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was termed a libation, the victim was instantly led to the j as appears from Psal. ii

. 12. There is an idolatrous rite menslaughter. To this circumstance St. Paul, knowing the time tioned by Ezekiel, called the putting the branch to the nose of his martyrdom to be very near, has a very striking allu- (Ezek. viii. 17.), by which interpreters understand, that the sion; representing this rite, which immediately preceded worshipper, with a wand in his hand, touched the idol, and the death of the victim, as already performed upon himself, then applied the wand to his nose and mouth, in token of implying that he was now devoted to death, and that his worship and adoration. There appears to be this difference, dissolution would speedily follow. I am now ready to be however, between the idolatry of the Jews and that of other offered, says he (2 Tim. iv. 6.): literally, I am already poured nations, viz. that the Jews did not deny a divine power and out as a libation; the time of my departure is at hand. A providence; only they imagined that their idols were the insimilar expressive sacrificial allusion occurs in Phil. ii. 17. termediate causés, by which the blessings of the supreme Yea, says the holy apostle, and if I be POURED OUT upon the God might be conveyed to them; whereas the heathens sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you believed that the idols they worshipped were true gods, and all

. In this passage he represents the faith of the Philip- had no higher conceptions, having no notion of one eternal, pians as the sacrificial victim, and compares his blood, will- almighty, and independent Being.? ingly and joyfully to be shed in martyrdom, to the libation In the account of the decisive triumph of true religion over poured out on occasion of the sacrifice.

idolatry, related in 1 Kings xviii., we have a very striking After the usual portions of the victims had been burnt on delineation of the idolatrous rites of Baal; from which it the altar, or given to the officiating priests, the remainder appears that his four hundred and fifty priests, or prophets, as was either exposed by the owner for sale in the market, or they are termed, employed the whole day in their desperate became the occasion of giving a feast to his friends, either rites. The time is divided into two periods, 1. From mornin the temple or at his own house. Meat of this description, ing until noon, which was occupied in preparing and offering termed edano Juts, or meats offered to idols, in Acts xv. 29., the sacrifice, and in earnest supplication for the celestial fire, was an abomination to the Jews; who held that not only those (for Baal was unquestionably the god of fire or the sun, who partook of such entertainments, but also those who and had only to work in his own element), vociferating, 0, purchased such meat in the market, subjected themselves to Baal, hear us S1 Kings xviii. 26.); and, 2. They continued the pollution of idolatry. The apostle James, therefore, from noon until the time of offering evening sacrifice (the time recommends, that the Gentile Christians should abstain from when it was usually offered to Jehovah in the temple at Jeruall meats of this kind, out of respect to this prejudice of salem), performing their frantic rites. Jewish Christians; and hence he calls these meats sognjectie, They leaped up and down at the altar, 4 that is, they danced pollution of idols, that is, meats polluted in consequence of around it with strange and hideous cries and gesticulations, their being sacrificed unto idols. (Acts xv. 20., compare also tossing their heads to and fro, with a great variety of bodily 1 Cor. viii. 1. 4. 7. 10. x. 19. 28.) It appears from Judg. contortions, precisely as the Ceylonese do to this day. In ix: 27. that feasting after sacrifice in the temples of idols like manner the priests of Mars among the Romans danced was not unknown to the Shechemites.

and leaped around the altars of that divinity, from which cir6. Singing and dancing were the general attendants of cumstance they derived their name,–Salii. And it came to some of these idolatrous rites: thus, the Israelites danced pass at noon that Elijah nlocked them : had not the intrepid before the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 19.) To this day, dancing prophet of the Lord been conscious of the divine protection, before the idol takes place at almost every Hindoo idolatrous he certainly would not have used such freedom of speech, feast. But their sacrifices were not confined to irrational while he was surrounded by his enemies : And said, Cry victims: it is well known that the practice of offering human aloud! Oblige him, by your vociferations, to attend to your victims prevailed to a great extent;? and among the Ammon- suit.—Similar vain repetitions were made by the heathen in ites and Phænicians they were immolated to propitiate the time of our Saviour, who cautions his disciples against Moloch and Baal; and children were in some manner dedi- them in Matt. vi. 7.?—For he is a god—the supreme God; you cated and devoted to them. The idolatrous worshippers are worship him as such ; and, doubtless, he is jealous of his own said to make them pass through the fire ; denoting some rite honour, and the credit of his votaries. Either he is talkingof dedication and purification. This was most expressly he may be giving audience to some others; or, as it is renforbidden to the Israelites. (Lev. xviii. 21.). In this manner dered in the margin of our larger Bibles,che meditatethhe Ahaz devoted his son (2 Kings xvi. 3.); but as Hezekiah is in a profound reverie, projecting some godlike scheme afterwards succeeded his father on the throne of Judah, it is he is pursuing-taking his pleasure in the chase—or he is on evident that he was not put to death. From the declarations a journey–having left his audience chamber, he is making of the psalmist (cvi. 36—40.), and of the prophet Ezekiel some excursions or peradventure he sleepeth and must be (xvi. 21. xx. 26. 31.), it is however, certain that many hu- awaked.--Absurd as these notions may appear to us, they are man victims were thus barbarously sacrificed.

believed by the Hindoos, to each of whose gods some partiThe adoration or worship which idolaters paid to their gods cular business is assigned, and who imagine that Vishnoo did not consist barely in the sacrifices which they offered to sleeps for months in the year, while others of their deities are them, but likewise in prostrations and bowings of the body; often out on journeys or expeditions. Accordingly the thus Naaman speaks of bowing in the house of Rimmon. priests of Baal cried aloud, and cut themselves, after their man(2 Kings v. 18.)" It was also a religious ceremony, to lift up ner. This was not only the custom of the idolatrous Israelthe hand to the mouth and kiss it, and then, stretching it out, to ites, but also of the Syrians, Persians, Indians, Grecks, throw as it were the kiss to the idol : both this and the former Romans, and, in short, of all the ancient heathen world. ceremony are mentioned in 1 Kings xix. 18. And so Job, in Hence we may see the reason why the Israelites were fororder to express his not having fallen into idolatry, very ele- bidden to cut ihemselves, to make any cuttings in their flesh for gantly says, If I beheld the sun while it shined, or the moon the dead, and to print any marks upon themselves. (Deut. xiv. 1. walking in brightness, and my heart had been secretly enticed, 3 On the subject of the idolatrous worship of the heathens, the editor or my mouth hath kissed my hand, &c. (Job xxxi. 26, 27.); of Calinet's Dictionary has accumulated much interesting information. for to kiss and to worship are synonymous terms in Scripture, See the Firsagunents, particularly Nos. 107. 185. 212, 213.

