lips, or what has gone forth from the mouth ; and the same we have to add, 4. The person of the vower himself, with the phrase occurs in Psal. Ixvi. 14. If, therefore, a person had like privilege. (Lev. xxvii. 1-3.) To this species of vow merely made a vow in his heart, without letting it pass his Michaelis thinks the second tenths may have belonged, as lips, it would seem as if God would not accept such a vow; Moses nowhere speaks of them as a new institution. They regarding it only as a resolution to vow, but not as a vow most probably derived their origin from the vow made by itself. This limitation is humane, and necessary to prevent Jacob, which is recorded in Gen. xxviii. 22. much anxiety in conscientious people. If a vow made in the ii. Vows of self-interdiction or self-denial were, when a heart be valid, we shall often experience difficulty in distin- person engaged to abstain from any wine, food, or any other guishing whether what we thought of was a bare intention, thing. These are especially distinguished by Moses from or a vow actually completed. Here, therefore, just as in a other vows.in Num. XXX., and are there termed on (Assar), civil contract with our neighbour, wordsuttered words—are or voz by nos (Assar AL NEPHESH), that is, a bond upon the necessary to prevent all uncertainty."ı.

soul or person, a self-interdiction from some desire of nature, or 2. The party making the vow must be in his own power, of the heart, or, in other words, a vow of abstinence, particuand competent to undertake the obligation. Therefore the larly from eating and drinking. Among this species of vows vows of minors were void, unless they were ratified by the may be classed those of the Nazareate or Nazaritism ; which, express or tacit consent of their fathers. In like manner, Michaelis is of opinion, was not instituted by Moses, but neither unmarried daughters, so long as they were under the was of more ancient, and probably of Egyptian origin; the parental roof, nor married women, nor slaves, could oblige Hebrew legislator giving certain injunctions for the better themselves by vow, unless it was ratified by their fathers, regulation and performance of these vows. The statutes husbands, or masters'; the authority being given to the head respecting the Nazareate are related in the sixth chapter of the family in every thing which might produce advantage of the book of Numbers. Lamy, Calmet, and others, have or injury. 3

distinguished two classes of Nazarites: first, those who were 3. The things vowed to be devoted to God must be honestly Nazarites by birth, as Samson and John the Baptist were; obtained. It is well known, that in ancient times, many and, secondly, those who were Nazarites by vow and engagepublic prostitutes dedicated to their gods a part of their im- ment; who followed this mode of living for a limited time, pure earnings. This is most expressly forbidden by Moses. at the expiration of which they cut off their hair at the door (Deut. xxiii. 18.)

of the tabernacle, and offered certain sacrifices. The NazaIII. There are two sorts of vows mentioned in the old rites were required to abstain from wine, fermented liquors, Testament, viz. 1. The an (cherem), which was the most and every thing made of grapes, to let their hair grow, and solemn of all, and was accompanied with a form of execra- not to defile themselves by touching the dead; and if any tion, and which could not be redeemed; and 2. The 772 person had accidentally expired in their presence, the Naza(NEDERİM), or common vows.

rites of the second class were obliged to recommence their 1. The cherem is nowhere enjoined by Moses; nor does Nazariteship. he specify by what solemnities or expressions it was distin- Similar to the Nazareate was the vow frequently made by guished from other vows, but pre-supposes all this as already devout Jews, on their recovery from sickness, or deliverance well known. The species of cherem with which we are best from danger or distress; who, for thirty days before they acquainted, was the previous devotement to God of hostile offered sacrifices, abstained from wine, and shaved the hair cities, against which they intended to proceed with extreme of their head.9This usage illustrates the conduct of Paul, severity; and that with a view the more to inflame the minds as related in Acts xviii. 18. The apostle, in consequence of the people to war. In such cases, not only were all the of a providential deliverance from some imminent peril not inhabitants put to death, but also, according as the terms of recorded by the sacred writer, bound himself by a vow, which the vow declared, no booty was made by any Israelite; the the law in this case required him to pay at Jerusalem. In beasts were slain ; what would not burn, as gold, silver, and consequence of this transaction, Luke relates that he shaved other metals, was added to the treasury of the sanctuary ; his head at Cenchrea. Paul, in his intended journey afterand every thing else, with the whole city, burnt, and an im- wards to Judæa, says, he must needs go to Jerusalem : for the precation pronounced upon any attempt that should ever be laws respecting the Nazarite's vow required the person who made to rebuild it. of this the history of Jericho (Josh. vi. had entered into this engagement, if he were in a foreign 17–19. 21–24. and vii. 1. 12—26.) furnishes the most re- country when he first laid himself under this solemn obligamarkable example In Moses's lifetime we find a similar tion, to go up to Jerusalem to accomplish it. Here several vow against the king of Arad. (Num. xxi. 1-3.) If an Is- | appointed sacrifices were offered, and a certain course of raelitish city introduced the worship of strange gods, it was purifications and religious observances was prescribed and (as we have already seen) in like manner, to be devoted or performed. This appears from another passage in the same consecrated to God, and to remain un-rebuilt for ever. (Deut. sacred writer: (Acts xxi. 23, 21. 26, 27.) - Ive hare four xiii. 16–18.). Jephthah's dedication of his daughter is gene- men who have a vow on them; them take and purify thyself rally supposed to have been a cherem : but we have shown with them, and be at charges with them, that they MAY SHAVE in another part of this work that he did not sacrifice her. THEIR HEADS. Then Paul took the men: and the next day The text (Judg. xi. 30.) says that Jephthah vowed a vow ( 772, purifying himself with them, entered into the temple, to signify NEDER), unto the Lord, and again, (verse 39.) that he did with the accomplishment of the days of purification : and that un her according to his vow (973). There is no word in either of offering should be offered for every one of them. And when the these passages that either expresses or implies a cherem. SEVEN days were almost ended," &c. Josephus presents us

