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the sun, are usually narrow, sometimes with a range of shops on each side. If from these we enter into any of the princi

с pal houses, we shall first pass through a porch' or gateway, with benches on each side, where the master of the family receives visits, and despatches business; few persons, not

A, A, the street. even the nearest relations, having admission any farther, except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are

B, the outer porch. received into the court, which lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or

C, C, C, the gallery.

с such proper materials as will carry off the water into the com

С mon sewers.” This court corresponded to the cæva adium or

D, the porch at the impluvium of the Romans; the use of which was to give light

entrance into the to the windows and carry off the rain. “When much people

main building. are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of a marriage, the circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like nature, the company is seldom or never admitted into one of the chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which

B is strewed accordingly with mats or carpets, for their more commodious entertainment. The stairs which lead to the

A

A roof are never placed on the outside of the house in the street, but usually at the gateway or passage room to the court;

Now, let it be supposed, that Jesus was sitting at D in the sometimes at the entrance within the court. This court is porch, at the entrance into the main building, and speaking now called in Arabic el woost, or the middle of the house, to the people, when the four men carrying the paralytic came literally answering to the to ueror of St. Luke. (v. 19.) In this to the front gate or porch, B. Finding the porch so crowded area our Saviour probably taught. In the summer season, and that they could not carry him in and lay him before Jesus, upon all occasions when a large company is to be received, they carried him up the stairs at the porch to the top of the the court is commonly sheltered from the heat and inclemen- gallery, C, C, C, and along the gallery round to the place cies of the weather by a vellum umbrella or veil, which, being where Jesus was sitting, and forcing a passage by removing expanded upon ropes from one side of the parallel wall to the the balustrade, they lowered down the paralytic, with the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The Psalmist couch on which he lay, into the court before Jesus.' Thus we seems to allude either to the tents of the Bedouins, or to some are enabled to understand the manner in which the paralytic covering of this kind, in that beautiful expression, of spreading was brought in and laid before the compassionate Redeemer.4 out the heavens like a veil or curtain.(Psal. civ. 3. See also

6. The court is for the most part surrounded with a cloister, Isaiah xl. 22.)? The arrangement of oriental houses satis- as the cava ædium of the Romans was with a peristylium or factorily explains the circumstances of the letting down of colonnade, over which, when the house has one or more the paralytic into the presence of Jesus Christ, in order

that stories (and they sometimes have two or three), there is a he might heal him. (Mark ii. 4. Luke v. 19.) The paralytic gallery erected of the same dimensions with the cloister, was carried by some of his neighbours to the top of the house, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed either by forcing their way through the crowd by the gateway work going round about it, to prevent people from falling and passages up the staircase, or else by conveying him over from it into the court. From the cloisters and galleries we some of the neighbouring terraces; and there, after they had are conducted into large spacious chambers of the same drawn away, the pregn or awning, they let him down along length of the court, but seldom or never communicating with the side of the roof through the opening or impluvium into one another. One of them frequently serves a whole family, the midst of the court before Jesus. Ergn, Dr, Shaw remarks, live with him ; or when several persons join in the rent of the

particularly when a father indulges his married children to may with propriety denote no less than tatlilo (the corresponding word in the Syriac version), any kind of covering;

same house. Hence it is that the cities of these countries, and, consequently, ancora su may signify, the removal of which are generally much inferior in size to those of Eusuch a covering. ?EEcpuçurtec is in the Vulgate Latin version rope, are so exceedingly populous, that great numbers of the rendered patefacientes, as if further explanatory of arcotizeoar. inhabitants are swept away by the plague, or any other The same in the Persian version is connected with spuébarcv, contagious distemper. In houses of better fashion, these and there implies making holes in it for the cords to pass chambers, from the middle of the wall downwards, are cothrough. . That neither årsregary nor piecpučartes imply any vered and adorned with velvet or damask hangings, of white, force or violence offered to the roof, appears from the parallel blue, red, green, or other colours (Esth. i. 6.), suspended passage in St. Luke; where, though Set Tüb xepe par uztñecer upon hooks, or taken down at pleasure. But the upper avrov, per tegulas demiserunt illum, is rendered by our

trans- part

is embellished with more permanent ornaments, being lators, they let him down through the tiling, as if that had been adorned with the most ingenious wreathings and devices in previously broken up, it should be rendered, they let him down stucco and fret-work. The ceiling is generally of wainscot over, along the side, or by the way of the roof, as in Acts ix. either very artfully painted, or else thrown into a variety of 25. and 2 Cor. xi. 33., where the like phraseology is observed panels, with gilded mouldings and scrolls of their Koran: as in St. Luke: Seze is rendered in both places by, that is, intermixed. The prophet Jeremiah (xxii. 14.) exclaims along the side, or by the way of the wall. 'Efopu Exynes may express the plucking away or removing any obstacle, such as + Mr. Hartley has dissented from the interpretation above given by Dr. awning or part of a parapet, which might be in their way. frequently

above my head, and contemplate the facility with which the

Shaw. “When I lived in Ægina" (he relates), "I used to look up not unKepepec was first used for a roof of tiles, but afterwards came whole transaction might take place. The roof was constructed in this to signify any kind of roof.3

manner :-A layer of reeds, of a large species, was placed upon the rafters. The following diagram will perhaps give the reader a

