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than ever they were before their conversion. (Matt. xxiii., 1. The Shechemite Pharisees, or those who entered into the 15.) Esteeming temporal happiness and riches as the sect only from motives of gain; just as the Shechemites nighest good, they scrupled not to accumulate wealth by suffered themselves to be circumcised. This order of Pharievery means, legal or illegál-(Matt. v. 1–12. xxiii

. 4, Luke sees is most probably alluded to in Matt. xxiii. 5. 14.; and, xvi. '14. James ii. 148.); vain and ambitious of popular ap- ?. The Pharisees who said, “Let me know what my duty plause, they offered up long prayers' in public places, but not is, and I will do it."_"I have done my duty, that the comwithout a self-sufficiency of tñeir own holiness (Matt. vi. mand may be performed according to it.” of this sort the 25. Luke xviii

. 11.); under a sanctimonious appearance young man in the Gospel appears to have been, who came of respect for the memories of the prophets whom their an- to Jesus Christ, saying, "Good master, WHAT GOOD THING cestors had slain, they repaired and beautified their sepul- SHALL I do, that I may have eternal life?” and

who at length chres (Matt. xxiii. 29.); and such was their idea of their replied,

-All these have I kept (or observed) from my youth own sanctity, that they thought themselves defiled if they up. (Matt. xix.-16. 20.): but touched or conversed with sinners, that is, with publi- With all their pretensions to piety, the Pharisees entercans or tax-gatherers, and persons of loose and irregular lives. tained the most sovereign contempt for the people; whom, (Luke vii. 39. xv. 1. et seq.)

being ignorant of the law, they pronounced to be accursed. But, above all their other tenets, the Pharisees were con- (John vii. 49.) It is unquestionable, as Mosheim has well spicuous for their reverential observance of the traditions or remarked, that the religion of the Pharisees was, for the decrees of the elders: these traditions, they pretended, had most part, founded in consummate hypocrisy; and that, in been handed down from Moses through every generation, but general, they were the slaves of every vicious appetite, were not committed to writing; and they were not merely proud, arrogant, and avaricious, consulting only the gratificaconsidered as of equal authority with the divine law, but tion of their lusts, even at the very moment when they proeven preferable to it. “The words of the scribes,” said fessed themselves to be engaged in the service of their they," are lovely above the words of the law; for the Maker. These odious features in the character of the Phawords of the law are weighty and light, but the words of risees caused them to be reprehended by our Saviour with the scribes are ALL weighty."2 Among the traditions thus the utmost severity, even more than he rebuked the Saddusanctimoniously observed by the Pharisees, we may briefly cees; who, although they had departed widely from the notice the following :-1. The washing of hands up to the genuine principles of religion, yet did not impose on manwrist before and after meat (Matt. xv. 2. Mark vii. 3.), which kind by pretended sanctity, or devote themselves with insathey accounted not merely a religious duty, but considered tiable greediness to the acquisition of honours and riches.s its omission as a crime equal to fornication, and punishable All the

Pharisees, however, were not of this description. by excommunication. 2. The purification of the cups, ves- Nicodemus appears to have been a man of great probity and sels, and couches used at their meals by ablutions or wash- piety: and the same character is applicable to Gamaliel. If ings (Mark vii. 4.); for which purpose the six large water-Saul persecuted the church of Christ, he did it out of a blind pots mentioned by St. John (ii. 6.) were destined. But zeal; but, not to insist on the testimony which he bears of these ablutions are not to be confounded with those symboli- himself, it is evident, from the extraordinary favour of God cal washings mentioned in Psal. xxvi. 6. and Matt. xxvii. towards him, that he was not tainted with the other vices 24. 3. Their punctilious payment of tithes (temple-offer- common to the sect of the Pharisees. What he says of it, ings), even of the most trifling thing. (Luke xviii

. 12. Matt. that it was the strictest of all, cannot admit of any other xxiii. 23.) 4. Their wearing broader phylacteries and larger than a favourable construction.. fringes to their garments than the rest of the Jews. (Matt. II. The sect of the SADDUCEES is by some writers considered xxiii

. 5.) He, who wore his phylactery and his fringe of as the most ancient of the Jewish sects; though others have the largest size, was reputed to be the most devout. 5. supposed that the Sadducees and Pharisees gradually grew Their fasting twice a week with great appearance of austerity up together. This sect derives its appellation from Sadok, (Luke xviii. 12. Matt. vi. 16.); thus converting that exercise or Zadok, the disciple and successor of Antigonus Sochæus, into religion which is only a help towards the performance who lived above two hundred (Dr. Prideaux says two hunof its hallowed duties. The Jewish days of fasting were dred and sixty-three) years before Christ; and who taught the second and fifth days of the week, corresponding with his pupils to be not as servants, who wait upon their masour Mondays and Thursdays: on one of these days they ter for the sake of reward, but to be like servants who wait commemorated Moses going up to the mount to receive the upon their master, not for the sake of reward;" but that law, which, according to their traditions, was on the fifth day they should let the fear of the Lord be in them.' Unable

to or Thursday; and on the other his descent after he had re- comprehend a doctrine so spiritual, Sadok deduced from it ceived the two tables, which they supposed to have been on the inference that neither reward nor punishment is to be the second day, or Monday.

