where the being wholly washed implies one who had become SECTION III.

a disciple of Christ, and consequently had renounced the sins

of his former life. He who had so done was supposed to ON THE PURIFICATIONS OF THE JEWS.

be wholly washed, and not to need any immersion, in imita

tion of the ceremony of initiation, which was never repeated I. Materials with which the purifications of the Jews were per- among the Jews. All that was necessary in such case was formed.-II. Ceremonies of purification.—III

. Of the persons the dipping or rinsing of the hands and feet, agreeably to the lustrated.IV. Account of the different kinds of legal impu- customs of the Jews. Sometimes the lustration was perrities, particularly,-1. The leprosy of the person.—2. The formed by sprinkling, blood, or anointing with oil. Sprinkleprosy of clothes.—3. The house leprosy.-V. Minor legal ling was performed either with the finger or with a branch impurities, and their lustrations.

of cedar and hyssop tied together with scarlet wool. (Lev.

xiv. 4. 6. Num. xix. 18. Psal. li. 7.) It was requisite that every one who was about to make III. The objects of lustration were either persons or things any offering to Jehovah should be cleansed from all impuri- dedicated to divine worship. The Levites, priests, and above ties, or lustrated—to adopt an expression in common use all, the high-priest, underwent a purification previously to among the Romans. The materials, form, and ceremonies of undertaking their respective offices. In like manner the Isthese lustrations, which were prescribed by Moses, were raelites were commanded to sanctify themselves by ablutions various, according to different circumstances. The design both of their persons and clothes, &c. previously to receiving of them all was not only to preserve both the health and the law (Exod. xix. 10, 11. 14, 15. Heb. ix. 19.); and after morals of the Israelites, hut also to intimate how necessary the giving of the law and the people's assent to the book of it was to preserve inward purity, without which they could the covenant, Moses sprinkled them with blood. (Exod. not be acceptable to God, though they might approach his xxiv. 5–8. Heb. ix. 19.) So also were the tabernacle, and sanctuary.

all its sacred vessels anointed with oil (Exod. xxx. 26–28. I. The purifications were for the most part performed with xl. 9–11. Lev. viii. 10, 11.), and as Saint Paul further intiwater, sometimes with blood (Heb. ix. 21, 22.), and with mates, were sprinkled with the blood of the victims. oil. (Exod. xxx. 26–29. Lev. viii. 10, 11.)i The water of Those who were about to offer sacrifice unto Jehovah were purification was to be drawn from a spring or running stream, also to be lustrated (1 Sam. xvi. 5.); as well as those who and was either pure, or mixed with blood (Heb. ix. 19.), or were repairing to divine worship to offer their prayers (Judith with the ashes of the red heifer. For preparing these ashes, xii. 7,8.); and especially the priest and the high-priest, before a heifer of a red colour was burnt with great solemnity. they executed their respective offices. (Exod. xxx. 20.) This ceremony is described at length in the nineteenth chap- Lastly, all who according to the Mosaic law were adjudged ter of the book of Numbers. As all the people were to be impure, were to be purified before they could be admitted into interested in it, the victim was to be provided at their charge. the congregation of the Lord. (Num. xix. 20.) This Jewish rite certainly had a reference to things done IV. In the Mosaic law, those persons are termed unclean, under the Gospel, as St. Paul has remarked in his Epistle whom others were obliged to avoid touching, or even meeting, to the Hebrews-For if the blood of bulls and of goats (allud- unless they chose to be themselves defiled, that is, cut off ing to the sin-offerings, and to the scape-goat), and THE from all intercourse with their brethren; and who, besides, ASHES OF A HEIFER, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the were bound to abstain from frequenting the place where divine purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of service and the offering-feasts were held, under penalties still Christ .... purge (or purify) your conscience from dead more severe. works to serve the living God. As the principal stress of allu- The duration and degrees of impurity were different. In sion in this passage is to the ordinance of the red heifer, we some instances, by the use of certain ceremonies, an unclean may certainly conclude that it was designed to typify the person became purified at sunset; in others, this did not take sacrifice of our adorable Redeemer.