On these a quantity of heather (heath) was strewed; upon the heather tolerably accurate idea of the arrangement of an eastern culty could there be in removing,

first the earth, then the heather, next

earth was deposited, and beat down into a compact mass. Now what diffi. house :

the reeds? Nor would the difficulty be increased, if the earth had a pave

ment of tiling (xspxwv) laid upon it. 1 In Bengal, servants and others generally sleep in the

verandah or porch, heather and reeds would intercept any thing which might otherwise fall

the persons in the house from the removal of the tiles and earth; for the in front of their master's house." (Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, down, and would be removed last of all." (Hartley's Researches in Greece, vol. ii. p. 323.) The Arab servants in Egypt do the saine. (Wilson's Tra. vels in Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 55.) In this way Uriah slept at the

p. 240.) door of the king's house, with all the servants of his lord. (2 Sam. xi. 9.)

Similar costly hangings appear to have decorated the pavilion or state 9 Dr. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 374—376.

tent of Solomon, alluded to in Cant. i.5. ; the beauty and elegance of which Shaw's Travels in Barbary, &c. vol. i. pp. 382—384. 8vo. edition. Val.

would form a striking contrast to the black tents of the nomadic Arabs. py's Gr. Test. on Mark ii. 4. If the circumstances related by the evange. superb: of this gorgeous splendour, Mr. Harmer has given some instances

The state tents of modern oriental sovereigns, it is well known, are very list had happened in India, nothing could be easier than the mode of letting from the travels of Egmont and Hayman. The tent of the Grand Seignior down the paralytic. A plank or two might be started from the top balcony or viranda in the back court, where the congregation was probably covered on the

outside with scarlet broad cloth, and lined within with violet

was covered and lined with silk. Nadir Shah had a very superb one, assembled, and the man [be] let down in his hammock.” Callaway's coloured satin, ornamented with a great variety of animals, flowers, &c Oriental Observations, p. 71.

formed entirely of pearls and precious stones. (Harmer on Sol. Song p. 186.)

No inconvenience could result to

Roman magistrates, they were not allowed to enjoy them by / ii

. 24.) And in his Epistle to Titus, he informs us that the their chief priests and popular leaders, whom Josephus cha- Jews in speculation, indeed, acknowledged a God, but in racterizes as profligate wretches, who had purchased their practice they were atheists; for in their lives they were aboplaces by bribes or by acts of iniquity, and maintained their minally immoral and abandoned, and the contemptuous ill-acquired authority by the most flagitious and abominable despisers of every thing that was virtuous. They profess crimes. Nor were the religious creeds of these men more tkał they know God, but in works they deny him, being abomipure : having espoused the principles of various sects, they nable and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate. suffered themselves to be led away by all the prejudice and (Titus i. 16.) This testimony to the religious and moral animosity of party (though, as in the case of our Saviour, character of the Jewish people, by Jesus Christ and his they would sometimes abandon them to promote some fa- apostles, is amply corroborated by Josephus, who has given vourite measure); and were commonly more intent on the us a true estimate of their principles and manners, and is gratification of private enmity, than studious of advancing

the also confirmed by other contemporary historians. The circause of religion, or promoting the public welfare. The cumstance of their nation having been favoured with an exsubordinate and inferior members were infected with the cor- plicit revelation from the Deity, instead of enlarging their ruption of the head ; the priests, and the other ministers of minds, miserably contracted and soured them with all the religion, were become dissolute and abandoned in the highest bitterness and leaven of theological odium. They regarded undegree ; while the common people,

instigated by examples circumcised heathens with sovereign contempt, and believed so depraved, rushed headlong into every kind of iniquity, them to be hated by God, merely because they were born and by their incessant seditions, robberies, and extortions, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and lived strangers armed against themselves both the justice of God and the to their covenant of promise. They would not eat with vengeance of men.

them (Acts xi. 3.), do the least friendly office for them, or Owing to these various causes, the great mass of the Jew- maintain any social correspondence and mutual intercourse ish people were sunk into the most deplorable ignorance of with them. The apostle comprises their national character God and of divine things. Hence proceeded that dissolute- in a few words, and it is a just one : They were contrary to ness of manners and that profligate wickedness which pre- all men.? (1 Thess. ii. 15.). The supercilious insolence, vailed among the Jews during

