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$ 1. ACCOUNT OF THE JEWISH SECTS MENTIONED IN THE NEW

2. The Pharisees contended that God was in strict justice TESTAMENT.

bound to bless the Jews, and make them all partakers of the I. The Pharisees.—II. The Sadducees.III. The Essenes. them eternally

happy, and that he could not possibly damn

terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, to make IV. The Scribes.-V, The Lawyers.-VI. The Samaritans.-VII. The Herodians.—VIII. The Galilæans.-IX. rived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of

any oxe of them! The ground of their justification they de The Zealots.—X. The Sicarii.

God, from their practising the rite of circumcision, and from I. The PAARISEES were the most numerous and powerful the sacrifices they offered. And as they conceived works to sect of the Jews. The precise time when they first appeared be meritorious, they had invented a great number of supereis not known: but, as Josephus' mentions the Pharisees, rogatory ones, to which they attached greater merit than to Sadducees, and Essenes, as distinct sects, in the reign of the observance of the law itself. To this notion St. Paul Jonathan (B. c. 144—139), it is manifest that they must have has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans been in existence for some time. Calmet is of opinion that in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews.? their origin cannot be carried higher than the year of the 3. The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal world 3820, corresponding with the year 184 before - the sects that divided the Jewish nation (Acts xxvi. 5.), and Christian æra. They derived their name from the Hebrew affected a singular probity of manners according to their verb vrb (PHARASH) to separate ; because they professed an system, which however was for the most part both lax and uncommon separation from the apparel and customs of the corrupt. Thus, many things which Moses had tolerated in world to the study of the law, and an extraordinary devotion civil life, in order to avoid a greater évil, the Pharisees deto God and sanctity of life, beyond all other men. Hence termined to be morally right; for instance, the law of retaliaone of them is represented as thanking God, that he was not tion, and that of a divorce from a wife for any cause. (Matt. as other men are ; and St. Paul, in his masterly apology be- v. 31. et seq. xix. 3—12.) During the time of Christ there fore king Agrippa, terms them anpilerturn upeois, the most were two celebrated philosophical and divinity schools

among rigorous sect, in our version rendered the most straitest sect. the Jews, that of Schammai and that of Hillel. On the (Acts xxvi. 5.) They were not restricted to any particular question of divorce, the school of Schammai maintained, that family or class of men : there were Pharisees of every tribe, no man could legally put away his wife except for adultery: family, and condition. The credit which they had acquired the school of Hilel, on the contrary, allowed a divorce for by their reputation for knowledge and sanctity of life early any cause (from Deut. xxiv. 1.), even if the wife found no rendered them formidable to the Maccabæan sovereigns; favour in the eyes of her husband,-in other words, if he saw while they were held in such esteem and veneration by the any woman who pleased him better. The practice of the people, that they may be almost said to have given what Jews seems to have gone with the school of Hillel. Thus direction they pleased to public affairs. They boasted that, we read (in Ecclus. xxv. 26.), “ If she go not as thou from their accurate knowledge of religion, they were the fa- wouldest have her, cut her off from thy flesh; give her a bil? vourites of heaven ;; and thus, trusting in themselves that of divorce and let her go ;” and in conformity with this docthey were righteous, despised others. (Luke xi. 52. xviii. trine, Josephus, who was a Pharisee, relates that he repu9. 11.)

diated his wife who had borne him three children, because Among the tenets inculcated by this sect, we may enume- he was not pleased with her manners or behaviour. rate the following ; viz.

4. Further, they interpreted certain of the Mosaic laws 1. They ascribed all things to fate or providence, yet not most literally, and distorted their meaning so as to favour so absolutely as to take away the free will of man, though their own philosophical system. Thus, the law of loving fate does not co-operate in every action. They also believed their neighbour, they expounded solely of the love of their in the existence of angels and spirits, and in the resurrection friends, that is, of the whole Jewish race; all other persons of the dead (Acts xxiii. 8.): but, from the account given of being considered by them as natural enemies (Matt. v. 43. them by Josephus, it appears that their notion of the immor-compared with Luke x. 31–33.), whom they were in no tality of the soul was the Pythagorean metempsychosis ;s respect bound to assist. Dr. Lightfoot has cíted a striking that the soul, after the dissolution of one body, winged its illustration of this passage from Maimonides. An oath, in flight into another; and that these removals were perpetuated which the name of God was not distinctly specified, they and diversified through an infinite succession, the soul ani- taught was not binding (Matt

. v. 33.), maintaining that a mating a sound and healthy body, or being confined in a man might even swear with his lips, and at the same modeformed and diseased frame, according to its conduct in a ment annul it in his heart! So rigorously did they underprior state of existence. From the Pharisees, whose tenets stand the command of observing the Sabbath-day, that they and traditions the people generally received, it is evident that accounted it unlawful to pluck ears of corn, and heal the the disciples of our Lord had adopted