• This is the marginal rendering, and most correct, of 1 Kings xviii. 26. · Parkhurst's Gr. Lexicon, p. 621. Harwood, vol. ii. pp. 219, 220. Drs. - From the statement of a Ceylonese convert to Christianity (who was Clarke and Macknight on the passages cited.

formerly one of the principal high-priests of Budhoo) Dr. A. Clarke has 2 The Egyptians had several cities, which were termed Typhonian,- described the manner and invocations of the pagan inhabitants of that such as lieliopolis, Idithya, Abarei, and Busiris,-where at particular sea island (Comment on 1 Kings xviii.), to which we are indebted for part of sons they immolated men. The objects thus devoted were persons of the present elucidation of the rites of Baal ; and his account is confirmed bright hair and a particular complexion, such as were seldom to be found by Dr. John Davy, in lis Travels in Ceylon. among that people. Hence we inay conclude that they were foreigners; & Jain dederat Saliis (a saltu noinina ducunt) and it is probable that while the Israelites resided in Egypt, the victims Armaque et ad certos verba canenda modos.--OyId. Fast. iii. 387, 388. were chosen froin their body. They were burnt alive upon a high altar, On the custom of dancing around the altars of the gods, the reader will and thus sacrificed for the good of the people: at the conclusion of the find much curious information in Lomeier's treatise De veterum Gentilium sacrifice, the priests collected their ashes, and scattered them upwards in Lustrationibus, cap. 33. pp. 413. et seq. the air, -most likely with this view, that, where any of the dust was wafted, The infuriated worshippers of Diana all vith one voice about the space a blessing might be entailed. By a just retribution, Moses and Aaron were of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (Acts xix. 34.) commanded to take ashes of the furnace (which in the Scriptures is used Not to multiply unnecessary examples, see

an illustration of these vain, as a type of the slavery of the Israelites, and of all the cruelty which they repetitions in the Heautontiinoreumenos of Terence, act v. scene 1. We experienced in Egypt), and to scatter ihem abroad towards the hearen are informed by Servius that the ancient heathens, after supplicating the (Exod. x. 8. 9.), but with a different intention, viz. that where any the particular deity to whoin they offered sacrifice, used to invoke all the gods smallest portion alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse to the un- and goddesses, lest any one of them should be adverse to the suppliant. grateful, cruel, and infatuated Egyptians. Thus there was a designed con Servius in Virgil

. Georg. lib. i. 21. (vol. 1. p. 178. of Burmann's edition, ira t in these workings of Providence, and an apparent opposition to the Amst. 1746. 4to.) For a remarkable instance of the “vain repetitions" of superstition of the tinies. Bryant, on the Plagues of Egypt, p. 116. On the modern Mohammedans, see Dr. Richardson's Travels in the Mediterthe prevalence oi hunan sacritices in ancient times, see vol. i. p. 5. and ranean, &c. vol. i. pp. 462—464.

8 Waru's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 324.

lv.e.

$ 1. ACCOUNT OF THE JEWISH SECTS MENTIONED IN THE NEW 2. The Pharisees contended that God was in strict justice TESTAMENT.

bound to bless the Jews, and make them all partakers of the 1. The Pharisees.—II. The Sadducees.—III. The Essenes.. them eternally

happy, and that he could not possibly damn

terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, to make IV. The Scribes.-V. The Lawyers.-VI. The Samaritans–VII. The Herodians.—VIII. 'The Galilæans. IX. any one of them!

The ground of their justification they de

rived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of The Zealots.--X. The Sicarii.

God, from their practising the rite of circumcision, and from 1. The PAARISEES

were the most numerous and powerful the sacrifices they offered. And as they conceived works to sect of the Jews. The precise time when they first appeared be meritorious, they had invented a great number of supereis not known ; but, as Josephus' mentions the Pharisees, rogatory ones, to which they attached greater merit than to Sadducees, and Essenes, as distinct sects, in the reign of the observance of the law itself. To this notion St. Paul Jonathan (B. c. 144—139), it is manifest that they must have has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans been in existence for some time. Calmet is of opinion that in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews. their origin cannot be carried higher than the year of the 3. The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal world 3820, corresponding with the year 184 before the sects that divided the Jewish nation (Acts xxvi. 5.), and Christian æra. They derived their name from the Hebrew affected a singular probity of manners according to their verb vno (PHARASH) to separate; because they professed an system, which however was for the most part both lax and uncommon separation from the apparel and customs of the corrupt. Thus, many things which Moses had tolerated in world to the study of the law, and an extraordinary devotion civil life, in order to avoid a greater évil, the Pharisees deto God and sanctity of life, beyond all other men. Hence termined to be morally right; for instance, the law of retaliaone of them is represented as thanking God, that he was not tion, and that of a divorce from a wife for any cause. (Matt. as other men are ; and St. Paul, in his masterly apology be- v. 31. et seq. xix. 3—12.) During the time of Christ there fore king Agrippa, terms them anpi bertutn ceperis, the most were two celebrated philosophical and divinity schools among rigorous sect, in our version rendered the most straitest sect. the Jews, that of Schammai and that of Hillel. On the (Ảcts xxvi