place until eight days after the physical cause of defilement In the ordinance of the red heifer, we may perceive the ceased. Lepers were obliged to live in a detached situation, wisdom of Moses (uuder the guidance of Jehovah) in taking separate from other people, and to keep themselves actually every precaution that could prevent the Israelites from falling at a distance from them. They were distinguished by a peinto idolatry. The animal to be selected was a heifer, in op-culiar dress; and if any person approached, they were bound position to the superstition of the Egyptians, who held this to give him warning, by crying out, Unclean! unclean! animal to be sacred, and worshipped Tsis under the form of a Other polluted persons, again, could not directly touch those heifer :-it was also to be a red heifer, without spot, that is, that were clean, without defiling them in like manner, and altogether red, because red bulls were sacrificed to appease were obliged to remain without the camp, that they might not the evil demon Typhon, that was worshipped by the Egyp- be in their way. (Num. v. 1–4.) Eleven different species tians; wherein was no blemish, so that it was free from every of impurity are enumerated in the Levitical law, to which the imperfection ;-on which never came yoke, because any animal later Jews added many others. But the severest of all was, that had been used for any common purpose was deemed im- 1. The Leprosy, an infectious disease of slow and imperproper to be offered in sacrifice to God.

ceptible progress, beginning very insidiously and gently, for The animal being slain, and her blood sprinkled as directed the most part with one litile bright spot, which causes no in Num, xix. 3, 4., was then reduced to ashes, which were trouble, though no means will make it disappear: but into be collected and mixed with running water (ver. 9. 17.), creasing with time into furfuraceous scales that ultimately for the purpose of lustration.

become a thick scab, it imperceptibly passes into a disease, II. The Jews had two sorts of washing; one-of the which, though divested of its deadly nature in our temperate whole body by immersion, which was used by the priests at climates and by our superior cleanliness, is in the East their consecration, and by the proselytes at their initiation; attended with the most formidable symptoms: such as morti

-the other, of the hands or feet, called dipping, or pouring fication and separation of whole limbs, and when arrived at a of water, and which was of daily use, not only for the hands certain stage, it is altogether incurable. As the varieties and and feet, but also for the cups and other vessels used at their symptoms of this frightful malady are discussed at length in meals. (Matt. xv. 2. Mark vii. 3, 4.). The six water-pots a subsequent part of this work, it will be sufficient to remark, of stone, used at the marriage-feast of Cana, in Galilee (John for the present, that, among the heathens, the leprosy was ii. 6.), were set for this purpose. To these two modes of considered as inflicted by their gods, by whom alone it could purification Jesus Christ seems to allude in John xiii. 10.; be removed, and the same notion appears to have prevailed

among the Israelites; for when the king of Syria sent NaaJosephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 8. & 6. 3 This opinion obtained among the ancient Greeks. See particularly man, his commander-in-chief, to the king of Israel, to heal Homer's Iliad, x. 231–293. and Odyssey, iii. 382., and Virgil's Georgics, is him of his leprosy, the latter exclaimed, -Am I Gov, to kill

and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me, to recover " six women having

their faces veiled came down to the well, each carry also recorded in which this disease is represented as a punish While Mr. W. Rae Wilson (who visited Palestine in 1819) was at Cana, a man of his leprosy? (2 Kings v. 7.) Some instances are vessels were forined of stone, and something in the shape of the bottles ment immediately inflicted by God for particular sins; as in used in our country for containing

vitriol, having

great bodies and small the cases of Miriam, Gehazi, and king Uzziah. This circumattached to the sides ; and it was a wonderful coincidence with Scripture, stance, connected with the extreme foulness of the disorder, that the vessels appeared to contain much the same quantity as those rendered it a very striking emblem of moral pollution ; and which the Evangelist informs [us] had been employed

on occasion of the the exclusion of persons infected with it from the worship and each. Wilson's Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 339. first edition.) | people of God was fitted not only to humble and reform the offenders, but also to impress upon the mind the most solemn the thirteenth day he revisited it; and if he found the infected and useful instructions.

place dim, or gone away, he took out that part of the wall, The person who had been healed of leprosy was minutely carried it out to an unclean place, mended the wall, and examined by the priest, who proceeded to perform the rites caused the whole house to be newly plastered. It was then and sacrifices of purification, which are minutely described shut up a third seven days: he once more inspected it on the in Lev. xiv., in order that the patient might be readmitted nineteenth day; and if he found that the plague had broken into society and to the privileges of the Jewish church. out anew, he ordered the house to be pulled down. If on Among these sacrifices and ceremonies, the following is very the other hand it was pronounced to be clean, an offering was remarkable :“The priest was required to take two small made on the occasion; in order that every one might certainly birds, and to kill one of them over an earthen vessel filled know that it was not infected, and the public might be freed with river water, so that the blood might be mixed with the from all apprehensions on that account. water. He was then to dip the other or living bird into the V. Various other legal impurities are enumerated in Lev. water, and sprinkle the leper with it seven times with a stick xii. 148. and xv. which it is not necessary to detail. To of cedar wood, upon which a bunch of hyssop was tied with which we may add, that all human corpses and the carcasses a scarlet thread; after which the priest was to pronounce him of beasts that died in any other way than by the knife, were purified, and let loose the living bird into the open air. (Lev. regarded as unclean. Whoever touched the former, or went xiv. 2—7.) This ceremony seems to be typical of the puri- into the tent or apartment (after the Israelites had' houses) fication of our sins by the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus where a corpse lay, was unclean for seven days; and whoChrist (Isa. lii. 15. 1 Pet. i. 2.), which flowed out of his ever touched a dead body, or even a human bone, or a grave wounded side mixed with water (John xix. 34.); while the in the fields, was unclean for the same period. The body of dismissal of the living bird resembles that of the scape-goat a clean beast that fell not by the knife, but died in any other into the wilderness, with the sins of the leper upon him. way, defiled the person who touched it, until the evening Our Lord expressly commanded the lepers, whom he healed, (Lev. xi. 39.); and the carcasses of unclean beasts, by whatto conform to the law.” (Matt. viii. 4. Mark i. 44. Luke v. ever means they died, did the same. (Lev. v. 2. xi. 8. 11. 14. xvii. 14.)