this philosophical doc- sick, &c. (Matt. xii. 1. et seq. Luke vi. 6. et seq. xiv. 1. et seq.) trine of the transmigration of souls; when, having met with Those natural laws which Moses did not sanction by any a man who had been born blind, they asked him whether it penalty they accounted among the petty commandments, were the sins of this man in a pre-existent state which had inferior to the ceremonial laws, which they preferred to the caused the Sovereign Disposer to inflict upon him this former, as being the weightier matters of the law (Matt. V. punishment. To this inquiry Christ replied, that neither his 19. xv. 4. xxin. 23.), to the total neglect of mercy and vices or sins in a pre-existent state, nor those of his parents, fidelity. Hence they accounted causeless anger and impure were the cause of this calamity. (John ix. 1—4.). From desires as trifles of no moment (Matt. v. 21, 22. 27–30.); this notion, derived from the Greek philosophy, we find that they compassed sea and land to make proselyteslo to the Jewduring our Saviour's public ministry, the Jews speculated ish religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule variously concerning him, and indulged several conjectures, over their consciences and wealth : and these proselytes, which of the ancient prophets it was whose soul now ani- through the influence of their own scandalous examples and mated him, and performed such astonishing miracles. Some characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned contended that it was the soul of Elias ; others of Jeremiah ; the New Test. vol. ii. p. 355. To this popular notion of a transmigration while others, less sanguine, only declared in general terms of souls, Dr. H. ascribes the alarm of Herod, who had caused John the that it must be the soul of one of the old prophets by which Baptist to be beheaded, when the fame of Christ's miracles reached his these mighty deeds were now wrought. (Matt. xvi. 14. Herod was a Sadducee, and, consequently, disbelieved a future state. His Luke ix. 19.95

alarm, therefore, is rather to be attributed to the force of conscience which

haunted his guilty mind in despite of his libertine principles. 1 Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 5. & 9.

+ See Rom. i. ---xi. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. 4. De Bell. Jud 2 The high reputation and influence of the Pharisees are strikingly lib. ii. c. 8. $ 4. Justin. Dialog. cum Tryphon. Pirke Aboth. illustrated by the following anecdote :-When Alexander Jannæus lay on 8 Life of himself, $ 76. Grotius, Calmet, Drs. Lightfoot, Whitby, Dod his death-bed, about eighty years before the Christian æra, his queen dridge, and A. Clarke (on Matt. v. 30. et seq. and Matt. xix. 3. et see have Alexandra having expressed great anxiety on account of the exposed state all given illustrations of the Jewish doctrine of divorce from rabbinical in which herself and sons would be left, the dying monarch recommended writers. See also Selden's Uxor Hebraica, lib. iii. c. 22. (Op. tom. ii. col. her to court the Pharisees, and delegate part of her power to them. 782—786.) Alexandra followed this advice; and the Pharisees, availing themselves of 9 "A Jew sees a Gentile fall into the sea, let him by ng means lift him the opportunity, made themselves masters of the government, and dis- out: for it is written, 'Thou shalt not rise up against the blood of thy posed of every thing as they pleased. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 15. neighbour. But this is not thy neighbour.” Works, vol. ii. p. 152. $5. c. 16. $1. Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 4.

10 Justin Martyr bears witness to the inveterate malignity of the prose* Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 5. $ 9. lib. xviii. c. 2. $3. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $14. lytes of the Pharisees against the name of Christ, at the beginning of the Acts v. 38, 39.

second century. "Your proselytes,"

says he to Trypho the Jew (p. 350.); $ Ibid. lib. xviii

. c. 1. $3. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lib. iii. c. 8. $5.not only do not believe in Christ, but blaspheme his name with twofola The author of the Book of Wisdom (ch. viii. 20.) seems to allude to the more virulence than yourselves. They are ready to show their malicious same doctrine, when he tells us, that, being good, he came into a body un. zeal against us; and, to obtain merit in your eyes, wish to us reproach, and

torment, and death." See further Dr. Ireland's Paganism and Christianity 6 Dr. Lightroot's Works, vol. ii. pp. 368, 369. Dr. Harwood's Introd. to compared, np. 21–23.

3 Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $ 4.

defiled.

was termců a libation, the victim was instantly led to them as appears from Psal. ii. 12. There is an idolatrous rite menslaughter. To this circumstance St. Paul, knowing the time tioned by Ezekiel, called the putting the branch to the nose of his martyrdom to be very near, has a very striking allu- (Ezek. viii. 17.), by which interpreters understand, that the sion; representing this rite, which immediately preceded worshipper, with a wand in his hand, touched the idol, and the death of the victim, as already performed upon himself, then applied the wand to his nose and mouth, in token of implying that he was now devoted to death, and that his worship and adoration. There appears to be this difference, dissolution would speedily follow. I am now ready to be however, between the idolatry of the Jews and that of other offered, says he (2 Tim. iv. 6.): literally, I am already poured nations, viz. that the Jews did not deny a divine power and out as a libation; the time of my departure is at hand. A providence; only they imagined that their idols were the insimilar expressive sacrificial allusion occurs in Phil. ü. 17. termediate causés, by which the blessings of the supreme

Yea, says the holy apostle, and if I be POURED out upon the God might be conveyed to them; whereas the heathens sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you believed that the idols they worshipped were true gods, and all

. In this passage he represents the faith of the Philip- had no higher conceptions, having no notion of one eternal, pians as the sacrificial victim, and compares his blood, will- almighty, and independent Being. ingly and joyfully to be shed in martyrdom, to the libation In the account of the decisive triumph of true religion over poured out on occasion of the sacrifice.