expected in a future life. The following are the principal Very surprising effects are related concerning the mortifi- tenets of the Sadducees :cations of the Pharisees, and the austerities practised by some 1. That there is no resurrection, neither angel nor spirit of them in order to preserve the purity of the body. Some- (Matt. xxii. 23. Acts xxii. 8.), and that the soul of man times they imposed these painful exercises for four, eight, or perishes together with the body. even ten years, before they married. They deprived them- 2. That there is no fate or overruling providence, but that selves almost entirely of sleep, lest they should involunta- all men enjoy the most ample freedom of action; in other rily become unclean or polluted during sleep. Some of them words, the absolute power of doing either good or evil, accordare said to have slept on narrow planks, not more than twelve ing to their own choice; hence they were very severe judges.10 fingers broad; in order that, if they should sleep too soundly, 3. They paid no regard whatever to any tradition, adherthey might fall upon the ground and awake to prayer. Othersing strictly to the letter of Scripture, bat preferring the five slept on small and sharp-pointed stones, and even on thorns, in order that they might be laid under a kind of necessity to * Jerusalem Talmud, Berachoth, fol. 13. 2. Sotah, fol. 20. 3. Babylonish be always awake.3" As, however, none of these austerities Talmud, fol. 22. 2. Dr. Lightfoot has translated the entire passages in his were legally commanded, and as the Pharisees were not • Mosheim's Commentaries on the Affairs of Christians, vol. i. p. 83. bound to practise them by any law or other obligation, each 6 Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introd. (Bp. Watson's Tracts) vol. iii. seems to have followed his own inclination and the impulse p. 190.2

Lightfoot's Horæ Hebraicæ on Matt. iii. 7. or ardour of his devotion. The Talmuds mention seven 8 Josephus de Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 8. in fine. Ant. Jad. lib. xviii. c. 1. $ 4. sorts of Pharisees, two of whom appear to be alluded to, Some learned men have expressed their surprise, that the Sadducees though not specified by name, in the New Testament, viz. books of Moses, in which such frequent and express mention is made

of 1 Bucher, after a very ancient Hebrew manuscript ritual, has given a

believed not the angels, spoken of in the books of Moses, to be of any duralong and curious specimen of the "vain repetitions" used by the

Pharisees. tion, but looked on them as being created only for the service they per. See his Antiquitates Biblicæ ex Novo Testamento selectæ, pp. 240–244.formed, and existing no longer, (Grotius on Matt. xxii. xxiii. &c. Light Vitembergæ, 1729. 4to.

foot's Works, vol. ii. p. 702. Whitby on Acts xxiii. 8. and Matt. xxii. 23.) Jerusalem Berachoth, fol. 3. 2. as cited by Dr. Lightfoot in his Horæ There seem to have been heretics in the time of Justin Martyr (the second Hebraicæ on Matt. xv. The v:hole of his Hebrew and Talmudical Exer century), who entertained a similar opinion. (Justin. Dial. cum Tryphone, citations on that chapter is singularly instructive. The collection of these p. 358. b.) And it is evident that this notion was entertained by some among traditions, by which the Jews made the law of God of none effect, is the Jews, so lately as the emperor Justinian's time (the sixth centary); for termed the Talmud : of which, and of its use in illustrating the Holy there ts a law of his extant (Novel. 146. c. 2.) published against those Jews, Scriptures, an account has already been given. On the traditions of the who should presume either to deny the resurrection and judgment, or that modern Jews (which illustrate very many passages

of the New Testament), angels, the workmanship and creatures of God, did subsist. Biscoe on the the reader may consult Mr. Allen's Modern Judaism, chap. viii. to, xv. pp? Acts, vol. i. p. 99.

Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiji. c. 5. 69. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. 94. • Epiphanius, Hares. p. 16.

10 Ant. Jud. lib. xviij. c. 10. $ 6. VOL. II.

T

140–280.

books of Moses to the rest. It has been conjectured by intercourse with women, in the hope of acquiring a greater some writers that they rejected all the sacred books but those degree of purity, and becoming the better fitted for the kingof Moses. But this hypothesis is no proof; for, in the first dom of God." St. Paul is generally understood to have place, this sect took its rise at a time when the Jewish referred to them, in Col. ii. 18. 23., where “ voluntary humicanon had been closed; and it was just as easy for the Sad-lity," and " neglecting the body," are peculiarly applicable ducees to make their opinions harmonize with the other to the Essenes ; who, when they received any persons into books of the Old Testament as with the books of Moses. their number, made them solemnly swear that they would Secondly, how could any of the Sadducees have sustained the keep and observe the books of the sect and the names of the office of high-priest, if they had departed in so important a angels with care. What is also said in the above-cited point from the belief of the nation? Thirdly, although Jose- passage, of “intruding into things not seen,” is likewise phus frequently mentions their rejecting the traditions of the agreeable to the character of the Therapeutic Essenes; who, elders, yet he nowhere charges them with rejecting any of placing the excellence of their contemplative life in raising the sacred books; and as he was himself a Pharisee, and their minds to invisible objects, pretended to such a degree their zealous antagonist, he would not have passed over such of elevation and abstraction as to be able to penetrate into a crime in silence. It is further worthy of remark, that our the nature of angels, and assign them proper names, or rightly Saviour, who so severely censured the Sadducees for their interpret those already given them; and also to pry into other corruptions, did not condemn them for such rejection. futurity and predict future events. On these accounts it is

