning son (Luke the men, as may be inferred from Prov. i. 9. This was a xv. 22.), and also by the apostle James. (ii. 2.) The com- general ornament in all the eastern countries : thus Pharaoh pliment of a royal ring was a token that the person, to whom is said to have put a chain of gold about Joseph's neck (Gen. it was given, was invested with power and honour : thus xli. 42.); and Belshazzar did the same to Daniel (Dàn. v. Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it on Jo- 29.); and it is mentioned with several other things as part seph's. (Gen. xli. 42.) And Ahasuerus plucked off his ring of the Midianitish spoil. (Num. xxxi. 50.). Further, the from his finger, and bestowed it on Haman (Esther iii. 10.), arms or wrists were adorned with bracelets : these are in the and afterwards on Mordecai. (viii. 2.)

catalogue of the female ornaments used by the Jews (Ezek. VII. Although the garments anciently worn by the Jews xvi. 11.), and were part of Rebecca's present. They were were few in number, yet their ornaments were many, espe- also worn by men of any considerable figure, for we read of cially those worn by the women. The prophet Isaiah, when Judah's bracelets (Gen. xxxviii. 18.), and of those worn by reproaching the daughters of Sion with their luxury and Saul. (2 Sam. i. 10.) vanity, gives us a particular account of their female orna- 6. We read in Exod. xxxviii. 8. of the women's LOOKING ments. (Isa. iii. 16–24.): The most remarkable were the Glasses, which were not made of what is now called following:

glass, but of polished brass, otherwise these Jewish women 1. The Nose JEWELS (ver. 21.), or, as Bishop Lowth could not have contributed them towards the making of the translates them, the jewels of the nostril. They were rings set brazen laver, as is there mentioned. In later times, mirrors with jewels, pendent from the nostrils, like ear-rings from the were made of other polished metal, which at best could only ears, by holes bored to receive them. Ezekiel, enumerating reflect a very obscure and imperfect image. Hence St. Paul, the common ornaments of women of the first rank, distinctly in a very apt and beautiful simile, describes the defective mentions the nose jewel (Ezek. xvi. 12. marg. rendering); and limited knowledge of the present state by that opaque and in an elegant Proverb of Solomon (Prov. xi. 22.) there and dim representation of objects, which those mirrors exhiis a manifest allusion to this kind of ornament, which shows bited. Now we see di scargov by means of a mirror, darkly; that it was used in his time. Nose jewels were one of the not through a glass, as in our version of 1 Cor. xiii. 12.; for love-tokens presented to Rebecca by the servant of Abraham telescopes, as every one knows, are a very late invention. in the name of his master. (Gen. xxiv. 22. where the word 7. To the articles of apparel above enumerated may be translated ear-ring ought to have been rendered nose jewel.)2 added Feet Rings. (Isa. ii.8. in our version rendered TINKHowever singular this custom may appear to us, modern LING ORNAMENTS about the feet.) Most of these articles travellers attest its prevalence in the East among women of of female apparel are still in use in the East. The East all ranks.3

Indian women, who accompanied the Indo-Anglican army 2. The EAR-RING was an ornament worn by the men as from India to Egypt, wore large rings in their noses, and silwell as the women, as appears from Gen. xxxv. 4. and ver cinctures about their ankles and wrists, their faces being Exod. xxxii. 2.; and by other nations as well as the Jews, painted above the eyebrows. In Persia and Arabia, also, it is as is evident from Num. xxxi. 50. and Judg. viii. 24. It well known that the women paint their faces and wear gold should seem that this ornament had been heretofore used for and silver rings about their ankles, which are full of little idolatrous purposes, since Jacob, in the injunction which he bells that tinkle as they walk or trip along. Cingalese chilgave to his household, commanded them to put away the dren often wear rings about their ankles ; Malabar and Moor strange gods that were in their hands, and the ear-rings that children wear rings, hung about with hollow balls, which were in their ears. (Gen. xxxv. 2. 4.)“ It appears that the tinkle as they run. The licensed prostitutes whom Dr. Israelites themselves in subsequent times were not free from Richardson saw at Gheneh (a large commercial town of this superstition ; for Hosea (ií. 13.) represents Jerusalem as Upper Egypt) were attired in a similar manner.! having decked herself with ear-rings to Baalim.