idolatry, related in 1 Kings xviii., we have a very striking After the usual portions of the victims had been burnt on delineation of the idolatrous rites of Baal; from which it the altar, or given to the officiating priests, the remainder appears that his four hundred and fifty priests, or prophets, as was either exposed by the owner for sale in the market, or they are termed, employed the whole day in their desperate became the occasion of giving a feast to his friends, either rites. The time is divided into two períods, 1. From mornin the temple or at his own house. Meat of this description, ing until noon, which was occupied in preparing and offering termed asan Jute, or meats offered to idols, in Acts xv. 29., the sacrifice, and in earnest supplication for the celestial fire, was an abomination to the Jews; who held that not only those (for Baal was unquestionably the god of fire or the sun, who partook of such entertainments, but also those who and had only to work in his own element), vociferating, 0, purchased such meat in the market, subjected themselves to Baal, hear ús (1 Kings xviii. 26.); and, 2. They continued the pollution of idolatry. The apostle James, therefore, from noon until the time of offering evening sacrifice (the time recommends, that the Gentile Christians should abstain from when it was usually offered to Jehovah in the temple at Jeruall meats of this kind, out of respect to this prejudice of salem), performing their frantic rites. Jewish Christians; and hence he calls these meats ensogaueatt, They leaped up and down at the altar, 4 that is, they danced pollution of idols, that is, meats polluted in consequence of around it with strange and hideous cries and gesticulations, their being sacrificed unto idols. (Acts xv. 20., compare also tossing their heads to and fro, with a great variety of bodily i Cor. viii. 1. 4. 7. 10. x. 19. 28.) It appears from Judg. contortions; precisely as the Ceylonese do to this day.5 In ix. 27. that feasting after sacrifice in the temples of idols like manner the priests of Mars among the Romans danced was not unknown to the Shechemites.

and leaped around the altars of that divinity, from which cir6. Singing and dancing were the general attendants of cumstance they derived their name, -Salii. And it came to some of these idolatrous rites: thus, the Israelites danced pass at noon that Elijah mocked them : had not the intrepid before the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 19.) To this day, dancing prophet of the Lord been conscious of the divine protection, before the idol takes place at almost every Hindoo idolatrous he certainly would not have used such freedom of speech, feast. But their sacrifices were not confined to irrational while he was surrounded by his enemies : And said, Cry victims: it is well known that the practice of offering human aloud! Oblige him, by your vociferations, to attend to your victims prevailed to a great extent; and among the Ammon- suit.—Similar vain repetitions were made by the heathen in ites and Phænicians they were immolated to propitiate the time of our Saviour, who cautions his disciples against Moloch and Baal; and children were in some manner dedi- them in Matt

. vi. 7.?—

For he is a god—the supreme God; you cated and devoted to them. The idolatrous worshippers are worship him as such; and, doubtless, he is jealous of his own said to make them pass through the fire ; denoting some rite honour, and the credit of his votaries. Either he is talking of dedication and purification. This was most expressly he may be giving audience to some others : or, as it is renforbidden to the Israelites. (Lev. xviii. 21.). In this manner dered in the margin of our larger Bibles,-he meditatethhe Ahaz devoted his son (2 Kings xvi. 3.); but as Hezekiah is in a profound reverie, projecting some godlike schemer afterwards succeeded his father on the throne of Judah, it is he is pursuing-taking his pleasure in the chase-or he is on evident that he was not put to death. From the declarations a journey–having left his audience chamber, he is making of the psalmist (cvi. 36—40.), and of the prophet Ezekiel some excursions—or peradventure he sleepeth and must be (xvi. 21. xx. 26. 31.), it is however, certain that many hu- awaked.Absurd as these notions may appear to us, they are man victims were thus barbarously sacrificed.

believed by the Hindoos, to each of whose gods some partiThe adoration or worship which idolaters paid to their gods cular business is assigned, and who imagine that Vishnoo did not consist þarely in the sacrifices which they offered to sleeps for months in the year, while others of their deities are them, but likewise in prostrations and bowings of the body ; often out on journeys or expeditions. Accordingly the thus Naaman speaks of bowing in the house of Rimmon. priests of Baal cried aloud, and cut themselves, after their man(2 Kings v. 18.)" It was also a religious ceremony, to lift up ner. This was not only the custom of the idolatrous Israelthe hand to the mouth and kiss it, and then, stretching it out, to ites, but also of the Syrians, Persians, Indians, Greeks, throw as it were the kiss to the idol : both this and the former Romans, and, in short, of all the ancient heathen world. ceremony are mentioned in 1 Kings xix. 18. And so Job, in Hence we may see the reason why the Israelites were fororder to express his not having fallen into idolatry, very ele- bidden to cut ihemselves, to make any cuttings in their flesh for gantly says, if I beheld the sun while it shined, or the moon the dead, and to print any marks upon themselves. (Deut. xiv. 1. walking in brightness, and my heart had been secretly enticed, 3 On the subject of the idolatrous worship of the heathens, the editor or my mouth hath kissed my hand, &c. (Job xxxi. 26, 27.); of Calinet's Dictionary has accumulated much interesting information. for to kiss and to worship are synonymous terms in Scripture,

See the Fragments, particularly Nos. 107. 185. 212, 213.

4 This is the marginal rendering, and most correct, of 1 Kings xviii. 26. i Parkhurst's Gr. Lexicon, p. 621. Ilarwood, vol. ii. pp. 219, 220.

s From the statement of a Ceylonese convert to Christianity (who was Clarke and Macknight on the passages cited.

formerly one of the principal high-priests of Budhoo) Dr. A. Clarke has 2 The Egyptians had several cities, which were termed Typhonian,- described the manner and invocations of the pagan inhabitants of that such as Ileliopolis, Idithya, Abarei, and Busiris,-where at particular sea. island (Comment. on 1 Kings xviii.), to which we are indebted for part of sons they inuolated men. The objects thus devoted were persons of the present elucidation of ihe rites of Baal; and his account is confirmed bright hair and a particular complexion, such as were seldom to be found by Dr. John Davy, in his Travels in Ceylon. among that people. Hence we inay conclude that they were foreigners; ** Jain dederat Saliis (a saltu noinina ducunt) and it is probable that while the Israelites resided in Egypt, the victims Armaque et ad certos verba canenda modos.--Ovid. Fast. iii. 387, 388. were chosen from their body. They were burnt alive upon a high altar, On the custom of dancing around the altars of the gods, the reader will and thus sacrificed for the good of the people: at the conclusion of the find much curious information in Lomeier's treatise De veterum Gentilium sacrifice, the priests collected their ashes, and scattered them upwards in Lustrationibus, cap. 33. pp. 413. et seq. the air,-most likely with this view, that, where any of the dust was wafted, The infuriated worshippers of Diana all vith one voice about the space a blessing might be entailed. By a just retribution, Moses and Aaron were of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (Acts xix. 34.) commanded to take ashes of the furnace (which in the Scriptures