In point of numbers, the Sadducees were an inconsiderable highly probable that they were “ vainly puffed up by their sect; but their numerical deficiency was amply compensated fleshly mind.” Further, the tenets referred to by St. Paul by the dignity and eminence of those who embraced their (Col. ii. 21. "touch not, taste not, handle not") are such as tenets, and who were persons of the first distinction. Several the Essenes held, who would not taste any pleasant food, of them were advanced to the high-priesthood. They do not, but lived on coarse bread and drank nothing but water, and however, appear to have aspired, generally, to public offices some of whom would not taste any food at all till after sunJosephus affirms that scarcely any business of the state was set: if touched by any that were not of their own sect, they transacted by them: and that, when they were in the magis- would wash themselves, as after some great pollution. It tracy, they generally conformed to the measures of the Phari-has been conjectured that there might be a sodality of Essenes sees, though unwillingly, and out of pure necessity; for other- at Colosse, as there were in many other places out of Judæa; wise they would not have been endured by the multitude.3 and that some of the Christians, being too much inclined to

III. Concerning the origin of the Essenes, who were the Judaism, might also affect the peculiarities of this sect; which third principal sect of the Jews, there is a considerable dif- might be the reason of the apostle's so particularly cautionference of opinion. By some writers of the Jewish antiqui- ing the Colossians against them.5 ties they bave been identified with the fraternity of Assi- iv. There is in the Gospels frequent mention of a set of dæans, who are mentioned in 1 Macc. ii. 42. as being zeal- men called Scribes, who are often joined with the chiefously devoted to the law; while others trace their descent priests, elders, and Pharisees. They seem to have been men to the Rechabites. But the latter were a family only, and of learning, and on that account to have had great deference not a sect. Most probably they derived their origin from paid to them (Matt. ii. 4. vii. 29.); but, strictly speaking, Egypt, where the Jewish refugees, who fled for security they did not form any distinct sect. The Scribes generally after the murder of Gedaliah, were compelled, on the cap- belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, in whose traditions tivity of the greater part of their body, to lead a recluse life, and explanations of the law they were profoundly skilled; out of which the Essene institute might have grown. They and on the Sabbath-days "they sat in Moses' seat" and were dispersed chiefly through Palestine, Syria, and Egypt, instructed the people. Originally, they had their name from though they were to be met with in other countries. The their employment, which at first was transcribing the law: Essenes differed in many respects from the Pharisees and but in progress of time they exalted themselves into the Sadducees, both in doctrines and in practice. They were public ministry and became teachers of it, authoritatively divided into two classes :-1. The practical, who lived in determining what doctrines were or were not contained in the society, and some of whom were married, though it appears Scriptures, and teaching the common people in what sense with much circumspection. These dwelt in cities and their to understand the law and the prophets. In short, they were neighbourhoods, and applied themselves to husbandry and the oracles which were consulted in all difficult points of other innocent occupations. 2. The contemplative Essenes, doctrine and duty; and it is not improbable that they were, who were also called Therapeutæ or Physicians, from their for the most part, Levites, whose peculiar business it was to application principally to the cure of the diseases of the soul, study and read the law. The Scribes were of different devoted themselves wholly to meditation, and avoided living families and tribes, and therefore of different sects : hence in great towns as unfavourable to a contemplative life. But we read, that there were Scribes of the sect of the Pharisees both classes were exceedingly abstemious, exemplary in their and also of the Sadducees. (Acts xxiii. 9.). In the New moral deportment, averse from profane swearing, and most Testament, the Scribes are frequently identified with the rigid in their observance of the Sabbath. They held, among Pharisees, because they held both these titles. They were other tenets, the immortality of the soul (though they denied Scribes by office, and Pharisees by religious profession. the resurrection of the body), the existence of angels, and a This explanation will account for the Pharisees in Matt. xxii. state of future rewards and punishments. They believed 35. being called Scribes in Mark xii. 28.7 every thing to be ordered by an eternal fatality or chain of V. The LAWYERS (vapeixae) or TEACHERS OF THE Law and causes. Although Jesus Christ censured all the other sects Scribes appear to be synonymous terms, importing one and of the Jews for their vices, yet he never spoke of the Essenes; the same order of men; as St. Matthew (xxii. 35.) calls him neither are they mentioned by name in any part of the New a lawyer whom St. Mark (xii. 28.) terms one of the Scribes. Testament. The silence of the evangelical historians con- Dr. Macknight conjectures the Scribes to have been the pubcerning them is by some accounted for by their eremitic life, lic expounders of the law, and that the lawyers studied it in which secluded them from places of public resort ; so that private: perhaps, as Dr. Lardner conjectures, they taught in they did not come in the way of our Saviour, as the Pharisees the schools. But M. Basnage is of opinion that they were and Sadducees often did. Others, however, are of opinion, a distinct class or sect of men, who adhered closely to the that the Essenes being very honest and sincere, without guile or hypocrisy, gave no room for the reproofs and censures * Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 3. $ 7. which the other Jews deserved ; and, therefore, no mention tana, vol. X. p. 592. Michaelis thinks that Saint Paul alludes to the tenets

Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book i. c. 13. Encyclopædia Metropoliis made of them.