8. As large black eyes are greatly esteemed in the East, 3. PERFUME Boxes (in our version of Isa. iii. 20. rendered the oriental women have recourse to artificial means, in order tablets) were an essential article in the toilet of a Hebrew to impart a dark and majestic shade to the eyes. Dr. Shaw lady. A principal part of the delicacy of the Asiatic ladies informs us, that none of the Moorish ladies think themselves consists in the use of baths, and the richest oils and per- completely dressed, until they have tinged their eyelids with fumes : an attention to which is in some degree necessary in al-ka-hol, that is, with stibium, or the powder of lead ore. those hot countries. Frequent mention is made of the rich As this process is performed by first dipping into this pow. ointmeirts of the bride in the Song of Solomon. (iv. 10, 11.) der a small wooden bodkin of the thickness of a quill, and The preparation for Esther's introduction to king Ahasuerus then drawing it afterwards through the eyelids, over the ball was a course of bathing and perfuming for a whole year: six of the eye, we have a lively image of what the prophet Jeremonths with oil of myrrh, and six months with suseet odours. miah (iv. 30.) may be supposed to mean by renting the eyes (Esth. ii. 12.) A diseased and loathsome habit of body, (not as we render it, with painting, but) with 70, lead ore. which is denounced against the women of Jerusalem The sooty colour which in this manner is communicated to

the eyes is thought to add a wonderful gracefulness to perAnd there shall be, instead of perfume, a putrid ulcerIsa. iii. 24. Bp. Lowth's version.

sons of all complexions. The practice of it, no doubt, is of

great antiquity; for, besides the instances already noticed, instead of a beautiful skin, softened and made agreeable with we find, that when Jezebel is said to have painted her face all that art could devise, and all that nature, so prodigal in (2 Kings ix. 30.), the original words are 793 7182 De'n, i. e. those countries of the richest perfumes, could supply,-must she adjusted, or set off, her eyes with the powder of lead ore. So have been a punishment the most severe, and the most morti- likewise Ezek. xxiii. 40, is to be understood. Keren-harfying to the delicacy of these haughty daughters of Sion.5 puch, i. e. the horn of pouk or lead ore, the name of Job's 4. The TRANSPARENT GARMENTS (in our version of Isa. iii.

- The 'Egoftpor, or metallic mirror, is mentioned by the author of the 23. rendered glasses) were a kind of silken dress, transparent apocryphal book of the Wisdom of Solomon (vii. 26.); who, speaking of like gauze, worn only by the most delicate women, and by Wisdom, says that she is the brightness of the everlasting light and such as dressed themselves more elegantly than became image of his goodness." The author, also, of the book of Ecclesiasticus women of good character. This sort of garments was after- exhorting to put no trust in an enemy,


, 7'hough he kumble himself wards in use both among the Greeks and Romans.6

and go crouching, yet take good heed and beware of him; and thou shalt

be unto him ús exuiu exws 'EXOTITPON, as if thou hadstuiped a MIRROR, 1 Schroeder has treated at great length on the various articles of female and thou shall know that his rust hath not altogether been wiped aroy. apparel mentioned in Isa. iii. 16–24. in his Commentarius Philologico (Ecclus. xii. 11.). The mention of rust in this place manifestly indicates the Criticus de Vestitu Mulierum llebræaum. Lug. Bat. 1735. 4to.

metallic composition of the mirror; which is frequently mentioned in the 2 Bp. Lowth on Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 47.

ancient classic writers. See particularly Anacreon, Ode xi. 3. and xx. 5, * Ibid. vol. ii. p. 48. Tíarmer's Observations, vol. iv. pp. 316-320. In the 6. Dr. A. Clarke, on 1 Cor. xiii. 12. East Indies, a small jewel, in form reseinbling a rose, ornaments one : Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. v. p. 320. 8vo. edit. Morier's Second Jour. nostril of even the poorest Malabar woman. Callaway's Oriental Obser- ney in Persia, p. 145. Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. pp. vațions, p. 18.