2. The common vows were divided into two sorts, viz. i. with an instance parallel to this of Paul, in the person of Vows of dedication, and, ii. Vows of self-interdiction or Bernice, who went to Jerusalem, in order to perform a vow abstinence.

which she had made to God.10 i. The 793 (NEDER) or vow, in the stricter sense of the word, was when a person engaged to do any thing, as, for instance, + Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 280, 281. to bring an offering to God; or otherwise to dedicate any

8 Ibid. p. 281.

9 An usage similar to the vow of Nazariteship exists in Persia to this thing unto him. Things vowed in this way, were, 1. Un- day. It frequently happens after the birth of a son, that if the parent be clean beasts. These might be estimated by the priest, and in distress, or the child be sick, or that there be any

cause of grief, the redeemed by the vower, by the addition of one fifth to the mother makes a vow, that no razor shall come upon the child's head for a value. (Lev. xxvii. 11-13.–2. Clean beasts used for offer- (1 Sam. 1. 11.) If the child recovers, and the cause of grief be removed, ings. Here there was no right of redemption ; nor could

the and if the

vow be but

for a time, so that the mother's vow be fulfilled beasts be exchanged for others under the penalty of both the shin shaves his head at the end of the time prescribed, makes a small being forfeited, and belonging to the Lord. (Lev. xxvii. 9, friends, which are sent as Netzers or offerings to the mosque at Kerbelah, 10.) 3. Lands and houses. These had the privilege of and are there consecrated. Morier's Second Journey, p. 109. valuation and redemption. (Lev. xxvii. 14—24.)-To these

10 See Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. 221. Calmet's Dictionary,

voce Nazarite. Flery's Manners of the Israelites, pp. 338, 339. Lard1 Michaelis's Commentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. ii. p. 269. ner's Credibility, book i. c. 9. $7. (Works, vol. i. pp. 208–212.) Jennings's 2 Alber, Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. I. p. 214.

Jewish Antiquities, book i. c. 8. Narwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. 3 Maimonides's Reasons of the Law of Moses, by Dr. Townley, p. 308. ii. p. 298. Reland's Antiq. Hebr. part i. c. 10. pp. 284-289. Schulzji • Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. p. 293.

Archæol. Hebr. pp. 294, 295. Brunings, Antiq. Febr, pp. 198–204. Dr. • Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 272—275.

Randolph's Discourse on Jephthah's Vow, in his View of Christ's Ministry, * See vol. i. part ii. chap. vii. sect. v.* $ 13.

&c. vol. ii. pp. 166-195.

the ungrateful Israelites, BOWED HIS HEAD to the earth ana SECTION II.

worshipped. (Exod. xxxiv. 8. Compare also Exod. ix. 29.)

The humble and contrite publican, standing afar off, SMOTE ON THE PRAYERS AND FEASTS OF THE JEWS. ON HIS BREAST, and supplicated divine mercy. (Luke xviii.

13.) The prophet Isaiah, when reproving the hypocritical I. Various appellations given to prayers.—II. Public prayers.— Jews, denounces that Jehovah would hide his eyes from them

III. Private prayers.-Attitudes of the Jews during prayer. when they SPREAD FORTH their hands (Isa. i. 15.); and the -IV. Forms of prayer in use among the Jews.-V. Fasts of LIFTING UP OF THE HANDS to heaven, in prayer, is expressly the Jews.—1. Public fasts.—%. Private fasts.--3. Solemni- noted by the Psalmist (cxli. 2.) and by the prophet Jeremiah. ties of the Jewish fasts.

(Lam. iii. 41.)

Similar postures were adopted by most of the heathen naI. Prayers, or petitions addressed to the Almighty, are tions

that pretended to any kind of worship, when approachclosely connected with sacrifices and vows. (Psal. 1. 14, 15.) ing the objects of their adoration; which it is highly probaVARIOUS APPELLATIONS are given to the prayers mentioned in ble that they borrowed from the people of God. Kneeling was the Scriptures. In Phil. iv. 6. and 1 Tim. ii

. 1. five different ever considered to be the proper posture of supplication, as terms are employed, viz. atnuatu, or requests, which may be it expressed humility, contrition, and subjection. If the considered as a generic term, including Apopexies, prayers for person to whom the supplication was addressed was within obtaining those things, whether temporal or spiritual, of reach, the supplicant caught him by the knees; for as, among which we feel our need; denous, deprecations of evil of every the ancients, the forehead was consecrated to genius, the ear kind; sytevčas, intercessions or prayers in behalf of others; to memory, and the right hand to faith, so the knees were and eux apotice, thanksgivings or addresses of praise to God consecrated to mercy. Hence those who entreated favour, for all the blessings conferred upon us. The mode of pray- fell at and caught hold of the knees of the person whose ing was two-fold; 1. Internal, in which mental prayer is kindness they supplicated. This mode of supplication is offered from the heart alone (such was the prayer of Hannah, particularly referred to in Homer. In the same manner we 1 Sam. i. 13.); or, 2. External, being uttered aloud with the find our Lord accosted, Matt. xvii. 14.- There came to him voice: hence, in Psal. cxlv. 19. it is termed a cry.