24, 25, 27, 28. 31. Deut. xiv. 8.) The consequence of this Besides the leprosy of the person, Moses mentions two law was, that the carcasses of beasts were not suffered to other species of leprosy, viz. of clothes and of houses, which remain above ground, but were put into the earth, that pasare in a great measure unknown in Europe.

sengers might not be in danger of pollution from them. 2. The Leprosy of Clothes is described in Lev. xii. 47–59. By these wise enactments, the spreading of contagious as consisting of green or reddish spots, which remain in spite diseases would be effectually prevented, which in hot cliof washing and continue to spread; so that the cloth becomes mates are peculiarly rapid and fatal. For the same reason, bald or bare, sometimes on one side, and sometimes on the also, Michaelis is of opinion, that Moses commanded the other. From the information which Michaelis received from Israelites to break earthen vessels, which were liable to be a woollen manufacturer, he supposes this disease to arise in defiled by being left uncovered in a tent or apartment where woollen cloth, from the use of the wool of sheep that have a person died, or a corpse lay (Num. xix. 15.), or by an died of disease; which when worn next the skin (as in the unclean beast falling into them (Lev. xi. 33.), or by the touch East) is very apt to produce vermin. With respect to leather of a diseased person. (Lev. xv. 12.)2 and linen, he could obtain no information.

Such are the Mosaic statutes concerning purifications and Clothes suspected to be thus tainted were to be inspected impurities. Profane scoffers, who deride those things, the by the priest; if they were found to be corroded by the reason and propriety of which they will not take the trouble leprosy, they were to be burnt; but if, after being washed, to investigate, have ridiculed them as too minute,—especially the plague was found to have departed from them, they were those respecting the different species of leprosy,—and as to be pronounced clean.

unworthy to be made part of a divine law. But every well 3. The House Leprosy is said in Lev. xiv. 33–37. to con-regulated mind surely must discern in them both the goodsist of greenish or reddish spots or dimples, that appear on ness and wisdom of Jehovah towards his chosen people, in the walls, and continually spread wider and wider. Michaelis giving them precepts which were calculated not only to preconsiders it to be the same as the saltpetre, which sometimes serve their health and regulate their morals, but also to attacks and corrodes houses that stand in damp situations. accustom them to obedience to his will in every respect. Although in Europe unattended with any injury to health, in The leprosy has ever been considered as a lively emblem of Palestine it might be hurtful ; so that the Mosaic regulations that moral taint or “corruption of the nature of every man in this respect are both wise and provident.

that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam ;"3 as the When a house was suspected to be thus tainted, the priest sacrifices, which were to be offered by the healed leper, prewas to examine it, and ordered it to be shut up seven days. figured that spotless Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of If he found that the plague or signs of the plague had not the world. spread, he commanded it to be shut up seven days more. On

2. Schulzii Archæologia IIebraica, pp. 303–310. Michaelis's Commen

taries, vol. iii. pp. 254_335. 1 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 273.

3 Article ix. of the Confession of the Anglican Church.





I. Origin and Progress of idolatry. Sketch of its History among the Israelites and Jews.—II. Idols worshipped by the

Israelites alone. - III. İdlols of the Ammonites, worshipped by the Israelites.-IV. Idols of the Canaanites or Syrians.V. Phænician Idols.-VI. Babylonian and Assyrian Idols.- VII. Idols worshipped in Samaria during the Captivity.Hieroglyphic Stones, why prohibited to the Jews.-VIII. Idols of the Greeks and Romans mentioned in the New Testament. -IX. Allusions in the Scriptures to the idolatrous Worship of the Heathen Nations.—X. Different kinds of Divination.