Christ's ministry upon earth; with which the mean and selfish notion of their being the in allusion to which the divine Saviour compares the people only favourites of heaven and enlightened by God inflated to a multitude of lost sheep, straying without a shepherd them as a people, and the haughty and scornful disdain in (Matt. x. 6. xv. 24.), and their teachers, or doctors, to which they held the heathens, are in a very striking manner blind guides, who professed to instruct others in a way with characterized in the following spirited address of St. Paul to which they were totally unacquainted themselves.' (Matt. them :Behold! thou art called a Jew, and restest in the low, xv. 14. John ix. 39, 40.)

and makest thy boast of God: and knowest his will, and apMore particularly, in the New Testament,2 " the Jews are provest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out described as a most superstitious and bigoted people, at- of the law, and art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the tached to the Mosaic ritual and to the whimsical traditions blind, a light of them which are in darkness, an instructor of of their elders, with a zeal and fanaticism approaching to the foolish, a teacher of bubes, which hast the form of knowledge madness. They are represented as a nation of hypocrites, and of the truth in the law. (Rom. ii. 17—20.). This passage assuming the most sanctimonious appearance before the exhibits to us a faithful picture of the national character of world, at the corners of crowded streets uttering loud and this people, and shows us how much they valued themselves fervent strains of rapturous devotion, merely to attract the upon their wisdom and superior knowledge of religion, arroeyes of a weak and credulous multitude, and to be noticed gating to themselves the character of lights and guides, and and venerated by them as mirrors of mortification and hea- instructors of the whole world, and contemptuously regardvenly-mindedness; devoured with ostentation and spiritual ing all the heathen as blind, as babes, and as fools. pride; causing a trumpeter to walk before them in the Another ever memorable instance of the national pride streets, and make proclamation that such a rabbi was going and arrogance of this vain and ostentatious people is, that to distribute his alms; publicly displaying all this showy when our Lord was discoursing to them concerning their parade of piety and charity, yet privately guilty of the most pretensions to moral liberty, and representing the ignoble unfeeling cruelty and oppression ; devouring widows' houses, and despicable bondage in which sin detains its votaries, stripping the helpless widow and friendless orphan of their they imagined this to be an indirect allusion to the present property, and exposing them to all the rigours of hunger and condition of their country: their pride was instantly in nakedness ; clamouring, The temple of the Lord !. The temple flames; and they had the effrontery and impudence openly to of the Lord! making conscience of paying tithe of mint, assert, that they had always been free, and were never in anise, and cummin, to the support of its splendour and bondage to any man (John viii. 33.), though every child priesthood, but in practical life violating and trampling upon must know the history of their captivities, must know that the first duties of morality,-justice, fidelity, and mercy, -as Judæa was at that very time a conquered province, had been being vulgar and heathenish attainments, and infinitely be subdued by Pompey, and from that time had paid an annual low the regard of exalted saints and spiritual perfectionists. tribute to Rome." Another characteristic which distinguishes Their great men were to an incredible degree depraved in and marks this people, was that kind of evidence which they their morals, many of them Sadducees in principle, and in expected in order to their reception of truth. Except they practice the most profligate sensualists and debauchees; saw signs and wonders they would not believe! (John iv. 48. their atrocious and abandoned wickedness, as Josephus tes- If a doctrine proposed to their acceptance was not confirmed tifies, transcended all the enormities which the most corrupt by some visible displays of preternatural power, some strikage of the world had ever beheld ; they compassed sea and ing phenomena, the clear and indubitable evidences of an land to make proselytes to Judaism from the Pagans, and, immediate divine interposition, they would reject it. In anwhen they had gained these converts, soon rendered them, by their immoral lives and scandalous examples, more de- 3."I cannot forbear," says Josephus, "declaring my opinion, though the praved and profligate than ever they were before their con- declaration fills me with great emotion and regret, that if the Romans had version. The apostle tells them, that by reason of their delayed to coine against these wretches, the city would either have been notorious vices their religioh was become the object of ca- from heaven, as Sodom was: for that generation was far more enormously lumny and satire among the heathen nations. The name of wicked than those who suffered these calamities." Bell, Jud. lib. y. c. 13. God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you !4 (Rom. 1956..

* These things they suffered," says Origen, was being the most abandoned of men." Origen contra Celsuin, p. 62. Cantab. 1677.