. 5.) They were not restricted to any particular question of divorce, the school of Schammai maintained, that family or class of men : there were Pharisees of every tribe, no man could legally put away his wife except for adultery: family, and condition. The credit which they had acquired the school of Hillel, on the contrary, allowed a divorce for by their reputation for knowledge and sanctity of life early any cause (from Deut. xxiv. 1.), even if the wife found no rendered them formidable to the Maccabæan sovereigns"; favour in the eyes of her husband,

-in other words, if he saw. while they were held in such esteem and yeneration by the any woman who pleased him better. The practice of the people, that they may be almost said to have given what Jews seems to have gone with the school of Hillel. Thus direction they pleased to public affairs.? They boasted that, we read (in Ecclus. xxv. 26.), “ If she go not as thou from their accurate knowledge of religion, they were the fa- wouldest have her, cut her off from thy flesh; give her a bil? vourites of heaven ;3 and thus, trusting in themselves that of divorce and let her go ;" and in conformity with this docthey were righteous, despised others. (Luke xi. 52. xviii. trine, Josephus, who was a Pharisee, relates that he repu9. 11.)

diated his wife who had borne him three children, because Among the tenets inculcated by this sect, we may enume- he was not pleased with her manners or behaviour. rate the following ; viz.

4. Further, they interpreted certain of the Mosaic laws 1. They ascribed all things tɔ fate or providence, yet not most literally, and distorted their meaning so as to favour so absolutely as to take away the free will of man, though their own philosophical system. Thus, the law of loving fate does not co-operate in every action. They also believed their neighbour, they expounded solely of the love of their in the existence of angels and spirits, and in the resurrection friends, that is, of the whole Jewish race; all other persons of the dead (Acts xxiii. 8.): but, from the account given of being considered by them as natural enemies (Matt: v. 43. them by Josephus, it appears that their notion of the immor- compared with Luke x. 31–33.), whom they were in no tality of the soul was the Pythagorean metempsychosis ;' respect bound to assist. Dr. Lightfoot has cíted a striking that the soul, after the dissolution of one body, winged its illustration of this passage from Maimonides. An oath, in flight into another; and that these removals were perpetuated which the name of God was not distinctly specified, they and diversified through an infinite succession, the soul ani- taught was not binding (Matt. v. 33.), maintaining that a mating a sound and healthy body, or being confined in a man might even swear with his lips, and at the same modeformed and diseased frame, according to its conduct in a ment annul it in his heart! So rigorously did they underprior state of existence. From the Pharisees, whose tenets stand the command of observing the Sabbath-day, that they and traditions the pecple generally received, it is evident that accounted it unlawful to pluck ears of corn, and heal the the disciples of our Lord had adopted this philosophical doc- sick, &c. (Matt. xii. 1. et seq. Luke vi. 6. et seq. xiv. 1. et seq.) trine of the transmigration of souls; when, having met with Those natural laws which Moses did not sanction by any a man who had been born blind, they asked him whether it penalty they accounted among the petty commandments, were the sins of this man in a pre-existent state which had inferior to the ceremonial laws, which they preferred to the caused the Sovereign Disposer to inflict upon him this former, as being the weightier matters of the law (Matt. v. punishment. To this inquiry Christ replied, that neither his 19. xv. 4. xxiii. 23.), to the total neglect of mercy and vices or sins in a pre-existent state, nor those of his parents, fidelity. Hence they accounted causeless anger and impure were the cause of this calamity. (John ix. 1—4.) From desires as trifles of no moment (Matt. y. 21,

22. 27–30.) ; this notion, derived from the Greek philosophy, we find that they compassed sea and land to make proselyteslo to the Jewduring our Saviour's public ministry, the Jews speculated ish religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule variously concerning him, and indulged several conjectures, over their consciences and wealth : and these proselytes, which of the ancient prophets it was whose soul now ani- through the influence of their own scandalous examples and mated him, and performed such astonishing miracles. Some characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned contended that it was the soul of Elias; others of Jeremiah ; | the New Test. vol

. ii. p. 355. To this popular notion of a transmigration while others, less sanguine, only declared in general terms of souls, Dr. H. ascribes the alarm of Herod, who had caused John the that it must be the soul of one of the old prophets by which Baptist to be beliealed, when the fame of Christ's miracles

reached his these mighty deeds were now wrought. (Matt. xvi. 14. seperti but only comparing Matt. xvi.6. with Mark viii, 15., it appears that Luke ix. 19.)

alarm, therefore, is rather to be attributed to the force of conscience which

haunted his guilty mind in despite of his libertine principles. 1 Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 5. $9.

7 See Rom. i.xi. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. 4. De Bell. Jud 2 The high reputation and influence of the Pharisees are strikingly lib. ii. c. 8. $ 4. Justin. Dialog. cum Tryphon. Pirke Aboth. illustrated by the following anecdote -When Alexander Jannæus lay on 8 Life of himself, $ 76. Grotius, Calmet, Drs. Lightfoot, Whitby, Dod his death-bed, about eighty years before the Christian æra, his queen dridge, and A. Clarke (on Matt. v. 30. et seq. and Matt. xix. 3. et seq) have Alexandra having expressed great anxiety on account of the exposed state all given

illustrations of the Jewish doctrine

of divorce from rabbinical in which herself and sons would be left, the dying monarch recommended writers. See also Selden's Uxor Hebraica, lib. iii. c. 22. (Op. tom. ii. col. her to court the Pharisees, and delegate part of her power to them. 782—786.) Alexandra followed this advice; and the Pharisees, availing themselves of 9 "A Jew sees a Gentile fall into the sea, let him by ng means lift him the opportunity, made themselves masters of the government, and dis- out: for it is written, 'Thou shalt not rise up against the blood of thy posed of every thing as they pleased. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 15. neighbour. But this

is not thy neighbour." Works, vol. ii. p. 152. $ 5. c. 16. $1. Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 4.