I. IDOLATRY is the superstitious worship of idols or false division of his kingdom. This civil defection was attended gods. From Gen. vi. 5. compared with Rom. i. 23. there is with a spiritual one, for Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who every reason to believe that it was practised before the flood; succeeded him in the government of the ten tribes which and this conjecture is confirmed by the apostle Jude (ver. 4.), had revolted (and who himself had probably been initiated who, describing the character of certain men in his days in the idolatrous worship of the neighbouring nations, when that denied the only Lord God, adds in the eleventh verse of he took refuge from Solomon's jealousy at the court of Shihis epistle, Wo unto them, for they are gone into the way of shak), soon introduced the worship of two golden calves, Cain; whence it may be inferred that Cain and his descend- the one at Dan and the other at Bethel. He made choice of ants were the first who threw off the sense of a God, and Bethel, because it had long been esteemed as a place sacred worshipped the creature instead of the Creator.?

for the real appearance of God in ancient times to Jacob, and The heavenly bodies were the first objects of idolatrous might, therefore, induce the people to a more ready belief of worship; and Mesopotamia and Chaldæa were the countries the residence of the same Deity now; and Dan (as already where it chiefly prevailed after the deluge. Before Jeho- observed) being at the extremity of the kingdom, was the vah vouchsafed to reveal himself to them, both Terah and place whither that part of the country resorted on account of his son Abraham were idolaters (Josh. xxiv. 2.); as also was Micah's teraphim.Jdolatry being thus established in Israel Laban, the father-in-law of Jacob (Gen. xxxi. 19. 30.); by public authority, and countenanced by all their princes, though he appears to have had some idea of the true God, was universally adopted by the people, notwithstanding all from his mentioning the name of Jehovah on several occa- the remonstrances against it by the prophets whom God sent sions. (Gen. xxiv. 31. 50, 51.) Previously to Jacob and his to reclaim them from time to time, and who stood as a barrier sons going into Egypt, idolatry prevailed in Canaan; and while against this growing wickedness, regardless of all the persetheir posterity were resident in that country, it appears from cutions of impious Jezebel, who did what she could utterly Josh. xxiv. 14. and Ezek. xx. 7, 8. that they worshipped the to extinguish the worship of the true God. At length thís deities of Egypt.

brought a flood of calamities upon that kingdom, and was On the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, although the source of all the evils with which that people were afterMoses by the command and instruction of Jehovah had given wards afflicted; so that, after a continual scene of tragical them such a religion as no other nation possessed, and not- deaths, civil wars, and judgments of various kinds, they withstanding all his laws were directed to preserve them were at length carried away captive by Shalmaneser into from idolatry; yet, so wayward were the Israelites, that Assyria. almost immediately after their deliverance from bondage we The people of Judah were little better. One might justly find them worshipping idols. (Exod. xxxii. 1. Psal. cvi. 19, have expected, that, if there had been no other reason than 20. Acts vii. 41–43.) Soon after their entrance into the state policy for preserving the true religion in its native purity, land of Canaan, they adopted various deities that were that alone would have been sufficient to prevent any other false worshipped by the Canaanites, and other neighbouring na- worship from being set up, and that the same motives, which tions (Judg. ii. 13. viii. 33.); for which base ingratitude induced the ten tribes to establish a strange worship, would they were severely punished. Shortly after the death of have induced Judah to be jealous for the true one. But the Joshua, the government became so unsettled, that every event proved otherwise ; for notwithstanding the great strength man did that which seemed right in his own eyes. The pro- | added to the kingdom of Judah, by those who resorted thither phet Azariah describes the infelicity of these times, when out of other tribes for the sake of religion, prosperity inflated he says, They were without the true God, without a teaching Rehoboam and soon ruined him. It is said that he continued priest, and without the law (2 Chron. xv. 3.); and as anarchy but three years walking in the ways of David and Solomon. prevailed, so did idolatry, which first crept into the tribe of (2 Chron. xi. 17.) After which these idolatrous inclinations Ephraim in the house of Micah, and then soon spread itself began to appear, which probably were instilled into him by amongst the Danites. (Judg. xvii

. xviii.) Nor were the other his mother Naamah, who was an Ammonitess, (1 Kings xiv. tribes free from this infection, during this dissolution of the 21.) In short, he forsook the law of the Lord, and all Israel government; for it is said, They forsook the Lord and served with him (2 Chron. xii. 1.), and fell

into the grossest idolatry Baal and Ashtaroth, and followed the other gods of the people above all that their fathers had done. (1 Kings xiv. 22.). But round about them. (Judg. ii. 13. 12.).