329. 333. Callaway's Oriental Observations, pp. 47, 48. It is probable that the ear-rings, or jewels, worn by Jacob's house- 9 "This is the only place in Egypt where we saw the women of the town hold, had been consecrated to superstitious purposes, and worn, perhaps, decked out in all their finery. They were of all nations and of all comas a kind of amulet. It appears that rings, whether on the ears or nose plexions, and regularly licensed, as in many parts of Europe, to exercise were first superstitiously worn in honour of false gods, and probably

of their profession. Some of them were highly painted, and gorgeously the sun, whose circular form they inight be designed to represent. Mai. attired with costly necklaces,

rings in their noses and in their ears, and monides mentions rings and vessels of this kind, with the image of the bracelets on their urists and arms. They sat at the doors of the houses, sun, moon, &c. impressed

on them. These superstitious objects were and called on the passengers as they went by, in the same manner as we concealed by Jacob

in a place known only to himself. Grotius on Gen. read in the book of Proverbs.” (vii. 6--23 ) (Richardson's Travels, vol. i. Calmet's Dictionary, vol. ii. voce Ring.

p. 20.) The same custom was observed by Pitis, a century before, at • Bp. Lowil's Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 19, 50.

6 Ibid. p. 49.

Cairo. See his account of the Mahometans, p. 99.

Xxxv. 4.

youngest daughter, was relative to this custom or practice.”! | as a token of mourning for Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 31.), signiThe modern Persian, Egyptian, and Arab women, continue fying thereby that since he had lost his beloved son he conthe practice of tinging their eyelashes and eyelids. sidered himself as reduced to the meanest and lowest condi

It was a particular injunction of the Mosaic law that the tion of life. women shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man,

nei- IX. A prodigious number of sumptuous and magnificent ther shall a man put on a woman's garment. (Deut. xxii. 5.) habits was in ancient times regarded as a necessary and inThis precaution was very necessary against the abuses which dispensable part of their treasures. Horace, speaking of are the usual consequences of such disguises. For a woman Lucullus (who had pillaged Asia, and first introduced Asiatic drest in a man's clothes will not be restrained so readily by refinements among the Romans), says, that, some persons that modesty which is the peculiar ornament of her sex; and having waited upon him to request the loan of a hundred suits a man drest in a woman's habit may without fear and shame out of his wardrobe for the Roman stage, he exclaimed—“A go into companies where, without this disguise, shame and hundred suits! how is it possible for me to furnish such a Fear would hinder his admittance, and prevent his appearing. number? However, I will look over them and send you what

In hot countries, like a considerable part of Palestine, I have.”—After some time, he writes a note, and tells them travellers inform us, that the greatest difference imaginable he had FIVE THOUSAND, to the whole or part of which they subsists between the complexions of the women. Those of were welcome. 4 any condition seldom go abroad, and are ever accustomed to This circumstance of amassing and ostentatiously displaybe shaded from the sun, with the greatest attention. Their ing in wardrobes numerous and superb suits, as indispensaskin is, consequently, fair and beautiful. But women in the ble to the idea of wealth, and forming a principal part of the lower ranks of life, especially in the country, being from the opulence of those times, will elucidate several passages of nature of their employments more exposed to the scorching Scripture. The patriarch Job, speaking of riches in his time, rays of the sun, are, in their complexions, remarkably tawny says,—Though they heap up silver as the dust, and prepare and swarthy. Under such circumstances, a high value raiment as the clay. (Job xxvii. 16.). Joseph gave his brethren would, of course, be set, by the eastern ladies, upon the fair- changes of raiment, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred ness of their complexions, as a distinguishing mark of their pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. (Gen. xlv. 22.)superior quality, no less than as an enhancement of their Naaman carried for a present to the prophet Elisha ten changes beauty. We perceive, therefore, how natural was the bride's of raiment, that is, according to Calmet, ten tunics and ten self-abasing reflection in Cant. i. 5, 6. respecting her tawny upper garments. (2 Kings v. 5.) In allusion to this custom complexion (caused by exposure to servile employments), our Lord, when describing the short duration and perishing among the fair daughters of Jerusalem; who, as attendants nature of earthly treasures, represents them as subject to the on a royal marriage (we may suppose), were of the highest depredations of moths. Lay not up for yourselves TREASURES rank.3