10 Justin Martyr bears witness to the inveterate malignity of the prose* Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 5. $ 9. lib. xviii. c. 2. 83. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lytes of the Pharisees against the name of Christ, at the beginning of the

second century. "Your proselytes,” says he to Trypho the Jew (p. 350.); $ Ibid. lib. xviii. c. I. $3. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lib. iii. c. 8. 95. "not only do not believe in Christ, but blaspheme his name with twofola The author of the Book of Wisdom (ch. viii. 20.) seems to allude to the more virulence than yourselves. They are ready to show their malicious same doctrine, when he tells us, that, being good, he came into a body un zeal against us; and, to obtain merit in your eyes, wish to us reproach, and

torment, and death." See further Dr. Ireland's Paganism and Christianity 6 Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. pr. 368, 369. Dr. Harwood's Introd. to compared, pp. 21–23.

3 Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $ 4.

Acts v. 38, 39.

defiled.

was termei a libation, the victim was instantly led to the | as appears from Psal. ii. 12. There is an idolatrous rite menslaughter. To this circumstance St. Paul, knowing the time tioned by Ezekiel

, called the putting the branch to the nose of his martyrdom to be very near, has a very striking allu-|(Ezek. viii. 17.), by which interpreters understand, that the sion; representing this rite, which immediately preceded worshipper, with a wand in his hand, touched the idol, and the death of the victim, as already performed upon himself, then applied the wand to his nose and mouth, in token of implying that he was now devoted to death, and that his worship and adoration. There appears to be this difference, dissolution would speedily follow. I am now ready to be however, between the idolatry of the Jews and that of other offered, says he (2 Tim. iv. 6.): literally, I am already poured nations, viz. that the Jews did not deny a divine power and out as a libation; the time of my departure is at hand. A providence; only they imagined that their idols were the insimilar expressive sacrificial allusion occurs in Phil. ii. 17. termediate causes, by which the blessings of the supreme Yea, says the holy apostle, and if I be POURED our upon the God might be conveyed to them; whereas the heathens sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you believed that the idols they worshipped were true gods, and all. In this passage he represents the faith of the Philip- had no higher conceptions, having no notion of one eternal, pians as the sacrificial victim, and compares his blood, will. almighty, and independent Being. ingly and joyfully to be shed in martyrdom, to the libation In the account of the decisive triumph of true religion over poured out on occasion of the sacrifice.1

idolatry, related in 1 Kings xviii., we have a very striking After the usual portions of the victims had been burnt on delineation of the idolatrous rites of Baal; from which it the altar, or given to the officiating priests, the remainder appears that his four hundred and fifty priests, or prophets, as was either exposed by the owner for sale in the market, or they are termed, employed the whole day in their desperate became the occasion of giving a feast to his friends, either rites. The time is divided into two periods, 1. From mornin the temple or at his own house. Meat of this description, ing until noon, which was occupied in preparing and offering termed aswno Jute, or meats offered to idols, in Acts xv. 29., the sacrifice, and in earnest supplication for the celestial fire, was an abomination to the Jews; who held that not only those (for Baal was unquestionably the god of fire or the sun, who partook of such entertainments, but also those who and had only to work in his own element), vociferating, 0, purchased such meat in the market, subjected themselves to Baal, hear ús (1 Kings xviii. 26.); and, 2. They continued the pollution of idolatry. The apostle James, therefore, from noon until the time of offering evening sacrifice (the time recommends, that the Gentile Christians should abstain from when it was usually offered to Jehovah in the temple at Jeruall meats of this kind, out of respect to this prejudice of salem), performing their frantic rites. Jewish Christians; and hence he calls these meats ancogmuatre, They leaped up and down at the altar, 4 that is, they danced pollution of idols, that is, meats polluted in consequence of around it with strange and hideous cries and gesticulations, their being sacrificed unto idols. (Acts xv. 20., compare also tossing their heads to and fro, with a great variety of bodily 1 Cor. viii. 1. 4. 7. 10. x. 19. 28.) It appears from Judg. contortions; precisely as the Ceylonese do to this day.. In ix. 27. that feasting after sacrifice in the temples of idols like manner the priests of Mars among the Romans danced was not unknown to the Shechemites.

and leaped around the altars of that divinity, from which cir6. Singing and dancing were the general attendants of cumstance they derived their name,–Salii. And it came to some of these idolatrous rites: thus, the Israelites danced pass at noon that Elijah mocked them : had not the intrepid before the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 19.) To this day, dancing prophet of the Lord been conscious of the divine protection, before the idol takes place at almost every Hindoo idolatrous he certainly would not have used such freedom of speech, feast. But their sacrifices were not confined to irrational while he was surrounded by his enemies : And said, Cry victims: it is well known that the practice of offering human aloud! Oblige him, by your vociferations, to attend to your victims prevailed to a great extent;? and among the Ammon- suit.—Similar vain repetitions were made by the heathen in ites and Phænicians they were immolated to propitiate the time of our Saviour, who cautions his disciples against Moloch and Baal; and children were in some manner' dedi- them in Matt. vi. 7.?—For he is a god—the supreme God; you cated and devoted to them. The idolatrous worshippers are worship him as such; and, doubtless, he is jealous of his own said to make them pass through the fire ; denoting some rite honour, and the credit of his votaries. Either he is talkingof dedication and purification. This was most expressly he may be giving audience to some others; or, as it is renforbidden to the Israelites. (Lev. xviii. 21.) In this manner dered in the margin of our larger Bibles,-he meditatethhe Ahaz devoted his son (2 Kings xvi. 3.); 'but as Hezekiah is in a profound reverie, projecting some godlike scheme afterwards succeeded his father on the throne of Judah, it is he is pursuing-taking his pleasure in the chascor he is on evident that he was not put to death. From the declarations a journey—having left his audience chamber, he is making of the psalmist (cvi. 36-40.), and of the prophet Ezekiel some excursions—or peradventure he sleepeth and must be (xvi. 21. xx. 26. 31.), it is however, certain that many hu- awaked.-Absurd as these notions may appear to us, they are man victims were thus barbarously sacrificed.