is used Not to multiply unnecessary examples, see

an illustration of these vain, as a type of the slavery of the Israelites, and of all the cruelty which they repetitions in the Heautontiinoreumenos of Terence, act v. scene l. We experienced in Egypt), and to scatter them abroad touards the hearen are inforined by Servius that the ancient heathens, after supplicating the (Exod. x. 8. 9.), but with a different intention, viz. that where any the particular deity to whom they offered sacrifice, used to invoke all the gods smallest portion alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse to the un- and goddesses, lest any one of them should be adverse to the suppliant. grateful, cruel, and infatuated Egyptians. Thus there was a designed con. Servius in Virgil

. Georg. lib. i. 21. (vol. i. p. 178. of Burmann's edition, tra t in these workings of Providence, and an apparent opposition to the Amst. 1746. 4to.) For a remarkable instance of the "vain repetitions of superstition of the times. Bryant, on the Plagues of Egypl, p. 116. On the modern Mohammedans, see Dr. Richardson's Travels in the Mediter. the prevalence of human sacrifices in ancient times, see vol. i. p. 5. and ranean, &c. vol. i. pp. 462—464.

& Ward's History, &c. of the Flindoos, vol. ii. p. 324.

Drs.

lv.e.

Lev. xix. 28.). For the heathens did these things not only by pretending that certain divinities uttered oracles. The in honour of their gods, but also in testimony of their grief researches of enlightened travellers have laid open the confor the loss of any of their neighbours. The Scythians, as we trivances by which these frauds were managed, at least in are informed by Herodotus, were accustomed to slash their Greece.11 Various were the means by which the credulity arms on the death of their kings; and it is not improbable of the people was imposed upon. Sometimes they charmed that some similar custom obtained among some one of the serpents-extracted their poison, and thus rendered them neighbouring nations. The modern Persians to this day cut harmless ;-a practice to which there are frequent allusions in and lacerate themselves, when celebrating the anniversary the Old Testament, and it must have been a gainful and an of the assassination of Hossein, whom they venerate as a established traffic. martyr for the Moslem faith.2

X. Moses has enumerated seven different sorts of Divi7. The heathens showed their veneration for their deities NERs into futurity, whom the Israelites were prohibited from in various ways, the knowledge of which serves to illustrate consulting (Deut. xviii. 10, 11.), viz. 1. Those who used many passages of Scripture. Thus nothing was more fre- divination, that is, who endeavoured to penetrate futurity quent than prostitution of women, with examples of which by auguries, using lots, &c. ;-2. Observers of times, those the ancient writers abound. According to Justin, the Cy- who pretended to foretell future events by present occurprian women gained that portion which their husbands re-rences, and who predicted political or physical changes from ceived with them, on marriage, by previous public prostitu- the aspects of the planets, eclipses, motion of the clouds, &c.; tion. And the Phenicians, as we are informed by Augustine, —3. Enchanters, either those who charmed serpents, or those made a gift to Venus of the gain acquired by the same dis- who drew auguries from inspecting the entrails of beasts, gusting means. Hence we may account for Moses prohi- observing the flights of birds, &c. ;4. Witches, those who biting the Israelites from committing any such atrocities. pretended to bring down certain celestial influences to their (Lev. xix. 29.)–Others dedicated to them the spoils of war; aid by means of herbs, drugs, perfumes, &c.;-5. Charmers, others, votive tablets and other offerings in commemoration those who used spells for the purposes of divination ;-6. Conof supposed benefits conferred on them.3

sulters with familiar spirits, --Pythonesses, those who preA more frequent and indeed very general custom was the tended to inquire by means of one spirit to get oracular carrying of marks on their body in honour of the object of answers from another of a superior order ;-and, 7. Wizards their worship. This is expressly forbidden in Lev. xix. 28. or necromancers, those who (like the witch at Endor) proTo this day, all the castes of the Hindoos bear on their fore- fessed to evoke the dead, in order to learn from them the heads, or elsewhere, what are called the sectarian marks, secrets of the invisible world. which not only distinguish them in a civil, but also in a re- Four kinds of divination are particularly mentioned in ligious point of view, from each other. Most of the barba- i sacred history, viz. by the cup -by arrows-by inspecting rous nations lately discovered have their faces, arms, breasts, the livers of slaughtered animals,—and by the staff. &c. curiously carved or tatooed, probably for superstitious 1. Divination by the cup appears to have been the most purposes. Ancient writers abound with accounts of marks ancient; it certainly prevailed in Egypt at the time of Joseph, made on the face, arms, &c. in honour of different idols,– (Gen. xliv. 5.), :2 and it has from time immemorial been preand to this the inspired penman alludes (Rev. xiii. 16, 17. valent among the Asiatics, who have a tradition (the origin xiv. 9. 11. xv. 2. xvi. 2. xix. 20. xx. 4.), where false wor- of which is lost in the lapse of ages) that there was a cup shippers are represented as receiving in their hands, and in which had passed successively into the hands of different their forehead, the marks of the beast.