on earth, where moth and rust do corrupt. (Matt. vi. 19.). The • VIII. To change habits and wash one's clothes were cere- illustrious apostle of the Gentiles, when appealing to the inmonies used by the Jews, in order to dispose them for some tegrity and fidelity with which he had discharged his sacred holy action which required particular purity. . Jacob, after office, said, -I have coveted no man's gold, or silver, or APPAREL. his return from Mesopotamia, required his household to change (Acts xx. 33.) The apostle James, likewise (just in the their garments, and go with him to sacrifice at Bethel. (Gen. same manner as the Greek and Roman writers, when they xxxv. 2, 3.) Mosès commanded the people to prepare them are particularizing the opulence of those times), specifies selves for the reception of the law by purifying and washing gold, silver, and garments, as the constituents of riches : their clothes. (Exod. xix. 10.) On the other hand, the Go to now, ye rich men; weep and howl for your miseries that RENDING or one's CLOTHES is an expression frequently used shall come upon you. Your gold and silver is cankered, and in Scripture, as a token of the highest grief. Reuben, to your GARMENTS are moth-eaten. (James v. 1. 3. 2.)6. The denote his great sorrow for Joseph, rent his clothes (Gen. fashion of hoarding up splendid dresses still subsists in Paxxxvii. 29.); Jacob did the like (ver. 34.); and Ezra, to lestine. It appears from Psal. xlv, 8. that the wardrobes of express the concern and uneasiness of his mind, and the the East were plentifully perfumed with aromatics; and in apprehensions he entertained of the divine displeasure, on Cant. iv. 11. the fragrant odour of the bride's garments is account of the people's unlawful marriages, is said to rend compared to the odour of Lebanon. With robes thus perhis garments and his mantle (Ezra ix. 3.); that is, both his fumed Rebecca furnished her son Jacob, when she sent him inner and upper garment: this was also an expression of to obtain by stratagem his father's blessing. And he (Isaac) indignation and holy zeal; the high-priest rent his clothes, smelled the smell (or fragrance) of his raiment and blessed him, pretending that our Saviour had spoken blasphemy. (Matt

. and said, See! the smell of my son is as the smell of a field xxvi. 65.) And so did the apostles, when the people intended which the Lord hath blessed. (Gen. xxvii. 27.) In process to pay them divine honours. (Acts xiv. 14.) The garments of time, this exquisite fragrance was figuratively applied to of mourners among the Jews were chiefly sackcloth and the moral qualities of the mind; of which we have an examhaircloth. The last sort was the usual clothing of the pro- ple in the Song of Solomon, i. 3. phets, for they were continual penitents by profession; and

Like the fragrance of thine own sweet perfumes therefore Zechariah speaks of the rough garments of the false

Is thy name,-a perfume poured forth.s prophets, which they also wore to deceive. (Zech. xiii. 4.)

• Horat. Epist. lib. i. ep. 6. ver. 40–44. Jacob was the first we read of that put sackcloth on his loins, s Presenting garments is one of the modes of complimenting persons in

the East. See several illustrative instances in Burder's Oriental Literature, 1 Dr. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 413.

vol. i. pp. 93, 91.

6 Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 247, 248. Harmer's Observations, vol. iv. p. 334. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 414. Morier's Second Journey, pp. 61. 145. The eyes of the wife of a Greek passage from Moschus, in which the same idea occurs with singular exact

1 Dr. Good's Sacred Idyls, p. 122. In p. 123. he has quoted the following priest, whom Mr. Rae Wilson saw at Tiberias, were stained with black powder. (Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. ii. p. 17.) “The Palmyrene

--του αμβροτος οδμη women ...... are the finest looking women of all the Arab tribes of Syria.

Τελοθι και λειμωνος εκαινυτο λαρον αύτμην. ...... Like other Orientals of their sex, they dye the tips of the fingers and

. Idyl. B. 91. the palms of their hands red, and wear gold rings in their ears: and the

Whose heavenly fragrance far exceeds jet-black dye of the hennah for the eyelashes is never forgotten; they

The fragrance of the breathing meads. imagine, and, perhaps, with truth, that its blackness gives the eye an addi

Dr. Good's translation of Solomon's song, p. 123. tional languor and interest." Carne's Letters from the East, p. 592. & Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. pp. 97, 98. 3 Fry's Translation of the Song of Solomon, p. 36.