God soon corrected him and his people, having delivered them Under the government of Samuel, Saul, and David, the into the hands of Shishak king of Egypt, who with a vast worship of God seems to have been purer than in former times. army entered the country, took their cities, and plundered Solomon is the first king, who, out of complaisance to the Jerusalem and the temple of all the riches which David and strange women he had married, caused temples to be erected Solomon had treasured up there. (2 Chron. xii. 2.) Upon in honour of their gods; and so far impiously complied with their repentance and humiliation, the anger of Jehovah was them himself, as to offer incense to these false deities (1 Kings soon mitigated; and we do not find that the kingdom of xi. 5—8.); so fatal an evil is lust to the best understand- Judah fell into any gross acts of idolatry till the reign of Ahaz, ings, which besots every one it overcomes, and reigns over who was the most impious prince that ever sat upon that them with uncontrolled power Solomon, it is true, did not throne. He was not content with walking in the ways of the arrive at that pitch of audacity which some of his successors kings of Istael, and making molten images of Baalim ( Chron. afterwards did; but his giving the smallest countenance to the xxviii.

2.), but he carried his wicked inclinations still farther, breach of the divine law, among a people so prone to idola- and imitated the old inhabitants of the land in their cruel and try, could not but be attended with the worst consequences; idolatrous practices; for it is said of him that he burnt incense and accordingly, upon his death, the glory of his kingdom in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in was speedily eclipsed by the revolt of the ten tribes and the the fire (ver. 3.); or, as we read in 2 Kings xvi. 3., He made

The history of the origin and progress of idolatry are ably traced in his son to pass through the fire, which doubtless was the Dr. Graves's Lectures on the Pentateuch, vol. i. pp. 183—190. * On the subject of Zabianism, or the idolatrous worship of the stars, Lev. xviii. 21. For these impieties Ahaz was justly punished ness, died in the flower of his age ; but was happily succeeded had said, “God is every where in his essence, and cannot be by his son Hezekiah, who, among other reformations, it is included in any place: he dwells among you here as well as said, broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made, to at Jerusalem, and if you require any symbols of his presence, which the children of Israel did burn incense. (2 Kings xviii. 4.) behold here they are in these calves which I have set up;' But Hezekiah's reformation was soon overturned upon thé for they could not be so stupid as to believe, that the idols succession of his wicked son Manasseh, who seems to have taken just before out of the furnace had been their deliverers, made it his business to search out what God in his law had so many ages before. It is evident, that the worship of these forbidden, and to make the practice of it his study. (2 Chron. calves was not regarded by the sacred writers and by the proxxxiii. 3—8.)

passing through the fire to Moloch, so expressly prohibited in there is an interesting dissertation in Dr. Townley's Translation of Maimonides's Reasons of the Laws of Mose

pp. 38-47.

by God, and after a constant course of all manner of wicked

phets, as an absolute Pagan idolatry, but only as a schism, The princes who succeeded (Josiah only excepted) and which was indeed very criminal in itself, but did not come their people seem to have lived in a kind of competition with up to the degree of a total apostasy; for the history of the one another in wickedness and idolatry, and to have given revolt of the ten tribes introduces Jeroboam speaking not like a loose to the wildness of their imaginations in the worship a person whose intention was to make the people change their of God, which brought upon Judah and her people the utmost religion, but as representing to them that the true God, being fury of God's wrath, and those judgments which had been de- every where, was not confined to any certain place, and, creed, and which ended in the captivity of king and people. therefore, they might pay their devotions to him as well in At length, however, become wiser by the severe discipline Dan and Bethel as at Jerusalem. they had received, the tribes that returned into their native The worship offered before these images is supposed to country from the Babylonian captivity wholly renounced have been in imitation of the ceremonies of the Mosaic law. idolatry; and thenceforth uniformly evinced the most deeply- As most of the priests of the family of Aaron, and the rooted aversion from all strange deities and foreign modes of Levites who had their cities and abodes among the ten reworship. This great reformation was accomplished by Ezra volted tribes, retired into the dominions of the king of Judah, and Nehemiah, and the eminent men who accompanied or to avoid joining in the schism, which proved a great addisucceeded them : but, in the progress of time, though the ex- tional strength to the house of David ; Jeroboam seized their terior of piety, was maintained, the power of godliness” was cities and estates, and he eased the people of paying their lost; and we learn from the New Testament, that, during our tithes, there being none to demand them; so he gratified Saviour's ministry, the Jews were divided into various reli- them by making priests out of every tribe and family, even gious parties, which widely differed in opinion, and pursued in the extreme part of the country. The pontificate and each other with the fiercest animosity, and with implacable supremacy over this schismatical priesthood 'he reserved in hatred.