6 "The Jews are the only people who refuse all friendly intercourse with Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. book i. part i. chap. ii., and also his Commenta. every other nation, and esteem all mankind as enenies." Diod. Siculus, ries on the Affairs of Christians before the time of Constantine the Great, tom. ii. p. 524. edit. Wesseling, Amstel. 1746. "Let him be to thee as an vol. 1. Introd. ch. ii. Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Novi Testamenti, c. 35. heathen man and a publican.” (Matt. xviii. 17.) of the extreine detestaDe summa Populi Judaici corruptione, tempore Christi, pp. 471-473. tion and abhorrence which the Jews had for the Gentiles we have a very

a For the following picture of the melancholy corruption of the Jewish striking example in that speech which St. Paul addresses to them, telling church and people, the author is indebted to Dr. Harwood's Introduction them in the course of it, that God had commissioned him to go to the Gento the New Testament. (vol. ii. pp. 58. 61.)

tiles. The moment he had pronounced the word, the whole assembly was 3 Josaphus, Bell. Jud. lib. vii. p. 1314. Hudson. Again, says this histo- in confusion, tore off their clothes, rent the air with their cries, threw rian, "They were universally corrupt, both publicly and privately. They clouds of dust

into it, and were transported into the last excesses of rage vied which should surpass each other in impiety against God and injustice and madness. "He said unto me, Depart, for 1 will send thee far hence

unto the Gentiles: they gave him audience," says the sacred historian, * The superstitious credulity of a Jew_was proverbial among the hea" until this

word, and then lifted up their voice and said, Away with such thens. Credat Judæus Apella. Horat. Epictetus mentions and exposes a fellow from the earth; for it is not fit that he should live." (Acts xxii. 21.) their greater attachment to their ceremonies than to the duties of morality. * This character of the Jewish nation is confirmed by Tacitus, and ex Dissertationes, lib. i. p. 113. edit. Upton. See also Josephus contra Apion.pressed almost in the very words of the Apostle, Adversus omnes alios p. 49. 'lavercamp.

hostile odium.” Tacit. Hist. lib. v. 65. vol. iii. p. 261. edit. Bipont.

towards men.” Ibid.

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the sun, are usually narrow, sometimes with a range of shops
on each side. If from these we enter into any of the princi-

с
pal houses, we shall first pass through a porch or gateway,
with benches on each side, where the master of the family

DI
receives visits, and despatches business; few persons, not

A, A, the street. even the nearest relations, having admission any farther, except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are

B, the outer porch. received into the court, which lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or

C, C, C, the gallery.

С such proper materials as will carry off the water into the com

С mon sewers." This court corresponded to the cæva adium or

D, the porch at the impluvium of the Romans; the use of which was to give light

entrance into the to the windows and carry off the rain. “When much people

main building.
are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of a marriage, the
circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like nature, the
company is seldom or never admitted into one of the cham-
bers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which

B
is strewed accordingly with mats or carpets, for their more
commodious entertainment. The stairs which lead to the

A

A
roof are never placed on the outside of the house in the street,
but usually at the gateway or passage room to the court;

Now, let it be supposed, that Jesus was sitting at D in the sometimes at the entrance within the court. This court is porch, at the entrance into the main building, and speaking now called in Arabic el woost, or the middle of the house, to the people, when the four men carrying the paralytic came literally answering to the to usscy of St. Luke. (v. 19.) In this to the front gate or porch, B. Finding the porch so crowded area our Saviour probably taught. In the summer season, and that they could not carry him in and lay him before Jesus, upon all occasions when a large company is to be received, they carried him up the stairs at the porch to the top of the the court is commonly sheltered from the heat and inclemen-gallery, C, C, C, and along the gallery round to the place cies of the weather by a vellum umbrella or veil, which, being where Jesus was sitting, and forcing a passage by removing expanded upon ropes from one side of the parallel wall to the the balustrade, they lowered down the paralytič, with the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The Psalmist couch on which he lay, into the court before Jesus. Thus we seems to allude either to the tents of the Bedouins, or to some are enabled to understand the manner in which the paralytic covering of this kind, in that beautiful expression, of spreading was brought in and laid before the compassionate Redeemer.4 out the heavens like a veil or curtain.(Psal. civ. 2. See also

“ The court is for the most part surrounded with a cloister, Isaiah xl. 22.)? The arrangement of oriental houses satis- as the cava ædium of the Romans was with a peristylium or factorily, explains the circumstances of the letting down of colonnade, over which, when the house has one or more the paralytic into the presence of Jesus Christ, in order that stories (and they sometimes have two or three), there is a he might heal him. (Mark ii. 4. Luke v. 19.) The paralytic gallery erected of the same dimensions with the cloister, was carried by some of his neighbours to the top of the house, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed either by forcing their way through the crowd by the gateway work going round about it, to prevent people from falling and passages up the staircase, or else by conveying him over from it into the court. From the cloisters and galleries we some of the neighbouring terraces; and there, after they had are conducted into large spacious chambers of the same drawn away the otegn or awning, they let him down along length of the court, but seldow or never communicating with the side of the roof through the opening or impluvium into one another. One of them frequently serves a whole family, the midst of the court before Jesus. Eteyn, Dr. Shaw remarks, particularly when a father indulges his married children to may with propriety denote no less than tatlilo (the corres- live with him; or when several persons join in the rent of the ponding word in the Syriac version), any kind of covering ;