potentates, and which possessed the strange property of reThe prohibition in Lev. xix, 27. against the Israelites presenting in it the whole world, and all the things which rounding the corners of their heads, and marring the corners of were then doing in it. The Persians to this day call it the their beards, evidently refers to customs which must have Cup of Jemsheed, from a very ancient king of Persia of that existed among the Egyptians, during their residence among name, whom late historians and poets have confounded with that people; though it is now difficult to determine what Bacchus, Solomon, Alexander the Great, &c. This cup those customs were. Herodotus informs us, that the Arabs filled with the elixir of immortality, they say, was discovered shave or cut their hair round in honour of Bacchus, who (they when digging the foundations of Persepolis. To this cup say) wore his hair in this way; and that the Macians, a peo- the Persian poets have numerous allusions; and to the intelple of Libya, cut their hair round, so as to leave a tuft on the ligence supposed to have been received from it they ascribe top of the head ; in this manner the Chinese cut their hair the great prosperity of their ancient monarchs, as by it they to the present day. This might have been in honour of some understood all events, past, present, and future. Many of idol, and, therefore, forbidden to the Israelites.

the Mohammedan princes and governors affect still to have The hair was much used in divination among the ancients; information of futurity by means of a cup. Thus when Mr. and for purposes of religious superstition among the Greeks; Norden was at Dehr or Derri in the farthest part of Egypt, and particularly about the time of the giving of this law, as in a very dangerous situation, from which he and his comthis is supposed to have been the æra of the Trojan war. We pany endeavoured to extricate themselves by exerting great learn from Homer, that it was customary for parents to dedi-spirit, a spiteful and powerful Arab in a threatening way cate the hair of their children to some god ; which, when they told one of their people, whom they had sent to him, that he came to manhood, they cut off and consecrated to the deity. knew what sort of people they were, that he had consulted his Achilles, at the funeral of Patroclus, cut off his golden locks, cup, and had found by it that they were those of whom one which his father had dedicated to the river god Sperchius, of their prophets had said, that Franks would come in disand threw them into the flood.8 From Virgil's account of guise, and passing every where, examine the state of the the death of Dido, we learn that the top most lock of hair was country, and afterwards bring over a great number of other dedicated to the infernal gods. If the hair was rounded, and Franks, conquer the country, and exterminate all.13 It was dedicated for purposes of this kind, it will at once account precisely the same thing that Joseph meant when he talked for the prohibition in this verse. 10

of divining by his cup.lt A religion so extravagant as that of pagaism could not Julius Serenus tells us, that the method of divining by the have subsisted so long, had not the priests by whom it was cup among the Abyssinians, Chaldees, and Egyptianis, was managed contrived to secure the devotion of the multitudes to fill it first with water, then to throw into it their plates of

gold and silver, together with some precious stones, whereon 1 Herodotus, lib. iv. c. 71. * Mr. Morier has given a long and interesting narrative of this anni: who came to consult the oracle used certain forms of incan

certain characters: and after that the were engraven

persons are exhibitel in their cities, to judge of the degree of fanaticism which tation, and so calling upon the devil, received their answers possesses them at this time, I have seen soine of the most violent of them, several ways; sometimes by articulate sounds, sometimes with only their loins covered and their bodies streaming with blood, by by the characters, which were in the çup, arising upon the the voluntary cuts which they had given to themselves, either as acts of surface of the water, and by this arrangement forming the love, anguish, or mortification. Such must have been the cuttings of which answer; and many times by the visible appearing of the perwe read in Holy Writ.” Morier's Second Journey, p. 176. 3 list. lib. xviii. e. 5.

sons themselves about whom the oracle was consulted. Calmet on Lev. xix. 29. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iv. pp. 183— 185.

11 See Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. vi. pp. 479, 480.; also vol. iii. p. 298. $ See much curious information on this subject in Dr. Clarke's Travels, 13 We have no reason to infer that Joseph practised divination by the pol. vi, pp. 441–448. 8vo. and Mr. Dodwell's

Classical Tour in Greece, vol. cup; although, according to the superstition of those times, supernatural i pp. 341, 342.

influence might be attributed to his cup. And as the whole transaction See Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. iji. p. 15.

related in Gen. xliv. was merely intended to deceive his brethren for a + Herod. lib. iij. c. 8. and lib. iv. c. 175.

short time, he might as well affect divination by his cup as affect to believe & Iliad. xxiii. 142, &c.

9 Æneid. iv. 698. that they had stolen it. 10 Calmet, and Dr. A. Clarke on Lev. xix. 27.

13 Trav. vol. ij. p. 150.

14 Harmer, ii. p. 475.

versary.

Cornelius Agrippa! tells us likewise, that the manner of science, and by means of certain rites, to evoke the spirits some was to pour melted wax into a cup containing water, of the dead from their gloomy abodes, and compel them to which wax would range itself into order, and so form an- disclose information on subjects beyond the reach of the swers, according to the questions proposed.2

human powers : of this description, probably, was the sorce2. Divination by arrows was an ancient method of presag- rer Bar-Jesus, mentioned in Acts xiii. 6–11. There also ing future events. Ezekiel (xxi. 21.) informs us that Nebu- were others, such as Simon the sorcerer (Acts viii. 9.); who chadnezzar, when marching against Zedekiah and the king having some knowledge of natural philosophy and astrology, of the Ammonites, and coming to the head of two ways, abused that knowledge and deceived the common people by mingled his arrows in a quiver, that he might thence divine pretending to foretell future events, from the motions and apin what direction to pursue his march; and that he consulted pearances of the planets and stars, and to cure certain disteraphim, and inspected the livers of beasts, in order to de- eases by repeating certain phrases, &c. So prevalent was termine his resolution. Jerome, in his commentary on this the practice of sorcery among the Jews, that many of their passage, says that “the manner of divining by arrows was elders, judges, or rabbies, are said to have attained such a. thus :-they wrote on several arrows the names of the cities proficiency in magic or sorcery, as to surpass even those who against which they intended to make war, and then putting made it their profession.''. them promiscuously all together into a quiver, they caused The prevalence of magic among the heathen is too well them io be drawn out in the manner of lots, and that city, known to require any proofs. Pythagoras and other distinwhose name was on the arrow first drawn out, was the first guished Greek philosophers took no small pains to attain they assaulted." This method of divination was practised the knowledge of this art: the inhabitants of Ephesus in parby the idolatrous Arabs, and prohibited by Mohammed, ticular were distinguished for their magical skill. And it and was likewise used by the ancient Greeks, and other was no small triumph of the Gospel that many of the Chrisnations.5