his own hands. These idols were at length destroyed by Very numerous are the idols mentioned in the Scriptures, the kings of Assyria; the calf in Bethel was carried to particularly in the Old Testament. It is proposed in the fol- Babylon, with other spoils, by Shalmaneser, and the other in lowing pages of this section to offer, in the first place, a short Dan was seized by Tiglath-Pileser, about ten years before, notice of the idols which were peculiar to the Israelites; and, in the invasion which he made upon Galilee, in which prosecondly, of those which they adopted from the Ammonites, vince the city stood. Syrians, Phænicians, Babylonians, and other nations of anti- 3. The BRAZEN SERPENT was an image of polished brass, quity

in the form of one of those fiery serpents (or serpents whose IT. IDOLS WORSHIPPED PARTICULARLY BY THE ISRAELITES.- bite was attended with violent inflammation, which were Scarcely, as we have already observed, had the children of sent to chastise the murmuring Israelites in the wilderness. Israel been delivered from their cruel bondage in Egypt, when By divine command Moses made a serpent of brass, or copper, they returned to those idols to which they had been accus- and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass that if a serpent tomed.

had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he 1. The first object of their idolatrous worship was a GOLDEN lived. (Num. xxi. 6—9.). This brazen serpent was preserved Calf. (Exod. xxxii. 1—-6.) Having been conducted through as a monument of the divine mercy, but in process of time the wilderness by a pillar of cloud and fire, which preceded became an instrument of idolatry. When this superstition them in their marches, while that cloud covered the mountain began, it is difficult to determine ; but the best account is where Moses was receiving the divine commands, they ima- given by the Jewish rabbi, David Kimchi, in the following gined that it would no longer be their guide; and therefore manner. From the time that the kings of Israel did evil, they applied to Aaron to make for them a sacred sign or sym- and the children of Israel followed idolatry, till the reign of bol, as other nations had, which might visibly represent God Hezekiah, they offered incense to it; for, it being written in to them. With this request Aaron unhappily complied: the the law of Moses, whoever looketh upon it shall live, they people offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings, and fancied they might obtain blessings by its mediation, and, sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. The mate- therefore, thought it worthy to be worshipped. It had been rials of this idol were the golden ear-rings of the

people, kept

from the days of Moses, in memory of a miracle, in worn in these eastern countries by men as well as women, the same manner as the pot of manna was : and Asa and and probably they were some of the jewels which they had Jehoshaphat did not extirpate it when they rooted out idolademanded of the Egyptians. They were cast in a mould by try, because in their reign they did not observe that the Aaron, and subsequently chiselled into a calf, which is gene- people worshipped this serpent, or burnt incense to it; and, rally supposed to have been an exact resemblance of the cele therefore, they left it as a memorial. But Hezekiah thought brated Egyptian deity, Apis, who was worshipped under the fit to take it quite away, when he abolished other idolatry, form of an ox. This ancient Egyptian superstition is still because in the time of his father they adored it as an idol perpetuated on Mount Libanus, by those Druses who assume and though pious people among them accounted it only as a the name of Okkals, and who pay divine honours to a calf.3 memorial of a wonderful work, yet he judged it better to

2. In imitation of this were the two Golden Calves, made abolish it, though the memory of the miracle should happen by Jeroboam, the first king of Israel, after the secession of the to be lost, than suffer it to remain, and leave the Israelites in ten tribes. The Egyptialis had two oxen, one of which they danger of committing idolatry hereafter with it. worshipped under the name of Apis, at Memphis, the capital On the subject of the serpent-bitten Israelites being healed of Upper Egypt, and the other under

the name of Mnevis, at by looking at the brazen serpent, there is a good comment in Hierapolis, the metropolis of Lower Egypt. In like manner, the book of Wisdom, chap. xvi. ver. 4–12. in which are Jeroboam set up one of his calves at Bethel, and the other at these remarkable words :-"They were admonished, having Dan. (1 Kings xii. 28–32.) Like the idolaters in the wil- a sign of salvation (i. e. the brazen serpent) to put them in derness, this leader of the rebels proclaimed before the idols remembrance of the commandments of thy law. For he that upon the feast of their consecration, These are thy gods, o turned himself towards it, was not saved by the THING that Israel, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt! as if he he saw, but by thee that art the saviour of all.” (ver. 6, 7.) 1 Ilome's llist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 282–291.