same house. Hence it is that the cities of these countries, and, consequently, arcoteyzey may signify, the removal of which are generally much inferior in size to those of Eusuch a covering. ?EE-pučavte is in the Vulgate Latin version rope, are so exceedingly populous, that great numbers of the rendered patefacientes, as if further explanatory of areotegaoay. inhabitants are swept away by the plague, or any other The same in the Persian version is connected with repubbxtcy, contagious distemper. In houses of better fashion, these and there implies making holes in it for the cords to pass chambers, from the middle of the wall downwards, are cothrough. . That neither åttoteu5W nordicpučartes imply any vered and adorned with velvet or damask hangings, of white, force or violence offered to the roof, appears from the parallel blue, red, green, or other colours (Esth. i. 6.), suspended passage in St. Luke; where, though des Für nepce pwr x2Iñaser upon hooks, or taken down at pleasure. But the upper aitov, per tegulus demiserunt illum, is rendered '

by our trans- part is embellished with more permanent ornaments, being lators, they let him down through the tiling, as if that had been adorned with the most ingenious wreathings and devices in previously broken up, it should be rendered, they let him down stucco and fret-work. The ceiling is generally of wainscot over, along the side, or by the way of the roof, as in Acts ix. either very artfully painted, or else thrown into a variety of 25. and 2 Cor. xi. 33., where the like phraseology is observed panels, with gilded mouldings and scrolls of their Koran as in St. Luke: deze is rendered in both places by, that is, intermixed. The prophet Jeremiah (xxii. 14.) exclaims along the side, or by the way of the wall. 'E&cpucartes may express the plucking

away or removing any obstacle, such as Mr. Hartley has dissented from the interpretation above given by Dr. awning or part of a parapet, which might be in their way. Frequently above my head, and contemplate ine facility with which the

Shaw. “When I lived in Ægina" (he relates), "I used to look up not unKepepice was first used for a roof of tiles, but afterwards came whole transaction might take place. The roof was constructed in this to signify any kind of roof.3

manner :-A layer of reeds, of a large species, was placed upon the rafters. The following diagram will perhaps give the reader a On these a quantity of heather (heath) was strewed ; upon the heather tolerably accurate idea of the arrangement of an eastern culty could there be in removing, first the earth, then the heather, next house :

the reeds ? Nor would the difficulty be increased, if the earth had a pave

ment of tiling (xs pseuwv) laid upon it. No inconvenience could result to 1 In Bengal, servants and others generally sleep in the verandah or porch, heather and reeds would intercept any thing which might otherwise fall

the persons in the house from the removal of the tiles and earth; for the in front of their master's house. (Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, down, and would be removed last of all.”' (Hartley's Researches in Greece, vol. ii. p. 323.) The Arab servants in Egypt do the saine. (Wilson's Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 55.) In this way Uriah slept at the

p. 240.) door of the king's house, with all the servants of his lord. (2 Sam. xi. 9.)

3 Similar costly hangings appear to have decorated the pavilion or state 2 Dr. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 374-376.

tent of Solomon, alluded to in Cant. i.5. ; the beauty and elegance of which • Shaw's Travels in Barbary, &c. vol. i. pp. 382—384. 8vo. edition. Val

would form a striking contrast to the black tents of the nomadic Arabs. py's Gr. Test , on Mark ii. 4. "If the circumstances

related by the evange. superb: of

this gorgeous splendour, Mr. Harmer has given some instances

The state tents of modern oriental sovereigns, it is well known, are very list had happened in India, nothing could be easier than the mode of letting from the travels of Egmont and Hayman. The tent of the Grand Seignior down the paralytic. A plank or two might be started from the top balcony or viranda in the back court, where the congregation was probably covered on the

outside with scarlet broad cloth, and lined within with

violet

was covered and lined with silk. Nadir Shah had a very superb one, assembled, and the man [be] let down in his hammock.” Callaway's coloured satin, ornamented with a great variety of animals, flowers, &c Oriental Observations, p. 71.

formed entirely of pearls and precious stones. (Harmer on Sol. Song p. 186.)