a certain man,

kneeling down to him, 7CVUTETWY autev, falling Prayers were either public, or private, or stated, that is, down at his knees. performed at a particular time. The STATED Hours were at

As to the lifting up, or stretching out, the hands (often the time of offering the morning and evening sacrifice, or at the joined to kneeling), of which we have seen already several third and ninth hours (Acts ii. 15. and iii. 1.); although it instances, and of which we have a very remarkable one in was the custom of the more devout Jews, as David (Psal. Exod. chap. xvii, 11. where the lifting up, or stretching out. lv. 17.) and Daniel (vi. 10.), to pray three times a day. of the hands of Moses was the means of Israel's prevailing Peter went up on the house-top to pray, about the sixth hour. over Amalek; we find many examples of both in ancient (Acts x. 9.) A similar usage obtains among the Hindoos authors. In some cases, the person petitioning came forto this day.! Previously to offering up their supplications ward, and either sat in the dust or kneeled on the ground, they washed their hands, to signify that they had put

away placing his

left hand on the knee of him from whom he exsin and purposed to live a holy life. As the Jewish phyla- pected the favour, while he touched the person's chin with his terical prayers were long, and the canonical or stated hours right. We have an instance of this also in Homer. 9 obliged them to repeat these prayers wherever they happened When the supplicant could not approach the person to to be, the proud, vainglorious Pharisees contrived to be over- whom he prayed, as where a deity was the object of the taken in the streets, in order that they might be observed by prayer, he washed his hands, made an offering, and kneeling the people, and be applauded for their piety. Against this down, either stretched out both his hands to heaven or laid them formal spirit Jesus Christ cautions his disciples in Matt. upon the nfering or sacrifice, or upon the altar. In this mode vi. 5.2

Homer represents the priest of Apollo as praying. 'o II. PUBLIC Prayers were offered, at first, in the taberna

The practice of standing with their hands spread out cle, and afterwards in the temple and synagogues, by the towards' heaven, was adopted by the primitive Christians minister appointed for that purpose, the people answering in the synagogues only) at the conclusion with a loud Amen.

6 Schulzii Årchæol. IIebraica, pp. 298, 299. Brunings, Antiquitates IIc(Neh. viii. 6.)

brææ, pp. 193–198. III. Private PRAYERS were offered by individuals in a 1 Των νυν μιν μνησασα παρεζεο, και λαβε γουνων. Iliad I. 407. low tone of voice with the head covered';4 either standing Now, therefore, of these things reminding Jove, or kneeling, sometimes bowing the head towards the earth, Embrace his knees.

COWPER, and at others with the whole body prostrate on the ground. To which the following answer is made : Sometimes they smote upon the breast, in token of their deep Και τοτ' επειτα τοι ειμι Διος ποτ. χαλκοβατες δω, humiliation and penitence, or spread forth their hands, or Και μιν γουνασομαι, και μιν πεισεσθαι οιω. Iliad I. 426,427. lifted them up to heaven. Of these various postures in prayer Then will I to Jove's brazen-floored abode, many instances occur in the sacred writers. Thus Hannah,

That I may clasp his knecs ; and much misdeem

of my endeavour, or my pray’r shall speed CowPER. in her affliction, spake in her heart; her lips only moved, but HER VOICE was NOT HEARD (1 Sam. i. 13.); and the proud

8 The following instances are taken from Virgil :Pharisee stoods and prayed with (within) himself. (Luke

Corripio é stratis corpus, TENDOQUE SUPINAS

AD CELUM cum voce MANUS, et munera liho. Æneid iii, 176, 177. xviii, 11.) David says, I STRETCH FORTH MY HANDS unto thee.

I started from my bed, and raised on high (Psal. cxliii. 6.) Solomon KNEELED down upon his knees before My hands and voice in rapture to the sky; all the congregation of Israel, and SPREAD FORTH HIS HANDS And pour libations.

Pitt. towards heaven. (2 Chron vi. 13.) Ezra fell upon his KNEES, Dixerat: et GENUA AMPLEXUS, genibusque volutans and SPREAD out his hands to the Lord his God. (Ezra is.

Æneid iii. 607, 608 5.). Our adorable Redeemer, in his agony in the garden of

Then kneeled the wretch, and suppliant clung around

My knees, with tears, and grovelled on the ground. Pitt. Gethsemane, fell on his face prostrated himself to the ground), KNEELED down and prayed Matt. xxvi. 39. Luke xxii. 41.);

-media inter numina divum,

Multa Jovem MANIBUS SUPPLEX orasse SUPINIS. Ibid. iv. 204, 205. and the protomartyr Stephen KNEELED down and prayed for

Amidst the statues of the gods he stands, his murderers. (Acts vii. 60.) Moses, when interceding for

And spreading forth to Jove his listed hands

Id. · Wars's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 342.

Et DUPLICES cum voce Manus ad sidera TENDIT. Ibid. x. 667. - Drs. Lightfoot and A. Clarke on Matt. vi. 5. 3 The Jews attribute a wonderful efficacy to this word; and have an

And lifted both his hands and voice to heaven. Id. idle tradition that the gates of Paradise will be open to him who says Amen 8 Και θα παροιβ' αυτοιο καθέζετο, και λαβε γουνων with all his might.