To the circumstance of looking at the brazen serpent in 2 The following account of the idols worshipped by the Jews is abridged order to be healed, our Lord refers (John iii. 14, 15.), As principally from Lamy's

Apparatus Biblicus, vol. ii. pp. 176-188. Calmet's Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the tom. vi. pp. 745-752and his Dictionary of the Bible under the several not perish, but have eternal life: from which words we may Dissertations in his Commentaire Littéral, tom. i. part ii. pp. 173-178.

and Son of man lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him, should Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, 85 400-415. Ackermann's Archæologia learn, 1. That as the serpent was lifted up on the pole or Biblica, $$ 397–402. Millar's Hist . of the Propagation of Christianity, vol

. ensign ; so Jesus Christ was lifted up on the cross. 2. That i. pp. 221—340. Godwin's Moses and Aaron, book iv. pp. 140-178. and Alber, Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. I. pp. 391–106.

as the Israelites were to look at the brazen serpent; so sin3 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. p. 201.

ners must look to Christ. for salvation. 3. That as God pro

names of the idol deities.

vided no other remedy than this looking, for the wounded mouth of the Lord hath spoken it;' in the Hebrew, Pi-JehoIsraelites; so he has provided no other way of salvation than vah, or Pi-Jeo. Now, in the Egyptian language, pico signifies faith in the blood of his Son. 4. That as he who looked at an ass; the Alexandrian Egyptians hearing the Jews often the brazen serpent was cured and did live ; so he that believeth pronounce this word pico, believed that they appealed to on the Lord Jesus Christ shall not perish, but have eternal their God, and thence, inferred that they adored an ass. life. 5. That as neither the serpent, nor looking at it, but the These explications are ingenious, but not solid. It is doubtinvisible power of God, healed the people; so neither the ful whether any one can assign the true reason for the calumny; cross of Christ, nor his merely being crucified, but the pardon which might have arisen from a joke, or an accident. M. he has bought by his blood, communicated by the powerful Le Moine seems to have succeeded best, who says that in energy of his Spirit

, saves the souls of men. May not all all probability the golden urn containing the manna which these things be plainly seen in the circumstances of this trans- was preserved in the sanctuary was taken for the head of an action, without making the serpent a type of Jesus Christ ass; and that the omer of manna might have been confounded (the most exceptionable that could possibly be chosen), and with the Hebrew hamor, which signifies an ass."4 running the parallel, as some have done, through ten or a III. IDOL GODS OF THE AMMONITES, WORSHIPPED BY THE dozen of particulars ?!

CHILDREN OF ISRAEL. 4. In Judg. viii. 24–27. we read that Gideon made an Moloch, also called Molech, Milcom, or Melcom, was the Ephod of gold from the spoils of the Midianites. This principal idol of the Ammonites (1 Kings xi. 7.), yet not so ephod is supposed to have been a rich sacerdotal garment, appropriated to them, but that it was adopted by other neighmade in imitation of that worn by the high-priest at Shiloh bouring nations for their god. Some writers have supposed But whether Gideon meant it as a commemorative trophy, or that Moloch was the same as Saturn, to whom it is well had a Levitical priest in his house, it is difficult to determine. known that human victims were offered. But he rather apIt became, howeyer, a snare to all Israel, who dwelt in Gilead, pears to have been Baal or the Sun (Jer. xxxii. 35.), and and on the eastern side of Jordan; whó thus having an ephod was the Adrammelech and Anammelech of the Sepharvaites, and worship in their own country, would

not so readily go who burnt their children to them in the fire. There is great over to the tabernacle at Shiloh, and, consequently, fell into reason to think that the Hebrews were addicted to the woridolatry, and worshipped the idols of their neighbours the ship of this deity before their departure from Egypt, since Phænicians. (Judg. viii. 27. 33.).

both the prophet Amos (v. 26.) and the protomartyr Stephen 5. The TERAPHIM, it appears from 1 Sam. xix. 13., were (Acts vii. 43.) reproach them with having carried the tabercarved images in a human form, and household deities, like nacle of their god Moloch with them in the wilderness. the penates and lares of the Romans many centuries after- Solomon built a temple to Moloch on the Mount of Olives wards (Gen. xxxi. 19.31, 35. 1 Sam. xix. 13–17.), of which (1 Kings xi. 7.), and his impiety was followed by other oracular inquiries were made. (Judg. xvii. 5. xvii. 5, 6. 14 kings, his successors, who had apostatized from the worship -20. Zech. x. 2. Hos. iii. 4.) This is confirmed by 1 Sam. of Jehovah. The valley of Tophet and Hinnom, on the east xv. 23. (marginal rendering), where the worship of teraphim of Jerusalem, was the principal scene of the horrid rites peris mentioned in conjunction with divination. They appear formed in honour of Moloch (Jer. xix. 5, 6.), who it is proto have been introduced among the Israelites from Mesopo- bable was the same as the Baal, Bel, or Belus of the Cartamia ; and continued to be worshipped until the Babylonish thaginians, Sidonians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. captivity.