Roman magistrates, they were not allowed to enjoy them by ii. 24.) And in his Epistle to Titus, he informs us that the their chief priests and popular leaders, whom Josephus cha- Jews in speculation, indeed, acknowledged a God, but in racterizes as profligate wretches, who had purchased their practice they were atheists ; for in their lives they were aboplaces by bribes or by acts of iniquity, and maintained their minally immoral and abandoned, and the contemptuous ill-acquired authority by the most flagitious and abominable despisers of every thing that was virtuous. They profess crimes. Nor were the religious creeds of these men more tkat they know God, but in works they deny him, being abomipure : having espoused the principles of various sects, they nable and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate. suffered themselves to be led away by all the prejudice and (Titus i. 16.). This testimony to the religious and moral animosity of party (though, as in the case of our Saviour, character of the Jewish people, by Jesus Christ and his they would sometimes abandon them to promote some fa- apostles, is amply corroborated by Josephus, who has given vourite measure); and were commonly more intent on the us a true estimate of their principles and manners, and is gratification of private enmity, than studious of advancing the also confirmed by other contemporary historians. The circause of religion, or promoting the public welfare. The cumstance of their nation having been favoured with an exsubordinate and inferior members were infected with the cor- plicit revelation from the Deity, instead of enlarging their ruption of the head ; the priests, and the other ministers of minds, miserably contracted and soured them with all the religion, were become dissolute and abandoned in the highest bitterness and leaven of theological odium. They regarded undegree ; while the common people, instigated by examples circumcised heathens with sovereign contempt, and believed so depraved, rushed headlong into every kind of iniquity, them to be hated by God, merely because they were born and by their incessant seditions, robberies, and extortions, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and lived strangers armed against themselves both the justice of God and the to their covenant of promise. They would not eat with vengeance of men.

them (Acts xi. 3.), do the least friendly office for them, or Owing to these various causes, the great mass of the Jew- maintain any social correspondence and mutual intercourse ish people were sunk into the most deplorable ignorance of with them. The apostle comprises their national character God and of divine things. Hence proceeded that dissolute- in a few words, and it is a just one : They were contrary to ness of manners and that profligate wickedness which pre-all men.? (1 Thess. ii. 15.), The supercilious insolence, vailed among the Jews during Christ's ministry upon earth; with which the mean and selfish notion of their being the in allusion to which the divine Saviour compares the people only favourites of heaven and enlightened by God inflated to a multitude of lost sheep, straying without a shepherd them as a people, and the haughty and scornful disdain in (Matt. x. 6. xv. 24.), and their teachers, or doctors, to which they held the heathens, are in a very striking manner blind guides, who professed to instruct others in a way with characterized in the following spirited address of St. Paul to which they were totally unacquainted themselves. (Matt. them :-Behold! thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, xv. 14. John ix. 39, 40.).

and makest thy boast of God: and knowest his will, and apa More particularly, in the New Testament,2 " the Jews are provest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out described as a most superstitious and bigoted people, at- of the law, and art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the tached to the Mosaic ritual and to the whimsical traditions blind, a light of them which are in darkness, an instructor of of their elders, with a zeal and fanaticism approaching to the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form of knowledge madness. They are represented as a nation of hypocrites, and of the truth in the law. (Rom. ii. 17–20.). This passage assuming the most sanctimonious appearance before the exhibits to us a faithful picture of the national character of world, at the corners of crowded streets uttering loud and this people, and shows us how much they valued themselves fervent strains of rapturous devotion, merely to attract the upon their wisdom and superior knowledge of religion, arroeyes of a weak and credulous multitude, and to be noticed gating

to themselves the character of lights and guides, and and venerated by them as mirrors of mortification and hea- instructors of the whole world, and contemptuously regardvenly-mindedness; devoured with ostentation and spiritual ing all the heathen as blind, as babes, and as fools. pride ; causing a trumpeter to walk before them in the ** Another ever memorable instance of the national pride streets, and make proclamation that such a rabbi was going and arrogance of this vain and ostentatious people is, that to distribute his alms; publicly displaying all this showy when our Lord was discoursing to them concerning their parade of piety and charity, yet privately guilty of the most pretensions to moral liberty, and representing the ignoble unfeeling cruelty and oppression; devouring widows' houses, and despicable bondage in which sin detains its votaries, stripping the helpless widow and friendless orphan of their they imagined this to be an indirect allusion to the present property, and exposing them to all the rigours of hunger and condition of their country: their pride was instantly in nakedness ; clamouring, The temple of the Lord! The temple flames ; and they had the effrontery and impudence openly to of the Lord! making conscience of paying tithe of mint, assert, that they had always been free, and were never in anise, and cummin, to the support of its splendour

and bondage to any man (John viii. 33.), though

every child priesthood, but in practical life violating and trampling upon must know the history of their captivities, must know that the first duties of morality,-justice, fidelity, and mercy,--as Judæa was at that very time a conquered province, had been being vulgar and heathenish attainments, and infinitely be- subdued by Pompey, and from that time had paid an annual low the regard of exalted saints and spiritual perfectionists. tribute to Rome. Another characteristic which distinguishes Their great men were to an incredible degree depraved in and marks this people, was that kind of evidence which they their morals, many of them Sadducees in principle, and in expected in order to their reception of truth. Except they practice the most profligate sensualists and debauchees; saw signs and wonders they would not believe! (John iv. 48.) their atrocious and abandoned wickedness, as Josephus tes- If a doctrine proposed to their acceptance was not confirmed tifies, transcended all the enormities which the most corrupt by some visible displays of preternatural power, some strikage of the world had ever beheld ; they compassed sea and ing phenomena, the clear and indubitable evidences of an land to make proselytes to Judaism from the Pagans, and, immediate divine interposition, they would reject it. In anwhen they had gained these converts, soon rendered them, by their immoral lives and scandalous examples, more de S "I cannot forbear,” says Josephus, " declaring my opinion, though the praved and profligate than ever they were before their con- declaration fills me with great emotion and regret, that if the Romans had version. The apostle tells them, that by reason of their delayed to coine against ihese wretches, the city would either have been notorious vices their religioh was become the object of ca- from heaven, as Sodom

was: for that generation was far more enormously lumny and satire among the heathen nations. The name of wicked than those who suffered these calamities.” Bell.