believed by the Hindoos, to each of whose gods some partiThe adoration or worship which idolaters paid to their gods cular business is assigned, and who imagine that Vishnoo did not consist barely in the sacrifices which they offered to sleeps for months in the year, while others of their deities are them, but likewise in prostrations and bowings of the body; often out on journeys or expeditions. Accordingly the thus Naaman speaks of bowing in the house of Rimmon. priests of Baal cried aloud, and cut themselves, after their man(2 Kings v. 18.)" It was also a religious ceremony, to lift up ner. This was not only the custom of the idolatrous Israelthe hand to the nouth and kiss it, and then, stretching it out, to ites, but also of the Syrians, Persians, Indians, Greeks, throw as it were the kiss to the idol : both this and the former Romans, and, in short, of all the ancient heathen world. ceremony are mentioned in 1 Kings xix. 18. And so Job, in Hence we may see the reason why the Israelites were fororder to express his not having fallen into idolatry, very ele- bidden to cut themselves, to make any cuttings in their flesh for gantly says, if I beheld the sun while it shined, or the moon the dead, and to print any marks upon themselves. (Deut. xiv. 1. walking in brightness, and my heart had been secretly enticed, 3 On the subject of the idolatrous worship of the heathens, the editor or my mouth hath kissed my hand, &c. (Job xxxi. 26, 27.); of Calinet's Dictionary has accumulated much interesting information. for to kiss and to worship are synonymous terms in Scripture, see this Frasements, particularly Nos. 107. 185. 212, 213.

* This is the marginal rendering, and most correct, of 1 Kings xviii. 26. · Parkhurst's Gr. Lexicon, p. 621. Harwood, vol. ii. pp. 219, 220. Drs. 5 From the statement of a Ceylonese convert to Christianity (who was Clarke and Macknight on the passages cited.

formerly one of the principal high-priests of Budhoo) Dr. A. Clarke has 2 The

Egyptians had several cities, which were termed Typhonian,- described the manner and invocations of the pagan inhabitants of that such as lieliopolis, Idithya, Abarei, and Busiris,-where at particular sea island (Comment on 1 Kings xviii.), to which we are indebted for part of sons they inuolated men. The objects thus devoted were persons of the present elucidation of the rites of Baal ; and his account is confirmed bright hair and a particular complexion, such as were seldom to be found by Dr. John Davy, in luis Travels in Ceylon. among that people. Hence we inay conclude that they were foreigners; 6 Jain dederat Saliis (a saltu nornina ducunt) and it is probable that while the Israelites resided in Egypt, the victims Armaque et ad certos verba canenda mnodos.-OyId. Fast. iii. 387, 388. were chosen from their body. They were burnt alive upon a high altar, On the custom of dancing around the altars of the gods, the reader will and thus sacrificed for the good of the people: at the conclusion of the find much curious information in Lomeier's treatise De veterum Gentilium sacrifice, the priests collected their ashes, and scattered them upwards in Lustrationibus, cap. 33. pp. 413. et seq. the air, -most likely with this view, that, where any of the dust was wafted, The infuriated worshippers of Diana all with one voice about the space a blessing might be entailed. By a just retribution, Moses and Aaron were of two hours cried out, "Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (Acts xix. 34.) commanded to take ashes of the furnace (which in the Scriptures is used Not to multiply unnecessary examples, see an illustration of these vain, as a type of the slavery of the Israelites, and of all the cruelty which they repetitions in the Heautontiporeumenos of Terence, act v. scene 1. We experienced in Egypt), and to scatter them abroad towards the hearen are informed by Servius that the ancient heathens, after snpplicating the

Exod. x. 89.), but with a different intention, viz. that where any the particular deity to whom they offered sacrifice, used to invoke all the gods smallest portion alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse to the un- and goddesses, lest any one of them should be adverse to the suppliant. grateful , cruel, and infatuated Egyptians. Thus there was a designed con Servius in Virgil

. Georg. lib. i. 21. (vol. 1. p. 178. of Burmann's edition, tra t in these workings of Providence, and an apparent opposition to the Amst. 1746. 4to.) For a remarkable instance of the "vain repetitions" of superstition of the lines. Bryant, on the Plagues of Egypt. p. 116. On the modern Mohammedans, see Dr. Richardson's Travels in the Mediter. the prevalence of human sacrifices in ancient times, see vol. i. p. 5. and ranean, &c. vol. i. pp. 462–464.

3 Ward's History, &c. of the Ilindoos, vol. ii. p. 324.

lv.e.

$1. ACCOUNT OF THE JEWISH SECTS MENTIONED IN THE NEW | bound to bless the Jews, and make them all partakers of the

2. The Pharisees contended that God was in strict justice TESTAMENT. I. The Pharisees.-II. The Sadducees.—III. The Essenes. them eternally happy, and that he could not possibly damn

terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, to make IV. The Scribes.-y. The Lawyers.—VI. The Samaritans.–VII. The Herodians.-Viil. The Galilæans.-IX. any oxe of them! The ground of their justification they de

rived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of The Zealots.—X. The Sicarii.