Σκαιη· δεξιτερη δ' αρ' υπ' ανθερεωνος έλουσα Iliad I. 500, 501 * The reason of this custom was to profess themselves reverent and ashamed before God, and unworthy to appear before him. It was a maxim

Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she plac'd

Beneath his chin, and one his knee embracd. POPE. of the Jews,-"Let not the wise men, nor the scholars of the wise men, pray, unless they be covered." It appears that the Corinthians, though 10 Χερνεψαντο δ' επειτα, και ουλοχυτες ανελόντο, converted to the Christian faith, in this respect conformed to the Jewish Τοίσιν δε Χρυσης μεγάλ' ευχετο, χειρας ανασχων. Iliad I. 449, 450. practice; and therefore St. Paul remonstrated against it. I Cor. xi. 4.

With water purify their hands, and take Lightfoot's Hor. Heb. in loc. (Works, vol. ii. pp. 769, 770.)

The sacred of ring of the salted cake, The practice of standing during prayer obtained among the Arabs in

While thus with arms devoutly rais'd'in air, the time of Mohammed, who, in his Koran, repeatedly commands his fol.

And solemn voice, the priest directs his pray'r. Pope lowers to stand when they pray. C. B. Michaelis de ritualibus S. S. ex Alcorano illustrandis, $ xiv. in vol. ii. pr. 108, 109. of Pott's and Ruperti's Dr. A. Clarke on Exod. ix. 29. Other illustrations of the various attitudes Sylloge Commentationum Theologicarum. See also Dr. Richardson's in which the heathens offered up prayer to their deities are given by Bru Travels along the shores of the Mediterranean, vol. i. pp. 463. et seq. nings, Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum, pp. 270-275.


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when offering their supplications: they stood up, says Ter-| “Our Father, which art in heaven, be gracious unto us!
tullian, and directed their eyes towards heaven with expanded O Lord our God, hallowed be thy name, and let the remem-
hands. A similar testimony is given by Clement of Alex- brance of thee be glorified in heaven above, and upon earth
andria :-—“We lift up, our head and elevate our hands here below. Let thy kingdom reign over us, now and for
towards heaven.” So also, St. Paul, when exhorting Chris- ever. The holy men of old said, Remit and forgive unto all
tains to pray for all classes of persons, describes the gesture men whatsoever they have done against me. And lead us
then used in prayer (1 Tim. ii. 8.) :—wherefore Lift Up holy not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil thing. For
HANDS without wrath or doubting. Those who affected supé- thine is the kingdom, and thou shalt reign in glory for ever,
rior sanctity, or who from motives of ostentation and hypo- and for evermore.”
crisy, it appears, prayed in the streets, and made long prayers, V: To prayers the Jews sometimes added Fasts, or
were severely censured by our Lord for their formal and religious abstinence from food : these fasts were either pub-
hypocritical devotion. (Matt. vi. 5. and xxiii. 14.) When at lic or private.
a distance from the temple, the more devout Jews turned 1. The Public Fasts were either ordinary or extraordi-
themselves towards it when they prayed. We have an nary. Moses instituted only one ordinary annual public
instance of this in the conduct of Daniel, (Dan. vi. 10.) fast, which was solemnized on the day of atonement, other
When the Orientals pray seriously, in a state of grief, they public fasts being left to the discretion of the nation. Of
hide their faces in their bosom. To this circumstance the extraordinary fasts appointed by authority of the civil magis-
Psalmist alludes (xxxv. 13.), when he says, My prayer trate, several instances are recorded in the Old Testament.
returned into mine own bosom. 5

See 1 Sam. vii. 5, 6. 2 Chron. xx. 3. and Jer. xxxvi. 9.
IV. Various FORMS OF PRAYER were in use among the After the return of the Jews from captivity, Ezra proclaimed
Jews from the earliest period of their existence as a distincta fast at the river Ahava, in order to implore the direction
nation. The first piece of solemn worship recorded in the and blessing of God (Ezra viii. 21.): and several other fasts
Scripture is a hymn of praise composed by Moses, on occa- were subsequently added, to commemorate particular melan-
sion of the deliverance of the Israelites from the Egyptians, choly events, of which we read in Zech. viii. 19.; viz. the
which was sung by all the congregation alternately; by Moses fast of the fourth month, which was instituted in memory of
and the men first, and afterwards hy Miriam and the women the famine in Jerusalem (Jer. lii. 6.); the fast of the fifth
(Exod. xv. 1. 20, 21.); which could not have been done ,unless month, for the destruction of the temple (Zech. vii. 3.); the
ît had been a precomposed set form. Again, in the expia- fast of the seventh month, on account of the murder of Geda-
tion of an uncertain murder, the elders of the city which lay liah (2 Kings xxv. 28.); and the fast of the tenth month,
nearest to the party that was slain, were expressly com- when Jerusalem was besieged. (Jer. lii. 4.) Extraordinary
manded to say, and consequently to join in, the form of public fasts were also held when the Jews were threatened
prayer appointed by God himself in Deut. xxi. 7, 8. In Num. with any imminent danger. (Joel i. 14. ii. 12.) In like
vi. 23—26. x. 35, 36. Deut. xxvi. 3. 5–11. and 13—15. manner the people of Nineveh, on hearing the prophetic
there are several other divinely appointed forms of prayer, message of Jonah, whom they believed to be truly sent by
prescribed by Moses. On the establishment of the monarchy, God, proclaimed a fast; and by a decree of the king and hís
David appointed the Levites to stand every morning to thank nobles, neither man nor beast, neither herd nor flock, was
and praise the Lord, and likewise at even (1 Chron. xxiii. 30.); permitted to taste any food, or even to drink any water.
which rule was afterwards observed in the temple erected by (Jonah iii. 6, 7.). This was carrying their abstinence to a
Solomon, and restored at the building of the second temple greater degree of rigour than what we find recorded of the
after the captivity. (Neh. xii. 24.) Ånd the whole book of Jews; for though, during seasons of public calamity, they
Psalms was, in fact, a collection of forms of prayer and made their children to fast (as may be inferred from Joel ii.
praise, for the use of the whole congregation; as is evident 15, 16,), yet we nowhere read of their extending that severity
from the titles of several of those divinely inspired composi- to cattle.
tions, as well as from other passages of Scripture.?