Jud. lib. v. c. 13. God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you !4 (Rom. : 1256. These things they suffered," says Origen, as being the most

6 "The Jews are the only people who refuse all friendly intercourse with 1 Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. book i. part i. chap. ii., and also his Commenta-every other nation, and esteem all mankind as enemies." Diod. Siculus, ries on the Affairs of Christians before the time of Constantine the Great, tom. ii. p. 524. edit. Wesseling, Amstel. 1746. "Let him be to thee as an vol. 1. Introd. ch. ii. Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Novi Testamenti, c. 35. heathen man and a publican.” (Matt. xviii. 17.) of the extreine detestaDe summa Populi Judaici corruptione, tempore Christi, pp. 471-473. tion and abhorrence which the Jews had for the Gentiles we have a very

a For the following picture of the melancholy corruption of the Jewish striking example in that speech which St. Paul addresses to them, telling church and people,

the author is indebted to Dr. Harwood's Introduction them in the course of it, that God had commissioned him to go to the Gento the New Testament. (vol. ii. pp. 58. 61.)

tiles. The moment he had pronounced the word, the whole assembly was 3 Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. vii. p. 1314. Hudson. Again, says this histo- in confusion, tore off their clothes, rent the air with their cries, threw rian, "They were universally corrupt, both publicly and privately. They clouds of dust

into it, and were transported

into the last excesses of rage vied which should surpass each other in impiety against God and injustice and madness. He said unto me, Depart, for 1 will send thee far hence towards men." Ibid.

unto the Gentiles: they gave him audience," says the sacred historian, • The superstitions credulity of a Jew_was proverbial among the hea- "until this word, and then lifted up their voice and said, Away with such thens. Credat Judæus Apella. Horat. Epictetus mentions and exposes a fellow from the earth; for it is not fit that he should live.” (Acts xxii. 21.) their greater attachment to their ceremonies than to the duties of morality. * This character of the Jewish nation is confirmed by Tacitus, and ex I vissertationes, lib. i. p. 113. edit. Upton. See also Josephus contra Apion pressed almost in the very words of the Apostle, Adversus omnes alios p. 49. 'avercamp.

hostile odium.” Tacit. Hist. lib. v. $ 5. vol. iii. p. 261. edit. Bipont.

cient times, for a series of many years, this people had been strained to emigrate from their native country; hence, at the favoured with numerous signal manifestations from heaven : time of our Saviour's birth, there was scarcely a province in a cloud had conducted them by day, and a pillar of fire by the Roman empire in which they were not to be found, either night; their law was given them accompanied by a peculiar serving in the army, engaged in the pursuits of commerce, display of solemn pomp and magnificence; and the glory of or exercising some lucrative arts. They were maintained, God had repeatedly filled their temple. Habituated as their in foreign countries, against injurious treatment and violence, understandings had been, for many ages, to receive as truth by various special edicts of the emperors and magistrates in only what should be attested and ratified by signs from hea- their favour;' though from the peculiarities of their religion ven, and by some grand and striking phenomena in the sky, and manners, they were held in very general contempt, and it was natural for them, long accustomed as they had been were not unfrequently exposed to much vexation and annoy, to this kind of evidence, to ask our Saviour to give them ance, from the jealousy and indignation of an ignorant and some sign from heaven (Matt. xvi. 1.), to exhibit before them superstitious populace. Many of them, in consequence of some amazing and stupendous prodigy in the air to convince their long residence and intercourse with foreign nations, fell them of the dignity and divinity of his character. The Jews, into the error of endeavouring to make their religion accomsays St. Paul, require a signo (1 Cor. i. 22.); it was that modate itself to the principles and institutions of some of the species of evidence to which their nation had been accus- different systems of heathen discipline; but, on the other tomed. Thus we read that the Scribes and Pharisees came hand, it is clear that the Jews brought many of those among to John, desiring him that he would show them a sign from whom they resided to perceive the superiority of the Mosaic heaven. Again, we read that the Jews came and said to religion over the Gentile superstitions, and were highly inJesus, What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou dost strumental in causing them to forsake the worship of a pluthese things? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this rality of gods. Although the knowledge which the Gentiles temple, and in three days I will raise it up! (John ii. 18, 19, thus acquired from the Jews respecting the only true God, What kind of signs these were which they expected, and the Creator and Governor of the universe, was, doubtless, what sort of preternatural prodigies they wanted him to dis- both partial and limited, yet it inclined many of them the play in order to authenticate his divine mission to them, ap- more readily to listen to the subsequent arguments and expears from the following passages : They said, therefore, unto hortations of the apostles of our Saviour, for the purpose of him, What sign showest thou then, that we may see und believe exploding the worship of false deities, and recalling men to thee? What dost thou work? Our fathers did eat manna in the knowledge of true religion. All which, Mosheim obthe desert ; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven! serves, with equal truth and piety, appears to have been most (John vi. 30, 31.) This method, therefore, of espousing singularly and wisely directed by the adorable hand of an religious doctrines, only as they should be confirmed by some interposing. Providence: to the end that this people, who signal and indubitable interposition of the Deity, and their were the sole depository of the true religion and of the knowcherishing the vanity and presumption that heaven would ledge of the one supreme God, being spread abroad through lavish its miraculous signs whenever they called for them, the whole earth, might be every where, by their example, a constitute a striking and very distinguishing feature in the reproach to superstition, contribute in some measure to check national character of this people.”