tian converts at Ephesus, who had previously used curious 3. Divination by inspecting the liver of slaughtered ani- arts (Te Trepleza, which word is used by Greek writers to demals was another mode of ascertaining future events, much note magical arts, incantations, &c.), brought their books topractised by the Greeks and Romans, by the former of whom gether and burned them before all men. (Acts xix. 19.) So it was termed 'HARTOO XOTIK, or looking into the liver. This celebrated was the city of Ephesus for the magic art, that word subsequently became a general term for divination by some particular forms of incantation derived their names from inspecting the entrails of sacrifices, because the liver was thence, and were called Epsoide Ipanemata, or Ephesian Letters. 11 the first and principal part observed for this purpose. To They appear to have been amulets inscribed with strange this method of divination there is an allusion in Ezekiel characters, which were worn about the person for the purxxi. 21.6

pose of curing diseases, expelling demons, and preserving 4. Rabdomancy, or divination by the staff, is alluded to by individuals from evils of different kinds.' The books" the prophet Hosea (iv. 12.); it is supposed to have been thus above mentioned were such as taught the science, mode of performed: The person consulting measured his staff by forming, use, &c. of these charms.12 spans, or by the length of his finger, saying, as he measured, “I will go, or, I will not go; I will do such a thing, or, I will not do it;" and as the last span fell out so he determined. Cyril and Theophylact, however, give a different account of

SECTION II. the matter. They say that it was performed by erecting two sticks, after which they murmured forth a certain charm, and ON THE STATE OF RELIGION AMONG THE JEWS, IN THE TIME OF then, according as the sticks fell, backwards or forwards, towards the right or left, they gave advice in any affair.? PREVIOUSLY to the Babylonish captivity there are no ves

In the later period of the Jewish history, we meet with tiges of the existence of any sect among the Jews. Devoted many persons among the Jews, who pretended to be sorce- to the study of their law and to the ceremonies of their rerers. This class of persons dealt in incantations and divi- ligion, they neglected those curious studies which were nations, and boasted of a power, in consequence of their deep esteemed among other nations. The temple of Jehovah and

the houses of the prophets were their principal schools; in 1 De occull. Philos. l. i. cap. 57. » Dr. A. Clarke on Gen. xliv. 5. Burder's Oriental Customs, vol. i. the ordinances which he had commanded. After the cap

which they were taught how to serve the Lord and to observe * On this subject see some curious information in the Fragments sup- tivity, we do not meet with any traces of any sects among plementary to Calmet, No. 179. Koran, ch. v. 4. (Sale's translation, p. 94. 4to. edit.) In his preliminary should

seem that the Jewish literati, in imitation of the sects

them until the time of the Maccabæan princes; when it discourse, Mr. Sale states that the arrows, used by the idolatrous Arabs for this purpose, were destitute of heads or feathers, and were

kept in the of the Grecian philosophers, became divided in their opinions, arrows were kept in the temple of Mecca, but generally in divination they Sadducees, and Essenes. As these sects are frequently temple of some idol, in whose presence they were consulted. Seven such and composed the three celebrated sects of the Pharisees, manded me, --on another, My LORD hath forbidden me,--and the third mentioned in the New Testament, it is proposed in this seca was blank. the enterprise in question ; if the second, they made a contrary conclu- with those of the Herodians, who are repeatedly mentioned

If the first was drawn, they regarded it as an approbation of tion to give an account of their origin and tenets, together over again, till a decisive answer was given by one of the others. These by Jesus Christ, and of some other minor denominations of undertaken—as when a man was about to marry, to undertake a journey, of time comprised in the New Testament history.13 divining arrows were generally consulied before any thing of inoment was religious parties which were in existence during the period or the like. (Sale's Prel. Disc. pp. 126, 127.)

* Potter's Antiquities of Greece, vol. i. pp. 359, 360.

6 Ibid. vol. i. pp. 339, 310. The practice of "divination from the liver is 9 Robinson's Gr. Lex. roce Mzg05. very old, and was practised by the Greeks and Romans, till Christianity 10 If ar.y credit may be given to the Talmuds, twenty-four of the school banished it, together with the gods of Olympus. In Æschylus, Prome- of rabbi Judlah were killed by sorcery; and eighty women sorceresses theus boasts of having taught man the division of the entrails, if smooth, were hanged in one day by Simon ben Shetah. So greatly did the practice and of a clear colour, to be agreeable to the gods; also the various forms of this art prevail among them, that skill in it was required as a necessary of the gall and the liver." (štolberg's Iristory of Religion, vol. iii. p. 436.) qualification for