2. Private Fasts were left to the discretion of individuals What the stated public prayers were in the time of our who kept them, in order that they might by prayer and fastLord, it is now impossible exactly to ascertain : it is, how- ing avert imminent calamities, and obtain the favour of God. ever, probable that many of the eighteen prayers, which have So David fasted and prayed during the sickness of his child been given in pp. 106, 107. and which are said to have been by Bathsheba (2 Sam. xii. 16.); Ahab, when he heard the collected by Rabbi Gamaliel the Elder, the master of St. Paul, divine judgments which were denounced against him by the were then in use; and as all persons were not able to com- prophet Elijah (1 Kings xxi. 27.); and the pious Jews, mit them to memory, it is also probable that a summary of Ezra (x. 6.), and Nehemiah (i. 4.), on account of the calamithem was drawn up. But we know certainly that it was ties of their country and of the Jews. In the time of Jesus customary for the more eminent doctors of the Jews to com- Christ, private fasts appear to have been deemed necessary, pose forms of short prayers, which they delivered to their in order to yield an acceptable worship to God : such at least scholars. Thus John the Baptist gave his disciples such a was the case with the Pharisees and their followers, who form; and Jesus Christ, at the request of his disciples, gave affected more than ordinary devotion; and who fasted twice them that most perfect model emphatically termed The Lord's in the week, on the second and fifth days (Luke xviii. 12.) Prayer, which, the very learned Mr. Gregory has shown, was to which acts of devotion they ascribed a marvellous efficacy.no collected out of the Jewish euchologies :8 he has translated 3. With regard to the SOLEMNITIES OF THE Jewish Fasts, the whole form from them as follows :

the precept of the law simply enjoined that they should

afflict their souls (Lev. xvi. 29.); conformably to which the 1 Apolog. c. 30. 2 Stromata, lib. ii. p. 722. Dr. Jarwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 302. The hearts and not their garments. From various passages of

prophet Joel (ii. 13.) exhorts his countrymen to rend their Ilarmer's Observations, vol. ii. pp. 511-513. Fraginents supplementary Scripture, it appears that the Jewish fasts, whether public to Calmet, No. eelxxviii.

or private, were distinguished by every possible mark of 3 This praetice is also general throughout the East. Both Hindoos and Musulmauns offer their devotions in the most public places; as, at the grief; the people being clothed in sackcloth, with ashes landing places of rivers, in the public streets, and on the roofs of boats, strewed on their heads, downcast countenances, rent garwithout the least modesty or effort at concealment. Ward's History of ments, and (on public occasions) with loud weeping and Journey, p. 208. Dr. Richardson's Traveis, vol. I, p. 75. and Lightfool's supplication. (2 Sam. xiii. 19. Psal. xxxv. 13. Isa. lviii, 5. Horæ Hebraicæ on Matt. vi. 5. (Works, vol. ii. p. 156.)

Lam. ii. 10. Joel i. 13, 14. ii. 12, 13.) At these times they his turning his face to the wall (2 Kings xx. 2.) of his turning towards the Pharisees affected the utmost humility and devotion, disfigur

Lamy is of opinion that Hezekiah did so, and that we are to understand abstained from food until evening. The sanctimonious temple. De Tabernaculo, lib. vii. c. 1. $5. 5 Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 20.

ing their faces and avoiding every appearance of neatness; . See the titles of Psalms is. v. vi. xlii. xliv. xcii. &c. * See 1 Chron. xvi. 7. 2 Chron. xxix. 30. and Ezra iii. 10, 11. Wheatley vi. 16, 17.11

against this conduct our Lord cautions his disciples in Matt. on the Corgmon Prayer, Introduction, p. 2.