9 Dr. Good's version.




1. Marriage accounted a sacred Obligation by the Jews.-II. Polygamy tolerated.Condition of Concubines.-III. Nuptiar

Contract, and Espousals.—IV. Nuptial Ceremonies.-V. Divorces. I. MARRIAGE was considered by the Jews as a matter of more speedy peopling of the world, yet it is certain there is the strictest obligation. They understood literally and as a no such toleration under the Christian dispensation, and, precept these words uttered to our first parents,

Be fruitful, therefore, their example is no rule at this day. The first who and multiply, and replenish the earth. (Gen. i. 28.) Their violated this primitive law of marriage was Lamech, who continual expectation of the coming of the Messiah added took unto him two wives. (Gen. iv. 19.) Afterwards we read great weight to this obligation. Every one lived in the hopes that Abraham had concubines. (Gen. xxv. 6.) And his that this blessing should attend their posterity; and therefore practice was followed by the other patriarchs, which at last they thought themselves bound to further the expectance of grew to a most scandalous excess in Solomon's and Rehohim, by adding

to the race of mankind, of whose seed he was boam's days. The word concubine in most Latin authors, to be born, and whose happiness he was to promote, by that and even with us at this day, signifies a woman, who, though temporal kingdom for which they looked upon his appear- she be not married to a man, yet lives with him as his wife; ance.

but in the Sacred Writings it is understood in another sense. Hence celibacy was esteemed a great reproach in Israel ; There it means a lawful wife, but of a lower order and of an for, besides that they thought no one could live a single life inferior rank to the mistress of the family; and, therefore, without great danger of sin, they esteemed it a counteracting she had equal right to the marriage-bed with the chief wife; of the divine counsels in the promise, that the seed of the and her issue was reputed legitimate in opposition to baswoman should bruise the head of the serpent. On this account tards : but in all other respects these concubines were inferior it was that Jephthah's daughter deplored her virginity, be to the primary wife : for they had no authority in the family, cause she thus deprived her father of the hopes which he nor any share in household government. If they had been might entertain from heirs descended from her, by whom his servants in the family before they came to be concubines, name might survive in Israel, and, consequently, of his ex- they continued to be so afterwards, and in the same subjecpectation of having the Messiah to come of his seed, which tion to their mistress as before. The dignity of these primary was the general desire of all the Israelitish women. For wives gave their children the preference in the succession, so the same reason also sterility was regarded among the Jews that the children of concubines did not inherit their father's (as it is to this day among the modern Egyptians) as one of fortune, except upon the failure of the children by these more the greatest misfortunes that could befall any woman, inso- honourable wives; and, therefore, it was, that the father much that to have a child, though the woman immediately commonly provided for the children by these concubines in died thereupon, was accounted a less affliction than to have his own lifetime, by giving them a portion of his cattle and none at all, and to this purpose we may observe, that the goods, which the Scripture calls gifts. Thus Sarah was midwife comforts Rachel in her labour (even though she Abraham's primary wife, by whom he had Isaac, who was knew her to be at the point of death) in these terms, Fear the heir of his wealth. But besides her, he had two concunot, for thou shalt bear itris son also. (Gen. xxxv. 17.) bines, Hagar and Keturah ; by these he had other children

From this expectation proceeded their exactness in causing whom he distinguished from Isaac, for it is said, He gave the brother of a husband, who died without issue, to marry the them gifts, and sent them away while he yet lived. (Gen. xxv. widow he left behind, and the disgrace that attended his refiis- 5, 6.) In Mesopotamia, as appears from Gen. xxix. 26., the ing so to do; for, as the eldest son of such a marriage became younger daughter could not be given in marriage " before the the adopted child of the deceased, that child and the posterity first-born” or elder, and the same practice continues to this flowing from him were, by a fiction of law, considered as the day, among the Armenians, and also among the Hindoos, real offspring and heirs of the deceased brother. This ex- with whom it is considered criminal to give the younger plains the words of Isaiah, that seren women should take hold daughter in marriage before the elder, or for a younger son of one man, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wcar our to marry while his elder brother remains unmarried. 3 own apparel ; only let us be called by thy name, to take away III. No formalities appear to have been used by the our reproach. (Isa. iv. 1.) This was the reason also why the Jews--at least none were enjoined to them by Moses-in Jews commonly married very young. The age prescribed to joining man and wife together