God, from their practising the rite of circumcision, and from I. The PHARISEES were the most numerous and powerful the sacrifices they offered. And as they conceived works to sect of the Jews. The precise time when they first appeared be meritorious, they had invented a great number of supereis not known : but, as Josephus' mentions the Pharisees, rogatory ones, to which they attached greater merit than to Sadducees, and Essenes, as distinct sects, in the reign of the observance of the law itself. To this notion St. Paul Jonathan (B. c. 144—139), it is manifest that they must have has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans been in existence for some time. Calmet is of opinion that in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews.? their origin cannot be carried higher than the year of the 3. The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal world 3820, corresponding with the year 184 before - the sects that divided the Jewish nation (Acts xxvi. 5.), and Christian æra. They derived their name from the Hebrew affected a singular probity of manners according to their verb vnd (PHARASH) to separate ; because they professed an system, which however was for the most part both lax and uncommon separation from the apparel and customs of the corrupt. Thus, many things which Moses had tolerated in world to the study of the law, and an extraordinary devotion civil life, in order to avoid a greater évil, the Pharisees deto God and sanctity of life, beyond all other men. Hence termined to be morally right; for instance, the law of retaliaone of them is represented as thanking God, that he was not tion, and that of a divorce from a wife for any cause. (Matt. as other men are ; and St. Paul, in his masterly apology be- v. 31. et seq. xix. 3—12.) During the time of Christ there fore king Agrippa, terms them expilestatu esperis, the most were two celebrated philosophical and divinity schools among rigorous sect, in our version rendered the most straitest sect. the Jews, that of Schammai and that of Hillel. On the (Acts xxvi. 5.) They were not restricted to any particular question of divorce, the school of Schammai maintained, that family or class of men : there were Pharisees of every tribe, no man could legally put away his wife except for adultery: family, and condition. The credit which they had acquired the school of Hillel, on the contrary, allowed a divorce for by their reputation for knowledge and sanctity of life early any cause (from Deut. xxiv. 1.), even if the wife found no rendered them formidable to the Maccabean sovereigns; favour in the eyes of her husband, -in other words, if he saw while they were held in such esteem and veneration by the any woman who pleased him better. The practice of the people, that they may be almost said to have given what Jews seems to have gone with the school of Hillel. Thus direction they pleased to public affairs.? They boasted that, we read (in Ecclus. xxv. 26.), “ If she go not as thou from their accurate knowledge of religion, they were the fa- wouldest have her, cut her off from thy flesh; give her a bil? vourites of heaven ;; and thus, trusting in themselves that of divorce and let her go;" and in conformity with this docthey were righteous, despised others. (Luke xi. 52. xviii. trine, Josephus, who was a Pharisee, relates that he repu9. 11.)

diated his wife who had borne him three children, because Among the tenets inculcated by this sect, we may enume- he was not pleased with her manners or behaviour. rate the following ; viz.

4. Further, they interpreted certain of the Mosaic laws 1. They ascribed all things to fate or providence, yet not most literally, and distorted their meaning so as to favour so absolutely as to take away the free will of man, though their own philosophical system. Thus, the law of loving fate does not co-operate in every action. They also believed their neighbour, they expounded solely of the love of their in the existence of angels and spirits, and in the resurrection friends, that is, of the whole Jewish race; all other persons of the dead (Acts xxiii. 8.): but, from the account given of being considered by them as natural enemies (Matt. v. 43. them by Josephus, it appears that their notion of the immor- compared with Luke x. 31–33.), whom they were in no tality of the soul was the Pythagorean metempsychosis ;s respect bound to assist. Dr. Lightfoot has cíted a striking that the soul, after the dissolution of one body, winged its illustration of this passage from Maimonides. An oath, in flight into another; and that these removals were perpetuated which the name of God was not distinctly specified, they and diversified through an infinite succession, the soul ani- taught was not binding (Matt. v. 33.), maintaining that a mating a sound and healthy body, or being confined in a man might even swear with his lips, and at the same modeformed and diseased frame, according to its conduct in a ment annul it in his heart! So rigorously did they underprior state of existence. From the Pharisees, whose tenets stand the command of observing the Sabbath-day, that they and traditions the pecple generally received, it is evident that accounted it unlawful to pluck ears of corn, and heal the the disciples of our Lord had adopted this philosophical doc- sick, &c. (Matt. xii. 1. et seq. Luke vi. 6. et seq. xiv. 1. et seq.) trine of the transmigration of souls; when, having met with Those natural laws which Moses did not sanction by any a man who had been born blind, they asked him whether it penalty they accounted among the petty commandments, were the sins of this man in a pre-existent state which had inferior to the ceremonial laws, which they preferred to the caused the Sovereign Disposer to inflict upon him this former, as being the weightier matters of the law (Matt. v. punishment. To this inquiry Christ replied, that neither his 19. xv. 4. xxiii. 23.), to the total neglect of mercy and vices or sins in a pre-existent state, nor those of his parents, fidelity. Hence they accounted causeless anger and impuro were the cause of this calamity. (John ix, 1-4.). From desires as trifles of no moment (Matt. v. 21, 22. 27—30.); this notion, derived from the Greek philosophy, we find that they compassed sea and land to make proselytes to the Jewduring our Saviour's public ministry, the Jews speculated ish religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule variously concerning him, and indulged several conjectures, over their consciences and wealth : and these proselytes, which of the ancient prophets it was whose soul now ani- through the influence of their own scandalous examples and mated him, and performed such astonishing miracles. Some characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned contended that it was the soul of Elias ; others of Jeremiah ; the New Test. vol. ii. p. 355. To this popular notion of a transmigration while others, less sanguine, only declared in general terms of souls, Dr. 11. ascribes the alarm of Herod, who had caused John the that it must be the soul of one of the old prophets by which Baptist to be beheaded, when the fame of Christ's miracles

reached his these mighty deeds were now wrought. (Matt. xvi. 14. soort; but, on comparing Matt. xvi. 6. with Mark viii, 15., it appears that was termed a libation, the victim was instantly led to the j as appears from Psal. ii. 12. There is an idolatrous rite menslaughter. To this circumstance St. Paul, knowing the time tioned by Ezekiel, called the putting the branch to the nose of his martyrdom to be very near, has a very striking allu- (Ezek. viii. 17.), by which interpreters understand, that the sion; representing this ritē, which immediately preceded worshipper, with a wand in his hand, touched the idol, and the death of the victim, as already performed upon himself, then applied the wand to his nose and mouth, in token of implying that he was now devoted to death, and that his worship and adoration. There appears to be this difference, dissolution would speedily follow. I am now ready to be however, between the idolatry of the Jews and that of other offered, says he (2 Tim. iv. 6.): literally, I am already poured nations, viz. that the Jews did not deny a divine power and out as a libation; the time of my departure is at hand. A providence; only they imagined that their idols were the insimilar expressive sacrificial allusion occurs in Phil. ii. 17. termediate causes, by which the blessings of the supreme