8 See the Works of the Rev. and learned Mr. John Gregorie, p. 168. London, 1683. See also Dr. Lightfoot's Hor. Heb. on Matt. vi. 9—13. See an account of this fast in p. 127. supra. Drusius, in Critici Sacri. vol. vi. col. 259, 260. Whitby and other com- 10 Lightfoot's Hor. Hebr. on Mati. ix. 14. Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, mentators, in loc. Dr. Hales has an excellent commentary on this prayer, pp. 301, 302. Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 279, 280. in his Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book ii. pp. 1005-1011. The forins, &c. 11 See Lightfoot's Hor. Heb. on Matt. vi. 9-13. and Luke xviii. 12. Jose. of prayer of the modern Jews are described by Mr. Allen. Modern Juda-phus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. 9 3. Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 301, 302, ism, pp. 326–354.

where the being wholly washed implies one who had become SECTION III.

a disciple of Christ, and consequently had renounced the sins

of his former life. He who had so done was supposed to ON THE PURIFICATIONS OF THE JEWS.

be wholly washed, and not to need any immersion, in imita

tion of the ceremony of initiation, which was never repeated I. Materials with which the purifications of the Jews were per among the Jews. All that was necessary in such case was formed.-II. Ceremonies of purification.—III

. Of the persons the dipping or rinsing of the hands and feet, agreeably to the lustrated.—IV. Account of the different kinds of legal impu- customs of the Jews. Sometimes the lustration was perrities, particularly,-1. The leprosy of the person.—2. The formed by sprinkling blood, or anointing with oil. Sprinkleprosy of clothes.-3. The house leprosy.-. Minor legal ling was performed either with the finger or with a branch impurities, and their lustrations.

of cedar and hyssop tied together with scarlet wool. (Lev.

xiv. 4. 6. Num. xix. 18. Psal. li. 7.) It was requisite that every one who was about to make III. The objects of lustration were either persons or things any offering to Jehovah should be cleansed from all impuri- dedicated to divine worship. The Levites, priests, and above ties, or lustrated—to adopt an expression in common use all, the high-priest, underwent a purification previously to among the Romans. The materials, form, and ceremonies of undertaking their respective offices. In like manner the Isthese lustrations, which were prescribed by Moses, were raelites were commanded to sanctify themselves by ablutions various, according to different circumstances. The design both of their persons and clothes, &c. previously to receiving of them all was not only to preserve both the health and the law (Exod. xix. 10, 11. 14, 15. Heb. ix. 19.); and after morals of the Israelites, but also to intimate how necessary the giving of the law and the people's assent to the book of it was to preserve inward purity, without which they could the covenant, Moses sprinkled them with blood. (Exod. not be acceptable to God, though they might approach his xxiv. 5—8. Heb. ix. 19.) So also were the tabernacle, and sanctuary.

all its sacred vessels anointed with oil (Exod. xxx. 26–28. I. The purifications were for the most part performed with xl. 9–11. Lev. viii. 10, 11.), and as Saint Paul further intiwater, sometimes with blood (Heb. ix. 21, 22.), and with mates, were sprinkled with the blood of the victims. oil. (Exod. xxx. 26–29. Lev. viii. 10, 11.) The water of Those who were about to offer sacrifice unto Jehovah were purification was to be drawn from a spring or running stream, also to be lustrated (1 Sam. xvi. 5.); as well as those who and was either pure, or mixed with blood (Heb. ix. 19.), or were repairing to divine worship to offer their prayers (Judith with the ashes of the red heifer. For preparing these ashes, xii. 7,8.); and especially the priest and the high-priest, before a heifer of a red colour was burnt with great solemnity. they executed their respective offices. (Exod. xxx. 20.) This ceremony is described at length in the nineteenth chap- Lastly, all who according to the Mosaic law were adjudged ter of the book of Numbers. As all the people were to be impure, were to be purified before they could be admitted into interested in it, the victim was to be provided at their charge. the congregation of the Lord. (Num. xix. 20.) This Jewish rite certainly had a reference to things done IV. In the Mosaic law, those persons are termed unclean, under the Gospel, as St. Paul has remarked in his Epistle whom others were obliged to avoid touching, or even meeting, to the Hebrews For if the blood of bulls and of goats (allud- unless they chose to be themselves defiled, that is, cut off ing to the sin-offerings, and to the scape-goat), and the from all intercourse with their brethren; and who, besides, ASHES OF A HEIFER, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the were bound to abstain from frequenting the place where divine purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of service and the offering-feasts were held, under penalties still Christ .... purge (or purify) your conscience from dead more severe. works to serve the living God. As the principal stress of allu- The duration and degrees of impurity were different. In sion in this passage is to the ordinance of the red heifer, we some instances, by the use of certain ceremonies, an unclean may certainly conclude that it was designed to typify the person became purified at sunset; in others, this did not take sacrifice of our adorable Redeemer.

place until eight days after the physical cause of defilement In the ordinance of the red heifer, we may perceive the ceased. Lepers were obliged to live in a detached situation, wisdom of Moses (uuder the guidance of Jehovah) in taking separate from other people, and to keep themselves actually every precaution that could prevent the Israelites from falling at a distance from them. They were distinguished by a péinto idolatry: The animal to be selected was a heifer, in op-culiar dress ; and if any person approached, they were bound position to the superstition of the Egyptians, who held this to give him warning, by crying out, Unclean! unclean ! animal to be sacred, and worshipped Isis under the form of a Other polluted persons, again, could not directly touch those heifer:-it was also to be a red heifer, without spot, that is, that were clean, without defiling them in like manner, and altogether red, because red bulls were sacrificed to appease were obliged to remain without the camp, that they might not the evil demon Typhon, that was worshipped by the Egyp- be in their way. (Num. v. 1-4.) Eleven different species tians; wherein was no blemish, so that it was free from every of impurity are enumerated in the Levitical law, to which the imperfection ;-on which never came yoke, because any animal later Jews added many others. But the severest of all was, that had been used for any common purpose was deemed im- 1. The Leprosy, an infectious disease of slow and imperproper to be offered in sacrifice to God.