But though the Essenes are not expressly named in any Epistle to Timothy: Introd. to the New Test. vol. iv. pp. 78 5. Dr. Priof the sacred books, it has been conjectured that they are deaux has collected with great industry and fidelity all that Philo, Josephus, alluded to in two or three passages. Thus, those whom our book v. sub anno 107 B. c. pp. 343–363. sth edit. There is a very interest Lord terms eunuchs, who have made themselves such for ing description of the institute of the Essenes in vol. ii. pp. 124–150. of the kingdom of heaven's sake (Matt. xix. 12.), are supposed phic delineation of Jewish manners and customs, st:ch as they most pro to be the contemplative Essenes, who abstained from all bably were at the time when the advent of the Messiah was at hand. For text of the law, and totally disregarded all traditions, and where their language is taught. The head of this sect is that they were the same as the modern Karaites.

the translation of this very pleasing and instructive work from the German 1 Schmucker's Biblical Theology, vol. I. p. 264. The reader will find of Frederick Strauss, the lover of sacred literature is indebted to the Rev. several additional proofs in confirmation of the preceding account of the John Kenrick, M. A. of York. books received by the Sadducees, in Dr. Jortin's Remarks on Eccl. Hist. 6 Dr. Burton's Papists and Pharisees compared, p. 6. (Oxford, 1766. Svo.) Appendix, No. II. vol. i. pp. 368–374. Edit. 1805.

* Stranbeim's Ecclesiastical Annals, by the Rev. G. Wright, p. 178. Acts v. 17. xxiii. 6. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 10. SS 6, 7. lib. xviii. Prideaux, vol. ii. p. 343. Lardner's Credibility, part i. book i. ch. 4. 83.

(Works, vol. i. p. 126) Macknight's Ilarmony, sect. 87. vol. ii. p. 472. Svo a Ant. Jud. lib. xviii. e. 1. & 4.

c. 1. & 4.

edit.

stated to reside at Paris.? The Samaritans at Napolose are VI. The SAMARITANS, mentioned in the New Testament, in possession of a very ancient manuscript Pentateuch, which are generally considered as a sect of the Jews.

they assert to be nearly 3500 years old; but they reject the This appellation is, in the New Testament, given to a vowel points as a rabbínical invention. In order to complete race of people who sprang originally from an intermixture our notice of this sect, we have subjoined their confession of of the ten tribes with Gentile nations. When the inhabitants faith, sent in the sixteenth century by Eleazar their highof Samaria and of the adjacent country were carried into priest to the illustrious critic Scaliger, who had applied to captivity by Shalmaneser king of Assyria, he sent in their them for that purpose ; together with a few additional parplaces colonies from Babylonia, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and ticulars from the baron de Sacy's Memoir on the Samaritans, Sepharvaim; with which the Israelites who remained in the and the Rev. W. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria.8 land became intermingled, and were ultimately amalgamated 1. The Samaritans observe the Sabbath with all the exinto one people. (2 Kings xvii. 24.), An origin like this actness required in Exodus ; for not one of them goes out of would, of course, render the nation odious to the Jews; and the place where he is on the Sabbath-day, except to the the Samaritans further augmented this cause of hatred by synagogue, where they read the law, and sing the praises of rejecting all the sacred books of the Jews, except the Penta- God. They do not lie that night with their wives, and neiteuch, which they had received from the Jewish priest who ther kindle nor order fire to be kindled: whereas the Jews had been sent to them from Assyria to instruct them in the transgress the Sabbath in all these points; for they go out true religion. (2 Kings xvii. 27, 28.) On the return of the of town, have fire made, lie with their wives, and even do Jews from the Babylonish captivity, when they began to not wash themselves after it.--2. They hold the passover to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple, the Samaritans requested be their first festival ; they begin at sunset, by the sacrifice to be acknowledged as Jewish citizens, and to be permitted enjoined for that purpose in Exodus; but they sacrifice only to assist in the work; but their application was rejected. on Mount Gerizim, where they read the law, and offer (Ezra iv. 1—4.) In consequence of this refusal and the sub- prayers to God, after which the priest dismisses the whole sequent state of enmity, the Samaritans not only took occasion congregation with a blessing. (Of late years, however, havto calumniate the Jews before the Persian kings (Ezra iv.5. ing been prohibited from ascending Mount Gerizim by their Neh. iv. 1—7, 8.); but also, recurring to the directions of oppressors the Turks, they offer the paschal sacrifice within Moses (Deut. xxvii. 11–13.), that on entering the promised their city, which they consider to be within the precincts of land the He'rews should offer sacrifices on Mount Gerizim, the sacred place.]—3. They celebrate for seven days tothey erected a temple on that mountain, and instituted sacri- gether the feast of the harvest, but they do not agree with the fices according to the prescriptions of the Mosaic law.? Jews concerning the day when it ought to begin; for these From all these and other circumstances, the national hatred reckon the next day after the solemnity of the passover ; between the Samaritans and Jews increased to such a height, whereas the Samaritans reckon fifty days, beginning the next that the Jews denounced the most bitter anathemas against day after the Sabbath, which happens in the week of the them (Ecclus. I. 26.), and for many ages refused them unleavened bread, and the next day after the seventh Sabbath every kind of intercourse. Hence the woman of Samaria following, the feast of the harvest begins.—4. They observe was astonished that Jesus Christ, who was a Jew, should the fast of expiation on the tenth of the seventh month : they ask drink of her. (John iv. 9.) Hence also the Jews, when employ the four-and-twenty hours of the day in prayers to they would express the utmost aversion to Christ, said to God, and singing his praises, and fasting. All fast, except him-Thou art a SAMARITAN, and hast a devil. (John viii. children at the breast, whereas the Jews except children 48.) The temple on Mount Gerizim was destroyed by Hyr- under seven years of age.-5. On the fifteenth of the same canus, B. c. 129:3 but the Samaritans, in the time of Jesus, month, they celebrate the feast of tabernacles.-6. They esteemed that mountain sacred, and as the proper place of never defer circumcision beyond the eighth day, as it is comnational worship. (John iv. 20, 21.) At that time, also, in manded in Genesis, whereas the Jews defer it sometimes common with the Jews, they expected the advent of a Mes- longer.—7. They are obliged to wash themselves in the siah (John iv. 25.), and many of them afterwards became morning, when they have lain with their wives, or have been the followers of Jesus Christ, and embraced the doctrines of sullied in the night by some uncleanness; and all vessels his religion. (Acts viii. 1. ix. 31. xv. 3.)