Herod was a Sadducee, and, consequently, disbelieved a future state. His Luke ix. 19.)

alarm, therefore, is rather to be attributed to the force of conscience which haunted his guilty mind in despite of his libertine principles.

* See Rom. i.--. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $ 4. De Bell. Jud 2 The high reputation and influence of the Pharisees are strikingly lib. ii. c. 8. $ 4. Justin. Dialog. cum Tryphon. Pirke Aboth. illustrated by the following anecdote :-When Alexander Jannæus lay on 8 Life of himself, $ 76. Grotius, Calmet, Drs. Lightfoot, Whitby, Dod his death-bed, about eighty years before the Christian æra, his queen dridge, and A. Clarke (on Matt. v. 30. et seq. and Mait. xix. 3. et se bave Alexandra having expressed great anxiety on account of the exposed state all given illustrations of the Jewish doctrine of divorce from rabbinical in which herself and sons would be left, the dying monarch recommended writers. See also Selden's Uxor Hebraica, lib. iii. c. 22. (Op. tom. ii. col. her to court the Pharisees, and delegate part of her power to them. 782_786.) Alexandra followed this advice; and the Pharisees, availing themselves of 9 "A Jew sees a Gentile fall into the sea, let him by no means lift him the opportunity, made themselves masters of the government, and dis- out: for it is written, 'Thou shalt not rise up, aguinst the blood of thy: posed of every thing as they pleased. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 15. neighbour. But this is nor thy neighbour.” Works, vol. ii. p. 152. 5. c. 16. $ 1. Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 4.

3 Ant. Jud. lib. xvii. c. 2. $4. 10 Justin Martyr bears witness to the inveterate malignity of the prose• Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 5. $ 9. lib. xviii. c. 2. 83. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lytes of the Pharisees against the name of Christ, at the beginning of the Acts v. 38, 39.

second century. "Your proselytes," says he to Trypho the Jew (p. 350.), 3 Ibid. lib. xviii

. c. 1. $ 3. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 8. $ 14. lib. iii. c. 8. 5 5. "not only do not believe in Christ, but blaspheme his name with twofola The author of the Book of Wisdom (ch. viii. 20.) see

more virulence than yourselves. They ready to show their malicious same doctrine, when he tells us, that, being good, he came into a body un- zeal against us; and, to obtain merit

in your eyes, wish to us reproach, and defiled.

torment, and death." See further Dr. Ireland's Paganism and Christianity & Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. pp. 368, 369. Dr. Harwood's Introd. to compared, pp. 21–23.

1 Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 5. 69.

to allude to the

Yea, says the holy apostle, and if I be POURED OUT upon the God might be conveyed to them; whereas the heathens sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you believed that the idols they worshipped were true gods, and all

. In this passage he represents the faith of the Philip- had no higher conceptions, having no notion of one eternal, pians as the sacrificial victim, and compares his blood, will almighty, and independent Being. ingly and joyfully to be shed in martyrdom, to the libation In the account of the decisive triumph of true religion over poured out on occasion of the sacrifice.

idolatry, related in 1 Kings xviii., we have a very striking After the usual portions of the victims had been burnt on delineation of the idolatrous rites of Baal; from which it the altar, or given to the officiating priests, the remainder appears that his four hundred and fifty priests, or prophets, as was either exposed by the owner for sale in the market, or they are termed, employed the whole day in their desperate became the occasion of giving a feast to his friends, either rites. The time is divided into two periods, 1. From mornin the temple or at his own house. Meat of this description, ing until noon, which was occupied in preparing and offering termed ssswa Jure, or meats offered to idols, in Acts xv. 29., the sacrifice, and in earnest supplication for the celestial fire, was an abomination to the Jews; who held that not only those (for Baal was unquestionably the god of fire or the sun, who partook of such entertainments, but also those who and had only to work in his own element), vociferating, 0, purchased such meat in the market, subjected themselves to Baal, hear ús (1 Kings xviii. 26.); and, 2. They continued the pollution of idolatry. The apostle James, therefore, from noon until the time of offering evening sacrifice (the time recommends, that the Gentile Christians should abstain from when it was usually offered to Jehovah in the temple at Jeruall meats of this kind, out of respect to this prejudice of salem), performing their frantic rites. Jewish Christians; and hence he calls these meats excogaudith, They leaped up and down at the altar, 4 that is, they danced pollution of idols, that is, meats polluted in consequence of around it with strange and hideous cries and gesticulations, their being sacrificed unto idols. (Acts xv. 20., compare also tossing their heads to and fro, with a great variety of bodily 1 Cor. viii. 1. 4. 7. 10. x. 19. 28.) It appears from Judg. contortions; precisely as the Ceylonese do to this day,5 In ix: 27. that feasting after sacrifice in the temples of idols like manner the priests of Mars among the Romans danced was not unknown to the Shechemites.