IV. IDOL GODS OF THE CANAANITES OR SYRIANS, WORSHIPPED 6. The Jews were accused by the pagans of worshipping BY THE ISRAELITES. the HEAD OF AN Ass; but from this calumny they have been 1. Mr. Selden, in his elaborate treatise on the Syrian gods, completely vindicated by M. Schumacher. Apion, the mentions a goddess, whom he terms Good FORTUNE, as the grammarian, seems to be the author of this slander. He first idol mentioned in the Scriptures, and worshipped by the affirmed that the Jews kept the head of an ass in the sanc- Hebrews. This opinion is founded on the exclamation of tuary; that it was discovered there when Antiochus Epi- Leah (Gen. xxx. 11.), when her handmaid Zilpah bore a son phanes took the temple and entered into the most holy place. to Jacob. She said, I am prosperous (or as some in the preHe aded, that one Zabidus, having secretly got into the tem- sent day, who ascribe every thing to chance, would sayple, carried off the ass's head, and conveyed it to Dora. Good luck to me); and she called his name Gad, that is, prosSuidas3 says, that Damocritus or Democritus the historian perity. Although this interpretation has been questioned, averred that the Jews adored the head of an ass, made of yet in Isa. lxv. i1. Gad is unquestionably joined with Meni gold, &c. Plutarch and Tacitus were imposed on by this (or the Moon), and both are names of idols, where the procalumny. They believed that the Hebrews adored an ass, phet says. out of gratitude for the discovery of a fountain by one of these creatures in the wilderness, at a time when the army

Ye.... have deserted JEHOVAH,

And have forgotten my holy mountain ; of this nation was parched with thirst and extremely fatigued.

Who set in order a table for Gad, Learned men who have endeavoured to search into the origin

And fill out a libation

to Meni. Bp. Lowth's Version of this slander are divided in their opinions. The reason which Plutarch and Tacitus gave for it has nothing in the

What these objects of idolatrous worship were, it is now history of the Jews on which to ground it

. Tanaquil Faber impossible

exactly to ascertain: it is probable that the latter has aitempted to prove that this

accusation proceeded from gives an account of the idolatrous practice of the apostate

was an Egyptian deity. Jerome, as cited by bishop Lowth, the temple in Egypt called Onion; as if this name came from Jews, which is alluded to by the prophet of making a feast, the Jews worshipping an ass might originate in Egypt. We or a lectisternium, as the Romans called it, for these preknow that the Alexandrians hated the Jews, and were much tom in every city in Egypt, and especially in Alexandria,

tended deities. “It is,” he says, " an ancient idolatrous cusaddicted to raillery and defamation. But it was

extremely that on the last day of the last month in the year they set easy for them to have known that the temple Onion, at Heli-out a table with various kinds of dishes, and with a cup filled opolis, was named from Onias, the high-priest of the Jews, with a mixture of water, wine, and honey, indicating the who built it in the reign of Ptolemy Philometer and Cleopatra. fertility of the past or future year. This also the Israelites Others have asserted that the mistake of the heathen pro- did."6 ceeded from an ambiguous mode of reading; as if the Greeks, meaning to say that the Hebrews adored heaven, cupaver, might which the sun was worshipped : it is mentioned in Isa. Ixvi

2. Ahad or Achat is the name of a Syrian deity, under in abbreviation write ouvov; whence the enemies of the Jews 17. where the rites of this god are described :concluded that they worshipped ovos, an ass. Or, perhaps, reading in Latin authors that they worshipped heaven, cælum. They who sanctify themselves, and purify themselves

In the garders, after the rites of Achad; 'Nil præter nubes et cæli numen adorant,'

In the midst of those who eat swine's flesh,

And the abomination, and the field mouse; instead of cælum, they read cillum, an ass, and so reported

Together shall they perish, saith JEHOVAH. that the Jews adored this animal. Bochart is of opinion

Bp. Lowth's Version that the error arose from an expression in Scripture, the Moabites and Midianites, supposed to be the same as the

3. BAAL-PEOR (Num. xxv. 1–5.) was a deity of the · Dr. A. Clarke on Num. xxi. 9. See also a pleasing and instructive con. Priapus of the Romans, and worshipped with similar obtemplation of Bishop Halk on this subject.

2 De Cultu Animalium inter Ægyptios et Judæos Commentatio, ex re. • Dr. Harris's Nat. Hist, of the Bible, pp. 24, 25. (American edit.) or pp. condita antiquitate illustrata a M. Johann. Heinr. Schumacher. sect. viii. 22, 23. of the London reprint. et seq. (Brunsvigiis, 1773. 4to.)

6 De Diis Syris, Syntag. i. c. 1. (Works, vol. ij pp. 255, 256 ) 3 In Damocrito et in Juda.

6 Bp. Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 375. VOL. II


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