ceptible progress, beginning very insidiously and gently, for The animal being slain, and her blood sprinkled as directed the most part with one little bright spot, which causes no in Num, xix. 3, 4., was then reduced to ashes, which were trouble, though no means will make it disappear: but into be collected and mixed with running water (ver. 9. 17.), creasing with time into furfuraceous scales that ultimately for the purpose of lustration.

become a thick scab, it imperceptibly passes into a disease, II. The Jews had two sorts of washing; one, -of the which, though divested of its deadly nature in our temperate whole body by immersion, which was used by the priests at climates and by our superior cleanliness, is in the East their consecration, and by the proselytes at their initiation; attended with the most formidable symptoms: such as morti

-the other, of the hands or feet, called dipping, or pouring fication and separation of whole limbs, and when arrived at a of water, and which was of daily use, not only for the hands certain stage, it is altogether incurable. As the varieties and and feet, but also for the cups and other vessels used at their symptoms of this frightful malady are discussed at length in meals. (Matt. xv. 2. Mark vii. 3, 4.) The six water-pots a subsequent part of this work, it will be sufficient to remark, of stone, used at the marriage-feast of Cana, in Galilee (John for the present, that, among the heathens, the leprosy was ii. 6.), were set for this purpose. To these two modes of considered as inflicted by their gods, by whom alone it could purification Jesus Christ seems to allude in John xiii. 10.; be removed, and the same notion appears to have prevailed

among the Israelites; for when the king of Syria sent Naa1 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 8. $ 6.

2 This opinion obtained among the ancient Greeks. See particularly man, his commander-in-chief, to the king of Israel, to heal Homer's Iliad, x. 291–293. and Odyssey, iii. 382., and Virgil's Georgics, iv. him of his leprosy, the latter exclaimed, - Am I God, to kill “ six women having their faces veiled came downltedt het wel, each carege also recorded in which this disease is represented as a punish While Mr. W. Rae Wilson (who visited Palestine in 1819) was at Cana, a man of his leprosy? (2 Kings v.7.) Some instances are

and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me, to recover vessels were forined of stone, and something in the shape of the bottles ment immediately inflicted by God for particular sins; as in used in our country for containing vitriol, having great bodies and small the cases of Miriam, Gehazi, and king Uzziah. This circumattached to the sides ; and it was a wonderful coincidence with

Scripture, stance, connected with the extreme foulness of the disorder, that the vessels appeared to contain much the same quantity as those rendered it a very striking emblem of moral pollution; and which the Evangelist informs [us] had been employed

on occasion of the the exclusion of persons infected with it from the worship and each. Wilson's Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 339. first edition.) | people of God was fitted not only to humble and reform the ness, died in the flower of his age; but was happily succeeded | had said, “God is every where in his essence, and cannot be by his son Hezekiah, who, among other reformations, it is included in any place: he dwells among you here as well as said, broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made, to at Jerusalem, and if you require any symbols of his presence, which the children of Israel did burn incense. (2 Kings xviii. 4.) behold here they are in these calves which I have set up; But Hezekiah's reformation was soon overturned upon thé for they could not be so stupid as to believe, that the idols succession of his wicked son Manasseh, who seems to have taken just before out of the furnace had been their deliverers, made it his business to search out what God in his law had so many ages before. It is evident, that the worship of these forbidden, and to make the practice of it his study. (2 Chron. calves was not regarded by the sacred writers and by the proxxxiii. 348.)

phets, as an absolute Pagan idolatry, but only as a schism, The princes who succeeded (Josiah only excepted) and which was indeed very criminal in itself, but did not come their people seem to have lived in a kind of competition with up to the degree of a total apostasy; for the history of the one another in wickedness and idolatry, and to have given revolt of the ten tribes introduces Jeroboam speaking not like a loose to the wildness of their imaginations in the worship a person whose intention was to make the people change their of God, which brought upon Judah and her people the utmost religion, but as representing to them that the true God, being fury of God's wrath, and those judgments which had been de- every where, was not confined to any certain place, and, creed, and which ended in the captivity of king and people. therefore, they might pay their devotions to him as well in At length, however, become wiser by the severe discipline Dan and Bethel as at Jerusalem. they had received, the tribes that returned into their native The worship offered before these images is supposed to country from the Babylonian captivity wholly renounced have been in imitation of the ceremonies of the Mosaic law. idolatry; and thenceforth uniformly evinced the most deeply- As most of the priests of the family of Aaron, and the rooted aversion from all strange deities and foreign modes of Levites who had their cities and abodes among the ten reworship. This great reformation was accomplished by Ezra volted

tribes, retired into the dominions of the king of Judah, and Nehemiah, and the eminent men who accompanied or to avoid joining in the schism, which proved a great addisucceeded them: but, in the progress of time, though the ex- tional strength to the house of David ; Jeroboam seized their terior of piety was maintained, the power of godliness" was cities and estates, and he eased the people of paying their lost; and we learn from the New Testament, that, during our tithes, there being none to demand them; so he gratified Saviour's ministry, the Jews were divided into various reli- them by making priests out of every tribe and family, even gious parties, which widely differed in opinion, and pursued in the extreme part of the country. The pontificate and each other with the fiercest animosity, and with implacable supremacy over this schismatical priesthood he reserved in hatred.