and leaped around the altars of that divinity, from which cir6. Singing and dancing were the general attendants of cumstance they derived their name,-Salii.. And it came to some of these idolatrous rites: thus, the Israelites danced pass at noon that Elijah mocked them : had not the intrepid before the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 19.) To this day, dancing prophet of the Lord been conscious of the divine protection, before the idol takes place at almost every Hindoo idolatrous he certainly would not have used such freedom of speech, feast. But their sacrifices were not confined to irrational while he was surrounded by his enemies : And said, Cry victims: it is well known that the practice of offering human aloud! Oblige him, by your vociferations, to attend to your victims prevailed to a great extent; and among the Âmmon- suit.—Similar vain repetitions were made by the heathen in ites and Phænicians they were immolated to propitiate the time of our Saviour, who cautions his disciples against Moloch and Baal; and children were in some manner dedi- them in Matt. vi. 7.1-For he is a god—the supreme God; you cated and devoted to them. The idolatrous worshippers are worship him as such; and, doubtless, he is jealous of his own said to make them pass through the fire ; denoting some rite honour, and the credit of his votaries. Either he is talkingof dedication and purification. This was most expressly he may be giving audience to some others; or, as it is renforbidden to the Israelites. (Lev. xviii. 21.) In this manner dered in the margin of our larger Bibles, he meditatethhe Ahaz devoted his son (2 Kings xvi. 3.); but as Hezekiah is in a profound reverie, projecting some godlike scheme or afterwards succeeded his father on the throne of Judah, it is he is pursuing--taking his pleasure in the chase-or he is on evident that he was not put to death. From the declarations a journey—having left his audience chamber, he is making of the psalmist (cvi. 36—10.), and of the prophet Ezekiel some excursions—or peradventure he sleepeth and must be (xvi. 21. xx. 26. 31.), it is however, certain that many hu- awaked.-Absurd as these notions may appear to us, they are man victims were thus barbarously sacrificed.

believed by the Hindoos, to each of whose gods some partiThe adoration or worship which idolaters paid to their gods cular business is assigned, and who imagine that Vishnoo did not consist barely in the sacrifices which they offered to sleeps for months in the year, while others of their deities are them, but likewise in prostrations and bowings of the body ; often out on journeys or expeditions. Accordingly the thus Naaman speaks of bowing in the house of Rimmon. priests of Baal cried aloud, and cut themselves, after their man(2 Kings v. 18.) It was also a religious ceremony, to lift up ner. This was not only the custom of the idolatrous Israelthe hand to the mouth and kiss it, and then, stretching it out, to ites, but also of the Syrians, Persians, Indians, Greeks, throw as it were the kiss to the idol : both this and the former Romans, and, in short, of all the ancient heathén world. ceremony are mentioned in 1 Kings xix. 18. And so Job, in Hence we may see the reason why the Israelites were fororder to express his not having fallen into idolatry, very ele- bidden to cut themselres, to make any cuttings in their flesh for gantly says, If I beheld the sun while it shined, or the moon the dead, and to print any marks upon themselves. (Deut. xiv. 1. walking in brightness, and my heart had been secretly enticed, 3 On the subject of the idolatrous worship of the heathens, the editor or my mouth hath kissed my hand, &c. (Job xxxi. 26, 27.); of Calinet's Dictionary has accumulated much interesting information. for to kiss and

to worship are synonymous terms in Scripture, See the Fragunents, particularly Nos. 107. 185. 212, 213. • Parkhurst's Gr. Lexicon, p. 621. Ilarwood, vol. ii. pp. 219, 220. Drs.formerly

one of the principal high-priests of Budhoo) Dr. A. Clarke has

* This is the marginal rendering, and most correct, of 1 Kings xviii. 26. 2 The Egyptians had several cities, which were termed Typhonian,- described the manner and invocations of the pagan inhabitants of that such as lieliopolis, Idithya, Abarei, and Busiris, -where at particular sea. island (Comment on 1 Kings xviii.), to which we are indebted for part of sons they iminolated men. The objects thus devoted were persons of the present elucidation of the rites of Baal; and his account is confirmed bright hair and a particular complexion, such as were seldom to be found by Dr. John Davy, in his Travels in Ceylon. among that people. Hence we inay conclude that they were foreigners; 6 Jain dederat Saliis (a saltu noinina ducunt) and it is probable that while the Israelites resided in Egypt, the victims Armaque et ad certos verba canenda modos.-OyID. Fast. iij. 387, 388. were chosen from their body. They were burnt alive upon a high altar, On the custom of dancing around the altars of the gods, the reader will and thus sacrificed for the good of the people: at the conclusion of the find much curious information in Lomeier's treatise De veterum Gentilium sacrifice, the priests collected their ashes, and scattered them upwards in Lustrationibus, cap. 33. pp. 113. et seq. the air,-most likely with this view, that, where any of the dust was wafted, The infuriated worshippers of

Diana all rith one voice about the space a blessing might be entailed. By a just retribution, Moses and Aaron were of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (Acts xix. 34.) commanded to take ashes of the furnace (which in the Scriptures is used Not to multiply unnecessary examples, see an illustration of these vain, as a type of the slavery of the Israelites, and of all the cruelty which they repetitions in the Heautontimoreumenos of Terence, act v. scene l. We experienced in Egypt), and to scatter them abroad towards the hearen are informed by Servius that the ancient heathens, after supplicating the (Exod. x. 8. 9.), but with a different intention, viz. that where any the particular deity to whoin they offered sacrifice, used to invoke all the gods sınallest portion alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse to the un and goddesses, lest any one of them should be adverse to the suppliant. grateful, cruel, and infatuated Egyptians. Thus there was a designed con- Servius in Virgil

. Georg. lib. i. 21. (vol. 1. p. 178. of Burmann's edition, tra i in these workings of Providence, and an apparent opposition to the Amst. 1746. 4to.) For a remarkable instance of the “vain repetitions" of superstition of the tinies. Bryant, on the Plagues of Egypt, p. 116. On the modern Mohammedans, see Dr. Richardson's Travels in the Mediterche prevalence or human sacrifices in ancient times, see vol. i. p. 5. and ranean, &c. vol. i. pp. 462–464.

Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 324.

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