. Mutual consent, followed men by the Rahbins was eighteen years. A virgin was by consummation, was deemed sufficient. The manner in ordinarily married at the age of puberty, that is, twelve years which a daughter was demanded in marriage is described in complete, whence her husband' is called the guide of her the case of Shechem, who asked Dinah the daughter of Jacob youth (Prov. ii. 17.), and the husband of her youth (Joel i. in marriage (Gen. xxxiv. 6–12.) ; and the nature of the con8.); and the not giving of maidens in marriage is in Psal. tract, together with the mode of solemnizing the marriage, is Ixxviii

. 63. represented as one of the effects of the divine described in Gen. xxiv. 50, 51. 57. 67. There was, indeed, anger towards Israel. In like manner, among the Hindoos, a previous espousal" or betrothing, which was a solemn prothe delaying of the marriage of daughters is to this day re- mise of marriage, made by the man and woman each to the garded as a great calamity and disgrace.2

other, at such a distance of time as they agreed upon. This II. From the first institution of marriage it is evident that was sometimes done by writing, sometimes by the delivery God gave but one woman to one man; and if it be a true, as of a piece of silver to the bride in presence of witnesses, as a it is a common, observation, that there are every where more pledge of their mutual engagements. We are informed by males than females born in the world, it follows that those the Jewish writers that kisses were given in token of the men certainly act contrary to the laws both of God and na- espousals (to which custom there appears to be an allusion ture who have more than one wife at the same time. But in Canticles i. 2.), after which the parties were reckoned as though God, as supreme lawgiver, had a power to dispense man and wife.5 "After such espousals were made (which with his own laws, and actually did so with the Jews for the 1 The most importunate applicants to Dr. Richardson for medical advice Scripture, vol. iii. p. 129. 2d edit. Hartley's Researches in Greece and the was generally when the parties were young) the woman con- numerous and important; and, on account of those, the Baptinued with her parents several months, if not some years (at tist compares himself to the friend of the bridegroom. (John least till she was arrived at the age of twelve), before she iii. 29.) The offices of the paranymph were threefold-before was brought home, and her marriage consummated.? That ---at-and after the marriage. Before the marriage of his it was the practice to betroth the bride some time before the friend it was his duty to select a chaste virgin, and to be the consummation of the marriage is evident from Deut. xx. 7. medium of communication between the parties, till the day of Thus we find that Samson's wife remained with her parents marriage. At that time he continued with them during the a considerable time after espousals (Judg. xiv. 8.); and we seven days allotted for the wedding festival, rejoicing in the are told that the Virgin Mary was visibly with child before happiness of his friend, and contributing as much as possible she and her intended husband came together. (Matt. i. 18.) to the hilarity of the occasion. After the marriage, the paraIf, during the time between the espousals and the marriage, nymph was considered as the patron and friend of the wife the bride was guilty of any criminal correspondence with and her husband, and was called in to compose any differanother person, contrary to the fidelity she owed to her bride- ences that might take place between them. As the forerungroom, she was treated as an adulteress; and thus the holy ner of Christ, the Baptist may be well compared to the paraVirgin, after she was betrothed to Joseph, having conceived nymph of the Jewish marriages. One of the most usual comour blessed Saviour, might, according to the rigour of the parisons adopted in Scripture to describe the union between law, have been punished as an adulteress, if the angel of the Christ and his Church is that of a marriage. The Baptist Lord had not acquainted Joseph with the mystery of the was the paranymph,s who, by the preaching of repentance and incarnation.2

3 Home's History of the Jews, vol. ii

. p. 352. Paxton's Illustrations of were those who consulted him on account of sterility, which in Egypt (he Levant, pp. 229, 230. says) is still considered the greatest of all evils. “The unfortunate couple 4 "Before the giving of the law (saith Maimonides), if the man and woman believe that they are bewitched, or under the curse of heaven, which they had agreed about marriage, he brought her into his house and privately fancy the physician has the power to remove. It is in vain that he declares married her. But, after the giving of the law, the Israelites were comthe insufficiency of the healing art to take away their reproach. The par- manded, that if any were minded to take a woman for his wife, he should ties hang round, dunning and importuning him for the love of God, to pre receive her, first before witnesses, and henceforth let her be to him to scribe for them, that they may have children like other people. 'Give me wife, -as it is written, 'If any one take a wife. This taking is one of the children, or I die,' said the