a person to be chosen a member of their councils, whether Among the Greeks and Romans, as soon as a victim was sacrificed, the that of seventy-one or those of twenty-three; in order that he inight be entrails were examined. They began with the liver, which was considered the better able to try and judge the accused; whether they were really the chief seat; or, as Philostratus expresses himself (Life of Apollonius, guilty of sorcery or not. "Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 371. vol. ii. p. 244 viii. 7. $15.), as the prophesying tripod of all divination. If it had a fine, (folio edit.) where the passages from the Talmuds are given. natural, red colour; if it was healthy, and without spots; if it was largé 11 Biscoe on the Acts, vol. 1. pp. 290—293. and double ; is the lobes turned outwards; they promised themselves the 12 Dr. A. Clarke, on Acts viii. 17. where some curious information relabest success in their undertakings: but it portended evil if the liver was tive to the Ephesian letters is collected from the lexicographers, Suidas and dry, or had a band between the parts, or had no lobes. It was also con Hesychius. sidered an unfortunate omen if the liver was injured by a cut in killing the 13 The authorities principally consulted for this section are Pritii Introvictim. (Matern. of Cilano, Roman Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 164.) Rosen- ductio in Lectionem Novi Testamenti, cc. 33, 34. De Statu Religionis upüller. Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 185.

Judæorum tempore Christi, pp. 446–471. Calinet's Dissertation sur les * Selden de diis Syris. Synt. I. cap. 2. p. 28. Godwin's Moses and Sectes des Juifs Dissert. tom. 1. pp. 711–743. Godwin's Moses and Aaron, Aaron, p. 216. Pococke and Newcome, in loc. Potter's Antiq. of Greece, and Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book i. ch. 10–13. Schulzii Archæ vol. i. p. 359. (Edinb. 1804.)

ologia Biblica, pp. 170-180. Carpzovii Antiquitates Hebr. Gentis, pp. 173 Josephus relates that, at the period above referred to, there were -27. Pictet's

Theologie Chrétienne, tom. i. pp. 527–630. and tom. iii. numerous sorcerers and deceivers; who, pretending to show wonders pp. 103–117. Jahn, Archæol.

Bibl. &$ 316–320. and

Ackermann, Archäol. and prodigies, seduced great numbers of people after them into the wil. Bibl. 89 305-311. Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introd. (Bp. Watson's derness. (Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 8. $6. Ben. Jud. lib. iv. c. 13. $4.)

Tracts, vol. iii. pp. 181—192.)

JESUS CHRIST.

p. 54.

$ 1. ACCOUNT OF THE JEWISH SECTS MENTIONED IN THE NEW bound to bless the Jews, and make them all partakers of the

2. The Pharisees contended that God was in strict justice TESTAMÉNT. I. The Pharisees.-II. The Sadducees.—III. The Essenes.- terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, to make IV. The Scribes.—V. The Lawyers.-VI. The Samari

them eternally happy, and that he could not possibly damn tans.-VII. The Herodians.-VIII. The Galilæans.—IX. rived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of

any one of them! The ground of their justification they de The Zealots.--X. The Sicarii.

God, from their practising the rite of circumcision, and from I. The PHARISEES were the most numerous and powerful the sacrifices they offered. And as they conceived works to sect of the Jews. The precise time when they first appeared be meritorious, they had invented a great number of supereis not known; but, as Josephus! mentions the Pharisees, rogatory ones, to which they attached greater merit than to Sadducees, and Essenes, as distinct sects, in the reign of the observance of the law itself. To this notion St. Paul Jonathan (B. c. 144—139), it is manifest that they must have has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans been in existence for some time. Calmet is of opinion that in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews.? their origin cannot be carried higher than the year of the 3. The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal world 3820, corresponding with the year 184 before the sects that divided the Jewish nation (Acts xxvi. 5.), and Christian æra. They derived their name from the Hebrew affected a singular probity of manners according to their verb vno (PHARASH) to separate ; because they professed an system, which however was for the most part both lax and uncommon separation from the apparel and customs of the corrupt. Thus, many things which Moses had tolerated in world to the study of the law, and an extraordinary devotion civil life, in order to avoid a greater évil

, the Pharisees deto God and sanctity of life, beyond all other men. Hence termined to be morally right; for instance, the law of retaliaone of them is represented as thanking God, that he was not tion, and that of a divorce from a wife for any cause. (Matt. as other men are ; and St. Paul, in his masterly apology be- v. 31. et seq. xix. 3—12.) During the time of Christ there fore king Agrippa, terms them anpi295 Turn ceperis, the most were two celebrated philosophical and divinity schools among rigorous sect, in our version rendered the most straitest sect. the Jews, that of Schammai and that of Hillel. On the (Ảcts xxvi. 5.) They were not restricted to any particular question of divorce, the school of Schammai maintained, that family or class of men : there were Pharisees of every tribe, no man could legally put away his wife except for adultery: family, and condition. The credit which they had acquired the school of Hilel, on the contrary, allowed a divorce for by their reputation for knowledge and sanctity of life early any cause (from Deut. xxiv. 1.), even if the wife found no rendered them formidable to the Maccabæan sovereigns; favour in the eyes of her husband,—in other words, if he saw while they were held in such esteem and veneration by the any woman who pleased him better. The practice of the people, that they may be almost said to have given what Jews seems to have gone with the school of 'Hillel. Thus direction they pleased to public affairs.? They boasted that, we read (in Ecclus. xxv. 26.), “ If she go not as thou from their accurate knowledge of religion, they were the fa- wouldest have her, cut her off from thy flesh; give her a bill vourites of heaven ;; and thus, trusting in themselves that of divorce and let her go;" and in conformity with this docthey were righteous, despised others. (Luke xi. 52. xviii. trine, Josephus, who was a Pharisee, relates that he repu9. 11.)

diated his wife who had borne him three children, because Among the tenets inculcated by this sect, we may enume- he was not pleased with her manners or behaviour. rate the following ; viz.