that may become unclean, become defiled when they touch Towards the close of the Jewish polity, the Samaritans them before they have washed.-8. They take away the fat suffered much from the Romans; and though they received from sacrifices, and give the priests the shoulder, the jaws, a little favourable treatment from one or two of the pagan and the belly.-9. They never marry their nieces as the emperors, yet they suffered considerably under some of the Jews do, and have but one wife, whereas the Jews may have professing Christian emperors, particularly Valentinian and many:–10. They believe in God, in Moses, and in Mount Justinian. At present, the Samaritans are very much re. Gerizim. Whereas, say they, the Jews put their trust in duced in point of numbers. Their principal residence is at others, we do nothing but what is expressly commanded in Sichem or Shechem, now called Napolose or Nablous. In the law by the Lord who made use of the ministry of Moses ; 1823, there were between twenty, and thirty houses, and but the Jews swerve from what the Lord hath commanded about sixty males paid the capitation-tax to the Mohamme- in the law, to observe what their fathers and doctors have dan government. They celebrated divine service every invented.-11. They receive the Torah or Pentateuch, and Saturday. Formerly they went four times a year, in solemn hold it as their only sacred book; they reverence the books procession, to the old synagogue on Mount Gerizim: and on of Joshua and Judges, but do not account them sacred in the these occasions they ascended before sunrise, and read the same manner as the Torah, considering Joshua not to have law till noon; but of late years they have not been allowed been a prophet, but only the disciple of a prophet, that is, of to do this. The Samaritans have one school in Napolose, Moses.-12. They expect a prophet, whom they term Hathab; · Basnage's History and Religion of the Jews, book i. ch. 8, 9. pp. 101who is yet to come. We shall be happy when he comes.

but, say they, " there is a great mystery in regard to Hathab, they are descended from the ten tribes who were carried into captivity by When the Rev. Mr. Jowett, in November, 1823, interrogated reformed by Rabbi Anun in the eighth century. They are found in diffe- of a Messiah, the latter replied that they were all in expectaShalmaneser, while others glory in their descent from Ezra. This sect was the officiating Samaritan priest concerning their expectation Egypt, Abyssinia, India, and the Holy Land, but their numbers are not tion of him ;—“that the Messiah would be a man, not the known. The principal point of difierence between them and the rabbi: Son of God,—and that this” (Naposloe). " was to be the their rigid appeal to the text of Scripture, as the exclusive and only infalli place which he would make the metropolis of his kingdom : ole source and test of religious truth. 'On this account they are called this was the place, of which the Lord had promised, he KARAITES (OY) KARAIM) or Scripturists, from * Kara or Scripture. would place his name there.” The report of the Samaritans Dr. Henderson's Biblical Researches and Travels in Russia, p. 319. In worshipping a dove is groundless ; nor is it true that they of the Karaites in the Crimea. Carpzov has given an abstract or the deny the resurrection of the dead, or the existence of angels. earlier writers concerning this sect in his Antiquitates Hebrææ Gentis, pp. They admit, however, that they recite hymns and prayers 169—172. . Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xi. c. 8. $ 4.

* Visit of the Rev. James Connor, in 1819 and 1820, to Candia, Rhodes, a Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 10. $$ 2, 3.

Cyprus, and various parts of Syria and Palestine, annexed to the Rev. W. Robinson's Gr. Lex. voce Exempertus. Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, p. 425. Antiq. pp. 224–227. Kuinöel, on John iv. 9. 25.

& Mémoire sur l'Etat actuel des Samaritains, par M. Silvestre de Sacy. . Basnage's History of the Jews, pp. 73–77. In pp. 63—96. he has given Paris, 1812. 8vo. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, pp. 196-198. minute details respecting the history, tenets, and practices of this sect or See also Joan. Christoph. Friedrich, Discussionum de Christologia Samapeople.

ritanorum Liber. Accedit Appendicula de Columba Dea Samaritanoruni. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 195.

Lipsia, 1821. 8vo.

114. The Karaites claim

ish war.

that Jehovah would pardon the dead, and the priest purifies from the Pharisees, a. D. 12, when Archelaus was banished, them by prayer.

Judæa reduced into a Roman province, and a census taken by The Samaritans have a catalogue of the succession of their Quirinius or Cyrenius, president of Syria (to which province high-priests from Aaron to the present time. They believe Judæa was attached). On this occasion, Judas the Galilæan, themselves to be of the posterity of Joseph by Ephraim, and or Gaulonite, as he is also called, exhorted the people to that all their high-priests descended from Phinehas ; whereas shake off this yoke, telling them, that tribute was due to God the Jews have not one of that family. They boast that they alone, and, consequently, ought not to be paid to the Romans; have preserved the Hebrew characters which God made use and that religious liberty and the authority of the divine laws of to promulgate his law; while the Jews have a way of were to be defended by force of arms. In other respects his writing from Ezra, which is cursed for ever. And, indeed, doctrines appear to have been the same as those of the Phariinstead of looking upon Ezra as the restorer of the law, they sees. The tumults raised by these pernicious tenets were incurse him as an impostor, who has laid aside their old charac- deed suppressed (Acts v. 37.); but his followers, who were ters to use new ones in their room, and authorized several called Galilæans, continued secretly to propagate them, and books that were written to support the posterity of David. to make proselytes, whom they required to be circumcised.