fretful Sarah to her husband; "Give me child- affirmative precepts of the law, and is called 'espousing."" Lightfoot's ren, or I curse you,' say the barren Egyptians to their physicians.” Dr. Horae Hebr. on Matt. i. 18. (Works, vol. xi. p. 18. 8vo. edit. 1823.) Richardson's Travels along the Mediterranean, &c. vol. ii. p. 106. A nearly 5 Dr. Gill's Comments on Sol. Song i. 2. The same ceremony was pracsimilar scene is described by Mr. R. R. Madden, who travelled in the East tised among the primitive Christians. (Bingham's Antiquities, book xxii. between the years 1824 and 1827. Travels in Turkey, &c. vol. ii. p. 51. c. 3. sect. 6.) By the civil law, indeed, the kiss is made a ceremony, in

9 Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 327. Maurice's Indian some respects, of importance to the validity of the nuptial contract. (Cod. Antiquities, vol. vii. 329. Home's History of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. Justin. lib. v. tit. 3. de Donation. ante Nuptias, leg. 16.) Fry's Translation 350, 331.

of the Canticles, p. 33.

faith, presented the church as a youthful bride and a chaste Among the Jews, and generally throughout the East, mar- virgin to Christ. He still continued with the bridegroom, till riage was considered as a sort of purchase, which the man the wedding was furnished with guests. His joy was fulmade of the woman he desired to marry; and, therefore, in filled when his own followers came to inform him that Christ contracting marriages, as the wife brought a portion to the was increasing the number of his disciples, and that all men husband, so the husband was obliged to give her or her parents came unto him. This intelligence was as the sound of the money or presents in lieu of this portion. This was the case bridegroom's voice, and as the pledge that the nuptials of between Hamor, the father of Shechem, and the sons of heaven and earth were completed. From this representation Jacob, with relation to Dinah (Gen. xxxiv. 12.); and Jacob, of John as the paranymph, of Christ as the bridegroom, and having no money, offered his uncle Laban seven years' ser- the Church as the bride, the ministers and stewards of the vice,s which must have been equivalent to a large sum. (Gen. Gospel of God may learn, that they also are required, by the xxix. 18.) Saul did not give his daughter Michal to David, preaching of repentance and faith, to present their hearers in till after he had received a hundred foreskins of the Philis- all purity to the head of the Christian church. It is for them tines. (1 Sam. xviii. 25.) Hosea bought his wife at the price to find their best source of joy in the blessing of the most of fifteen pieces of silver, and a measure and a half of barley. Highest on their labours—their purest happiness in the im(Hos. iii. 2.). The same custom also obtained among the provement and perfecting of the Church confided to their Greeks and other ancient nations;' and it is to this day the care.". practice in several eastern countries, particularly among the Further, it was customary for the bridegroom to prepare Druses, Turks, and Christians, who inhabit the country of garments for his guests (Matt. xxii. 11.), which, it appears Haouran, and also among the modern Scenite Arabs, or those from Rev. xix. 8., were white; in these passages the wedwho dwell in tents.5

ding-garment is emblematical of Christian holiness and the IV. It appears from both the Old and New Testaments, righteousness of the saints. It was also usual for the bridethat the Jews celebrated the nuptial solemnity with great fes- groom, attended by the nuptial guests, to conduct the bride to tivity and splendour. Many of the rites and ceremonies, his house by night, accompanied by, her virgin train of observed by them on this occasion, were common both to the attendants, with torches and music and every demonstration Greek and Romans. We learn from the Misna, that the Jews of joy. To this custom, as well as to the various ceremonies were accustomed to put crowns or garlands on the heads of just stated, our Saviour alludes in the parables of the wise and newly married persons; and it should seem from the Song of foolish virgins (Matt. xxv. l-12.), and of the wedding-feast, Solomon (iji. 11.), that the ceremony of putting it on was given by a sovereign, in honour of his son's nuptials. (Matt. performed by one of the parents. Among the Greeks the xxii. 2.) In the first of these parables ten virgins are reprebride was crowned by her mother; and among them, as well sented as taking their lamps to meet the bridegroom ; five of as among the Orientals, and particularly the Hebrews, it was whom were prudent, and took with them a supply of oil, customary to wear crowns or garlands, not merely of leaves which the others had neglected. In the mean time, they all or flowers, but also of gold or silver, in proportion to the rank slumbered and slept, until the procession approached; but, in of the person presenting them; but those prepared for the the middle of the night, there was a cry made, Behold, the celebration of a nuptial banquet, as being a festivity of the bridegroom cometh! Go ye out to meet him.10 On this, all the first consequence, were of peculiar splendour and magnifi- virgins arose speedily to trim their lamps. The wise were cence. Chaplets of flowers only constituted the nuptial instantly ready; but the imprudent virgins were thrown into crowns of the Romans. Some writers have supposed that great confusion. Then, first, they recollected their neglect : the nuptial crowns and other ornaments of a bride are alluded their lamps were expiring, and they had no oil to refresh to in Ezek. xvi. 8–12.