his own hands. These idols were at length destroyed by Very numerous are the idols mentioned in the Scriptures, the kings of Assyria ; the calf in Bethel was carried to particularly in the Old Testament. It is proposed in the fol- Babylon, with other spoils, by Shalmaneser, and the other in lowing pages of this section to offer, in the first place, a short Dan was seized by Tiglath-Pileser, about ten years before, notice of the idols which were peculiar to the Israelites; and, in the invasion which he made upon Galilee, in which prosecondly, of those which they adopted from the Ammonites, vince the city stood. Syrians, Phænicians, Babylonians, and other nations of anti- 3. The BŘAZEN SERPENT was an image of polished brass, quity.

in the form of one of those fiery serpents (or serpents whose II. IDOLS WORSHIPPED PARTICULARLY BY THE ISRAELITES.— bite was attended with violent inflammation) which were Scarcely, as we have already observed, had the children of sent to chastise the murmuring Israelites in the wilderness. Israel been delivered from their cruel bondage in Egypt, when By divine command Moses made a serpent of brass, or copper, they returned to those idols to which they had been accus- and put it upon a pole; and it came to pass that if a serpent tomed.

had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he 1. The first object of their idolatrous worship was a GOLDEN lived. (Num.

xxi. 6—9.) This brazen serpent was preserved Calf. (Exod. xxxii

. 1–6.) Having been conducted through as a monument of the divine mercy, but in process of time the wilderness by a pillar of cloud and fire, which preceded became an instrument of idolatry. When this superstition them in their marches, while that cloud covered the mountain began, it is difficult to determine ; but the best account is where Moses was receiving the divine commands, they ima- given by the Jewish rabbi, David Kimchi, in the following gined that it would no longer be their guide ; and therefore manner. From the time that the kings of Israel did evil, they applied to Aaron to make for them a sacred sign or sym- and the children of Israel followed idolatry, till the reign of bol, as other nations had, which might visibly represent God Hezekiah, they offered incense to it; for, it being written in to them. With this request Aaron unhappily complied: the the law of Moses, whoever looketh upon it shall live, they people offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings, and fancied they might obtain blessings by its mediation, and, sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. The mate- therefore, thought it worthy to be worshipped. It had been rials of this idol were the golden ear-rings of the people, kept from the days of Moses, in memory of a miracle, in worn in these eastern countries by men as well as women; the same manner as the pot of manna was: and Asa and and probably they were some of the jewels which they had Jehoshaphat did not extirpate it when they rooted out idolademanded of the Egyptians. They were cast in a mould by try, because in their reign they did not observe that the Aaron, and subsequently chiselled into a calf, which is gene- people worshipped this serpent, or burnt incense to it; and, rally supposed to have been an exact resemblance of the cele- therefore, they left it as a memorial. But Hezekiah thought brated Egyptian deity, Apis, who was worshipped under the fit to take it quite away, when he abolished other idolatry, form of an ox. This ancient Egyptian superstition is still because in the time of his father they adored it as an idol; perpetuated on Mount Libanus, by those Druses who assume and though pious people among them accounted it only as a ihe name of Okkals, and who pay divine honours to a calf.3 memorial of a wonderful work, yet he judged it better to

2. In imitation of this were the two GOLDEN Calves, made abolish it, though the memory of the miracle should happen by Jeroboam, the first king of Israel, after the secession of the to be lost, than suffer it to remain, and leave the Israelites in ten tribes. 'The Egyptianis had two oxen, one of which they danger of committing idolatry hereafter with it. worshipped under the naine of Apis, at Memphis, the capital On the subject of the serpent-bitten Israelites being healed of Upper Egypt, and the other under the name of Mnevis, at by looking at the brazen serpent, there is a good comment in Hierapolis, the metropolis of Lower Egypt. In like manner, the book of Wisdom, chap. xvi. ver. 4–12. in which are Jeroboam set up one of his calves at Bethel, and the other at these remarkable words : They were admonished, having Dan. (1 Kings xii. 28–32.) Like the idolaters in the wil- a sign of salvation (i. e. the brazen serpent) to put them in derness, this leader of the rebels proclaimed before the idols remembrance of the commandments of thy law. For he that upon the feast of their consecration, These are thy gods, o turned himself towards it, was not saved by the THING that Israel, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt! as if he he saw, but by THEE that art the saviour of all.” (ver. 6, 7:) 1 Ilome's Irist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 282–291.

To the circumstance of looking at the brazen serpent in . The following account of the idols worshipped by the Jews is abridged order to be healed, our Lord refers (John iii. 14, 15.), As principally from lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. ii. pp. 176-188. Calmet's Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the tom. vi. pp. 745–752, and his Dictionary of the Bible under the several not perish, but have eternal life: from which words we may Dissertations in his Commentaire Littéral, tom. I, part ii. pp. 173-178.

and Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him, should Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, SS 400-415. Ackermann's Archæologia learn, 1. That as the serpent was lifted up on the pole or Biblica, $$ 387–102. Millar's list of the Propagation of Christianity, vol. ensign ; so Jesus Christ was lifted up on the cross. 2. That i. pp. 221–340. Godwin's Moses and Aaron, book iv. pp. 140-178. and Alber, Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. i. pp. 391–106.

as the Israelites were to look at the brazen serpent; so sin3 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. p. 201.

ners must look to Christ. for salvation. 3. That as God pro

names of the idol deities.

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