Several attempts have been made to convert these Samari- As the same restless disposition and seditious principles contans; but they have been oppressed instead of being made tinued to exist at the time when the apostles Paul and Peter Christians, and they are reduced to a small number rather by wrote their Epistles, they took occasion thence to inculcate misery than by the multitude of those who have been con- upon Christians (who were at that time generally confounded verted. Nay, they seem more stubbornly wedded to their with the Jews), the necessity of obedience to civil authority, sect than the Jews, though these adhere rigorously to the law with singular ability, truth, and persuasion. See Rom. xiii. of Moses. At least Nicon, who lived after the twelfth cen- 1. et seq. 1 Tim. ii. 1. et seq. 1 Pet. ii. 13. et seq.? tury, when setting down the formalities used at the reception IX. The ZEALOTS, so often mentioned in Jewish history, of heretics, observes, that if a Jew had a mind to be converted, appear to have been the followers of this Judas. Lamy is in order to avoid punishment or the payment of what he owed, of opinion that the Just MEN whom the Pharisees and Herehe was to purify himself, and satisfy his creditors before he dians sent to entangle Jesus in his conversation were memwas admitted. But the Samaritans were not received before bers of this sect. (Matt. xxii. 15, 16. Mark xii. 13, 14. Luke they had been instructed two years, and were required to fast xx. 20.). Simon the Canaanite, one of the apostles of Jesus ten or fifteen days before they professed the Christian reli- Christ, is called Zelotes (Luke vi. 15.); and in Acts xxi. 20. gion, to attend at morning and evening prayers, and to learn and xxii. 3. (Gr.) we find that there were certain Christians some psalms; others were not used with so much rigour. at Jerusalem, who were denominated Zealots. But these The term of two years which was enjoined to the Samaritan merely insisted on the fulfilment of the Mosaic law, and by proselytes is an argument that they were suspected, and the no means went so far as those persons, termed Zelotæ or Teason why they were so was, that they had often deceived Zealots, of whom we read in Josephus's history of the Jewthe Christians by their pretended conversion."

VII. The HeroDIANS were rather a political faction than a X. The SICARII, noticed in Acts xxi. 38. were assassins, religious sect of the Jews : they derived their name from who derived their name from their using poniards bent like Herod the Great, king of Judæa, to whose family they were the Roman sicæ, which they concealed under their garments, strongly attached. They were distinguished from the other and which was the secret instrument of assassination. The Jewish sects, first, by their concurring in Herod's plan of Egyptian impostor, also mentioned by the sacred historian, subjecting himself and his people to the dominion of the Ro- is noticed by Josephus, who says that he was at the head of mans; and, secondly, in complying with the latter in many 30,000 men, though St. Luke notices only 4000 ; but both of their heathen practices, such as erecting temples with accounts are reconciled by supposing that the impostor (who images for idolatrous worship, raising statues, and instituting in the second year of Nero pretended to be a prophet) led out games in honour of Augustus; which symbolizing with 4000 from Jerusalem, who were afterwards joined by others idolatry upon views of interest and worldly policy is sup- to the amount of 30,000, as related by Josephus. They were posed to have been a part at least of the leaven of Herod, attacked and dispersed by the Roman procurator Felix.7 against which Jesus Christ cautioned his disciples (Mark viii. 15.); consequently they were directly opposed to the Phari- $ 2. ON THE EXTREME CORRUPTION OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE, sees, who, from a misinterpretation of Deut. xvii. 15. main- BOTH IN RELIGION AND MORALS, AT THE TIME OF CHRIST'S tained that it was not lawful to submit to the Roman emperor, BIRTH. or to pay taxes to him. But Herod and his followers, under: General corruption of the leaders of the Jewish nation-of their standing the text to exclude only a voluntary choice, and not a necessary submission where force had overpowered choice,

chief priests, and other ministers of religionits deplorable held an opinion directly contrary, and insisted that in this effects on the people.-State of the Jews not resident in Pacase it was lawful both to submit to the Roman emperor, and

lestine. also to pay taxes to him. How keen-then must have been The preceding chapters will have shown that the political the malice of the Pharisees against Christ, when they united state of the Jews was truly deplorable. Although they were with their mortal enemies the Herodians, in proposing to him oppressed and fleeced by various governors, who exercised the ensnaring question, whether it was lawful to give tribute the most rigorous authority over them, in many instances to Cæsar or not? (Matt. xxii. 16.). If our Redeemer had with peculiar avarice, cruelty, and extortion, yet they were answered in the negative, the Herodians would have accused in some measure governed by their own laws, and were perhim to the Roman power as a seditious person; and if in the mitted to enjoy their religion. The administration of their affirmative, the Pharisees were equally ready to accuse him sacred rites continued to be committed to the high-priest and to the people, and excite their indignation against him, as the Sanhedrin; to the former the priests and Levites were betraying the civil liberties and privileges of his country: subordinate as before : and the form of their external worChrist by his prudent reply defeated the malice of both, and ship, except in a very few points, had suffered no visible at the same time implicitly justified the Herodians in paying change. But, whatever comforts were left to them by the tribute to Cæsar. It is further probable that the Herodians, in their doctrinal tenets, were chiefly of the sect of the Sad- 3 Ie was a native of Gamala, in the province of Gaulonitis. ducees, who were the most indifferent to religion among the

Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 1. $$ 1. 6. lib. xx. e. 5. 6 2. De Bell. Jud, whole Jewish nation; since that which is by one evangelist must not be confounded with the Theudas or Judas referred to by Jose

lib. ii. c. 17. $$ 7–9. lib. vii. c. 8. $ I. The Theudas mentioned in Acts v. 36, called the leaven of Herod (Mark viii. 15.), is by another phus, (Ant. lib. xx. c. 5. $ 1.) Theudas was a very common name among termed (Matt. xvi. 6.) the leaven of the Sadducees 2

the Jews; and the person mentioned by the sacred historian was probably VIII. The GALILÆAns were a political sect that originated ties, at the time of Cyrenius's enrolment, at least seven, if not ten years Roman magistrates, they were not allowed to enjoy them by / ii. 24.) And in his Epistle to Titus, he informs us that the their chief priests and popular leaders, whom Josephus cha- Jews in speculation, indeed, acknowledged a God, but in racterizes as profligate wretches, who had purchased their practice they were atheists ; for in their lives they were aboplaces by bribes or by acts of iniquity, and maintained their minally immoral and abandoned, and the contemptuous ill-acquired authority by the most flagitious and abominable despisers of every thing that was virtuous. They profess crimes. Nor were the religious creeds of these men more that they know God, but in works they deny him, being abomipure : having espoused the principles of various sects, they nable and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate. suffered themselves to be led away by all the prejudice and (Titus i. 16.). This testimony to the religious and moral animosity of party (though, as in the case of our Saviour, character of the Jewish people, by Jesus Christ and his they would sometimes abandon them to promote some fa- apostles, is amply corroborated by Josephus, who has given vourite measure); and were commonly more intent on the us a true estimate of their principles and manners, and is gratification of private enmity, than studious of advancing the also confirmed by other contemporary historians. The circause of religion, or promoting the public welfare. The cumstance of their nation having been favoured with an exsubordinate and inferior members were infected with the cor- plicit revelation from the Deity, instead of enlarging their ruption of the head; the priests, and the other ministers of minds, miserably contracted and soured them with all the religion, were become dissolute and abandoned in the highest bitterness and leaven of theological odium. They regarded undegree ; while the common people, instigated by examples circumcised heathens with sovereign contempt, and believed so depraved, rushed headlong into every kind of iniquity, them to be hated by God, merely because they were born and by their incessant seditions, robberies, and extortions, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and lived strangers armed against themselves both the jus of God and the to their covenant of promise. They would not eat with vengeance of men.

before the speech delivered by Gamaliel. (Acts v. 34-40.) He seeins to Lewis's Origines Hebrææ, vol. iji. pp. 57–59. In pp. 59–65. he has have been supported by smaller numbers than the second of that name, printed a letter, purporting to have been written by the Samaritans at Bhe- and (as the second afterwards did) perished in the attempt; but as his fol chem in the seventeenth century, and sent by them to their brethren in lowers were dispersed, and not slaughtered, like those of the second Judas, England, by Dr. Huntington, some time chaplain to the Turkey company survivors might talk much of him, and Gamaliel might have been particu at Aleppo, and afterwards Bishop of Raphoe, in ireland.

larly informed of his history, though Josephus only

mentions it in general 9 Prideaux's Connection, part ii. book v. (vol. ii. pp. 365–368.) Jennings's terms. See Dr. Lardner's Credibility, pari i. book il. cn. vii. (Works, vol. i. Jewish Antiquities, book i. ch. xii. Calmet, Dissertations, tom. I. pp. 737 pp. 405–413.) Dr. Doddridge on Acts v. 36. --743. where the different opinions of former writers concerning the

Hero- Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. dians are enumerated; as also in Elsley's Annotations on the Gospels, vol. 6 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 8. $ 10. 1. pp. 342–346. vol. ii. p. 15. Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon, voce; Lardner's * Ibid. lib. xx. C. 8 $ 6. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 13. $ 5. Dr. Lardner's Credibility, part i. book i. ch. iv. $ 4. (Works. vol. i. pp. 125, 127.) Tappan's Credibility, part i. book ii. ch. viii. (Works, vol. i. pp. 414-419.) Lectures on Jewish Antiq. p. 239.

See particularly pp. 50-53. of the present volume.

239.

them (Acts xi. 3.), do the least friendly office for them, or Owing to these various causes, the great mass of the Jew- maintain any social correspondence and mutual intercourse ish people were sunk into the most deplorable ignorance of with them. The apostle comprises their national character God and of divine things. Hence proceeded that dissolute- in a few words, and it is a just one: They were contrary to ness of manners and that profligate wickedness which pre- all men.? (1 Thess. ii. 15.). The supercilious insolence, vailed among the Jews during Christ's ministry upon earth; with which the mean and selfish notion of their being the in allusion to which the divine Saviour compares the people only favourites of heaven and enlightened by God inflated to a multitude of lost sheep, straying without a shepherd them as a people, and the haughty and scornful disdain in (Matt. x. 6. xv. 24.), and their teachers, or doctors, to which they held the heathens, are in a very striking manner blind guides, who professed to instruct others in a way with characterized in the following spirited address of St. Paul to which they were totally unacquainted themselves. (Matt. them :Behold! thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, xv. 14. John ix. 39, 40.)