them. While they were gone to procure a supply, the brideWe may form some idea of the apparel of the bride and groom arrived: they that were ready went in with him to the bridegroom from Isa. Ixi. 10., in which the yet future prosperous and happy, state of Jerusalem is compared to the dress

"Smaller circumstances and coincidences sometimes demonstrate of a bride and bridegroom. The latter was attended by nu- the truth of an assertion, or the authenticity of a book, more effectually merous companions : Samuel had thirty young men to attend !han more important facts. May not one of those unimportant yet convinc. him at his nuptials (Judg, xiv. 11.), who in Matt ix. 15. and ing coincidences be observed in this passage? The Baptist calls himself

the friend of the bridegroom, without alluding to any other paranymph, or Mark ii. 19. are termed children of the bride-chamber.

pavw. As the Jews were accustomed to have two paranymphs, there every wedding two persons were selected, who devoted them- seems, at first sight, to be something defective in the Baptist's comparison. selves for some time to the service of the bride and bride. But our Lord was of Galilee, and there

the custom was different from that groom. The offices assigned to the paranymph, or 7991, Townsend's Harmony of the New Testainent, vol. i. p. 132.

of any other part of Palestine. The Galileans had one paranymph only." · The same practice obtains in the East Indies to this day. Ward's His- 8 Exemplo et vita, says Kuinöel, communi depromto Johannes Baptista tory of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 334.

ostendit, quale inter ipsum et Christum discrimen intercedat. Se ipsum Calmet, Dissertations, tom. I. p. 279. Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. p. 440.

comparat cum paranympho, Christum cum sponso; quocum ipse Christus 3 The Crim Tartars, who are in poor circumstances, serve an appren

se quoque comparavit, ut patet e locis, Matt. ix. 15. and xxv. 1. Scilicet, ticeship for their wives, and are then admitted as part of the family. Mrs. ó caros te vurepis, est 'sponsi socius, ei peculiariter addictus, qui Græcis Holderness's Notes, p. 8. first edit.

dicebatur rapzvure coos, Matt. ix. 15. Üsos Tou vore puros. Heb. 120W 'filius • Potter's Greek Antiquities, vol. ii.

lætitiae.-Com. in lib. N. T. Hist. vol. iii. p. 227. • Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, &c. pp. 298. 385. De la Roque, Voyage 9 Townsend's Harmony of the New Test. vol. i. p. 132. dans la Palestine, p. 222. See several additional instances in Burder's 10 The Rev. Mr. Hartley, describing an Armenian wedding. says,-" The Oriental Literature, vol. i. pp. 56–59. Young girls, Mr. Buckingham large number of young females who were present naturally reminded me informs us, are given in marriage for certain sums of money, varying of the wise and foolish virgins in our Saviour's parable. These being from 500 to 1000 piastres, among the better order of inhabitants, according friends of the

bride, the virgins, her companions (Psal. xlv. 14.), had come to their connexions or beauty; though among the labouring classes it to meet the bridegroom. It is usual for the bridegroom to come at middescends as low as 100 or even 50. This sum being paid by the bridegroom night; so that, literally, at midnight the cry is made, Bebold, the bride. to the bride's

father adds to his wealth, and makes girls (particularly when groom cometh'! Go ye out to meet him. But, on this occasion, the bride. handsome) as profitable to their parents as boys are by the wages they groom tarried : it was two o'clock before he arrived. The whole party earn by their labour. Buckingham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, pp. then proceeded to the Armenian church, where the bishop was waiting to

l'eceive them; and there the ceremony was completed." Researches in • Dr. Good's translation of Solomon's Song, p. 106.

Greece and the Levant, p. 231. VOL. II.


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49. 143.

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