4. Further, they interpreted certain of the Mosaic laws 1. They ascribed all things to fate or providence, yet not most literally, and distorted their meaning so as to favour so absolutely as to take away the free will of man, though their own philosophical system. Thus, the law of loving fate does not co-operate in every action. They also believed their neighbour, they expounded solely of the love of their in the existence of angels and spirits, and in the resurrection friends, that is, of the whole Jewish race; all other persons of the dead (Acts xxiii. 8.): but, from the account given of being considered by them as natural enemies (Matt: v. 43. them by Josephus, it appears that their notion of the immor- compared with Luke x. 31–33.), whom they were in no tality of the soul was the Pythagorean metempsychosis ;5 respect bound to assist. Dr. Lightfoot has cíted a striking that the soul, after the dissolution of one body, winged its illustration of this passage from Maimonides. An oath, in flight into another; and that these removals were perpetuated which the name of God was not distinctly specified, they and diversified through an infinite succession, the soul ani- taught was not binding (Matt. v. 33.), maintaining that a mating a sound and healthy body, or being confined in a man might even swear with his lips, and at the same modeformed and diseased frame, according to its conduct in a ment annul it in his heart! So rigorously did they underprior state of existence. From the Pharisees, whose tenets stand the command of observing the Sabbath-day, that they and traditions the pecple generally received, it is evident that accounted it unlawful to pluck ears of corn, and heal the the disciples of our Lord had adopted this philosophical doc- sick, &c. (Matt. xii. 1. et seq. Luke vi. 6. et seq. xiv. 1. et seq.) trine of the transmigration of souls; when, having met with Those natural laws which Moses did not sanction by any a man who had been born blind, they asked him whether it penalty they accounted among the petty commandments, were the sins of this man in a pre-existent state which had inferior to the ceremonial laws, which they preferred to the caused the Sovereign Disposer to inflict upon him this former, as being the weightier matters of the law (Matt. v. punishment. To this inquiry Christ replied, that neither his 19. xv. 4. xxiii. 23.), to the total neglect of mercy and vices or sins in a pre-existent state, nor those of his parents, fidelity. Hence they accounted causeless anger and impure were the cause of this calamity. (John ix. 1—4.) From desires as trifles of no moment (Matt. v. 21, 22. 27–30.) ; this notion, derived from the Greek philosophy, we find that they compassed sea and land to make proselytes10 to the Jewduring our Saviour's public ministry, the Jews speculated ish religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule variously concerning him, and indulged several conjectures, over their consciences and wealth : and these proselytes, which of the ancient prophets it was whose soul now ani- through the influence of their own scandalous examples and mated him, and performed such astonishing miracles. Some characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned contended that it was the soul of Elias; others of Jeremiah ; the New Test. vol. ii. p. 355. To this popular notion of a transmigration while others, less sanguinc, only declared in general terms of souls, Dr. 11. ascribes the alarm of Herod, who had caused John the that it must be the soul of one of the old prophets by which Baptist to be beheaded, when the fame of Christ's miracles reached his these mighty deeds were now wrought. (Matt. xvi. 14. cerea but, on comparing Matt. xvi. 6. with Mark viii, 15., it appears that Luke ix. 19.).

alarm, therefore, is rather to be attributed to the force of conscience which

haunted his guilly mind in despite of his libertine principles. 1 Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 5. & 9.

* See Rom. i.-xi. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $ 4. De Bell. Jud 2 The high reputation and influence of the Pharisees are strikingly lib. ii. c. 8. $ 4. Justin. Dialog. cum Tryphon. Pirke Aboth. illustrated by the following anecdote :-When Alexander Jannæus lay on 8 Life of himself, $ 76. Grotius, Calmet, Drs. Lightfoot, Whitby, Dod his death-bed, about eighty years before the Christian æra, his queen dridge, and A. Clarke (on Matt. v. 30. et seq. and Matt. xix. 3. et seq have Alexandra having expressed great anxiety on account of the exposed state all given illustrations of the

Jewish doctrine of divorce from rabbinica in which herself and sons would be left, the dying monarch recommended writers. See also Selden's Uxor Hebraica, lib. iii. c. 22. (Op. tom. ii. col. her to court the Pharisees, and delegate part of her power to them. 782—786.) Alexandra followed this advice; and the Pharisees, availing themselves of 5" A Jew sees a Gentile fall into the sea, let him by ng means lift him the opportunity, made themselves masters of the government, and dis- out: for it is written, 'Thou shalt not rise up aguinst the blood of thy posed of every thing as they pleased. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 15. neighbour. But this is not thy neighbour.” Works,

vol. ii. p. 152. $ 5. c. 16. & 1. Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 4. 3 Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $4. 10 Justin Martyr bears witness to the inveterate malignity of the prose

Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 5. $ 9. lib. xvii. c. 2. 83. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lytes of the Pharisees against the name of Christ, at the beginning of the Acts v. 38, 39.

second century. "Your proselytes," says he to Trypho the Jew (p. 350.); 3 Ibid. lib. xviii. c. 1. $ 3. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lib. iii. c. 8. $5. "not only do not believe in Christ, but blaspheme his name with twofola The author of the Book of Wisdom (ch. viii. 20.) seems to allude to the more virulence than yourselves. They are ready to show their malicious same doctrine, when he tells us, that, being good, he came into a body un- zeal against us; and, to obtain merit

in your eyes,

wish to us reproach, and

torment, and death." See further Dr. Ireland's Paganism and Christianity 8 Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. pp. 568, 369. Dr. Harwood's Introd. to compared, pp. 21-23.

defiled.

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