and makest thy boast of God: and knowest his will, and apa More particularly, in the New Testament,2 " the Jews are provest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out described as a most superstitious and bigoted people, at- of the law, and art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the tached to the Mosaic ritual and to the whimsical traditions blind, a light of them which are in darkness, an instructor of of their elders, with a zeal and fanaticism approaching to the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form of knowledge madness. They are represented as a nation of hypocrites, and of the truth in the law. (Rom. ii. 17–20.). This passage assuming the most sanctimonious appearance before the exhibits to us a faithful picture of the national character of world, at the corners of crowded streets uttering loud and this people, and shows us how much they valued themselves fervent strains of rapturous devotion, merely to attract the upon their wisdom and superior knowledge of religion, arroeyes of a weak and credulous multitude, and to be noticed gating to themselves the character of lights and guides, and and venerated by them as mirrors of mortification and hea- instructors of the whole world, and contemptuously regardvenly-mindedness; devoured with ostentation and spiritual ing all the heathen as blind, as babes, and as fools. pride; causing a trumpeter to walk before them in the ** Another ever memorable instance of the national pride streets, and make proclamation that such a rabbi was going and arrogance of this vain and ostentatious people is, that to distribute his alms; publicly displaying all this showy when our Lord was discoursing to them concerning their parade of piety and charity, yet privately guilty of the most pretensions to moral liberty, and representing the ignoble unfeeling cruelty and oppression ; devouring widows' houses, and despicable bondage in which sin detains its votaries, stripping the helpless widow and friendless orphan of their they imagined this to be an indirect allusion to the present property, and exposing them to all the rigours of hunger and condition of their country: their pride was instantly in nakedness ; clamouring, The temple of the Lord! The temple flames; and they had the effrontery and impudence openly to of the Lord! making conscience of paying tithe of mint, assert, that they had always been free, and were never in anise, and cummin, to the support of its splendour and bondage to any man (John viii. 33.), though every child priesthood, but in practical life violating and trampling upon must know the history of their captivities, must know that the first duties of morality,-justice, fidelity, and mercy,--as Judæa was at that very time a conquered province, had been being vulgar and heathenish attainments, and infinitely be subdued by Pompey, and from that time had paid an annual low the regard of exalted saints and spiritual perfectionists. tribute to Rome.Another characteristic which distinguishes Their great men were to an incredible degree depraved in and marks this people, was that kind of evidence which they their morals, many of them Sadducees in principle, and in expected in order to their reception of truth. Except they practice the most profligate sensualists and debauchees; saw signs and wonders they would not believe! (John iv. 48.) their atrocious and abandoned wickedness, as Josephus tes- If a doctrine proposed to their acceptance was not confirmed tifies, transcended all the enormities which the most corrupt by some visible displays of preternatural power, some strikage of the world had ever beheld ; they compassed sea and ing phenomena, the clear and indubitable evidences of an land to make proselytes to Judaism from the Pagans, and, immediate divine interposition, they would reject it. In anwhen they had gained these converts, soon rendered them, by their immoral lives and scandalous examples, more de- 3 "I cannot forbear,” says Josephus, "declaring my opinion, though the praved and profligate than ever they were before their con- declaration fills me with great emotion and regret, that if the Romans had version. The apostle tells them, that by reason of their delayed to come against these wretches, the city would either have been notorious vices their religioh was become the object of ca- from heaven, as Sodom

was: for that generation was far more enormously lumny and satire among the heathen nations. The name of wicked than those who suffered these calamities." Bell.

Jud. 110. v. C. 13. God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you !" (Rom. abandoned of men." Origen contra Celsuin, p. 02. 'Cantab. 1677.

6 "The Jews are the only people who refuse all friendly intercourse with Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. book i. part i. chap. ii., and also his Commenta. every other nation, and esteem all mankind as enemies." Diod. Siculus, ries on the Affairs of Christians before the time of Constantine the Great, tom. ii. p. 524. edit. Wesseling, Amstel. 1746. “Let him be to thee as an vol. I. Introd. ch. ii. Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Novi Testamenti, c. 35. heathen man and a publican." (Matt. xviii. 17.) of the extreine detesta. De summa Populi Judaici corruptione, tempore Christi, pp. 471-473. tion and abhorrence which the Jews had for the Gentiles we have a very For the following

picture of the melancholy corruption of the Jewish striking example in that speech which St. Paul addresses to them, telling church and people, the author is indebted to Dr. Harwood's Introduction them in the course of it

, that God had commissioned him to go to the Gento the New Testament. (vol. ii. pp. 58. 61.)

tiles. The moment he had pronounced the word, the whole assembly was 3 Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. vii. p. 1314. Hudson. Again, says this histo- in confusion, tore off their clothes, rent the air with their cries, threw rian, "They were universally corrupt, both publicly and privately. They clouds of dust into it, and were transported into the last excesses of rage vied which should surpass each other in impiety against God and injustice and madness. “He said unto me, Depart, for I will send thee far hence towards men.” Ibid.

unto the Gentiles: they gave him audience,” says the sacred historian, • The superstitious credulity of a Jew_was proverbial among the hea" until this

word, and then lifted up their voice and said, Away with such thens. Credat Judæus Apella. Ilorat. Epictetus mentions and exposes a fellow from the earth; for it is not fit that he should live."

(Acts xxii. 21.) their greater attachment to their ceremonies than to the duties of morality. * This character of the Jewish nation is confirined by Tacitus, and ex. l'issertationes, lib. i. p. 113. edit. Upton. See also Josephus contra Apion pressed almost in the very words of the Apostle, Adversus omnes alios P. AS "lavercamp.

hostile odium.” Tacit. Hist. lib. v. 85. vol. iii. p. 261. edit. Bipont.

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