it, and thus prepare the way for that fuller display of divine So exceedingly great was the fecundity of the Jewish truth which was to shine upon the world from the ministry people, that multitudes of them had occasionally been con- and Gospel of the Son of God.?

PART IV.

DOMESTIC ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS INCIDENTALLY

MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE DWELLINGS OF THE JEWS.

I. Caves.-II. Tents.—III. HousesTheir ArrangementMaterialsand Conveniences.-IV. Furniture.-V. Cities,

Markets, and Gates. I. As men, in the primitive condition of society, were un- bary and Egypt, as well as in various other parts of the acquainted with the arts, they, of course, were not able to East.4. The Horites, who dwelt on Mount Seir, the Zambuild themselves houses; they abode, therefore, necessarily zummim, and the Emims or Anakim, are supposed to have under the shade of trees. It is probable that when mankind resided in caves. began to multiply on the earth, they dwelt in Caves, many II. In succeeding ages, they abode generally in Tents, as of which, in the Holy Land, are both capacious and dry, and the Arabs of the Desert do to this day. The invention of still afford occasional shelter to the wandering shepherds and these is ascribed to Jabal the son of Lamech, who is, theretheir flocks. Thus, Lot and his daughters abode in a cave, fore, termed the father of such as dwell in tents. (Gen. iy. 20.) after the destruction of Sodom. (Gen. xix. 30.) Ancient The patriarchs pitched their tents where they pleased, and, historians contain many notices of troglodytes, or dwellers it should seem, under the shade of trees whenever this was in caves, and modern travellers have met with them in Bar- practicable. Thus, Abraham's tent was pitched under a tree

in the plains of Mamre (Gen. xviii. 4.), and Deborah the creta Romana et Asiatica pro Judæis ad cultuia divinum per Asiz Minoris Bethel, in Mount Ephraim. (Judg. iv. 5.) In the East, to

In proof of this observation, Mosheim refers to Jacobi Gronovii De: prophetess dwelt under a palm tree between Ramah and urbes secure obeundum. Lugd. Bat. 1712. 8vo. See also Dr. Lardner's Credibility, part i. book ch. 8. (Works, vol. i. pp. 161–201.) where nu- this day, it is the custom in many places to plant about and merous valuable testimonies are adduced. a Mosheiur's Commentaries, vol i. p. 106. Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 52. edit, broad, and afford a cooling and refreshing shade. It appears

among their buildings trees, which grow both high and sects, &c, are largely discussed by Prideaux, Connection, book v. vol. ii. from 1 Kings iv. 25. that this practice anciently obtained in pp. 335-368. Relandi Antiq, Sacr. Hebræorum, pp. 276. et seq. Ikenius

, Judæa, and that vines and fig trees were commonly used for Antiq. Hebr. pp. 33–42. Schachtii Dictata in Ikenium, pp. 241. et seq.

Det this purpose. These trees furnished two great articles of Bp. 225-243. Dr. Lardner's Credibility, part i. book i. ch. 4. Leusden's food for their consumption, and the cuttings of their vines Philologus Hebræo. Mixtus, pp. 138–170. Buddei Hist. Philosophiae Hebraorum, pp. 86. et seq.

* The inhabitants of Anah, a town on the east of the river Jordan (lat. 32. a llerodotus, lib. iii. c. 74. Diod. Sic. lib. iii. c. 31. Quintus Curtius, lib. long. 35. E.), all live in grottoes or caves excavated in the rock. Bucking. V. c. 6. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xv. c. 4. $ 1.

ham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, p. 61.

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