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the table. (John xiii. 23.) This posture, according to the herbs, dipping the bread into the charoseth, or sauce. To Talmudical writers, was an emblem of that rest and freedom this practice the evangelists Matthew (xxvi. 21–25.) and which God had granted to the children of Israel by bringing Mark (xiv. 18—21.) manifestly allude; and into this sauce them out of Egypt. This custom of reclining at table, over our Saviour is supposed to have dipped the sop which he one another's bosom, was a sign of equality and strict union gave to Judas. (John xiii. 26.) among the guests.
(7.) Next they ate the flesh of the peace-offerings which Dr. Lightfoot has collected from the Talmud a variety of had been sacrificed on the fourteenth day, and then the flesh passages relative to the Jewish mode of celebrating the pass- of the paschal lamb, which was followed by returning thanks over; from which we have abridged the following particulars, to God, and a second washing of hands. as they are calculated materially to illustrate the evangelical (8.) A third cup of wine was then filled, over which they history of our Lord's last passover, recorded in Matt. xxvi. blessed God, or said grace after meat (whence it was called Mark xiv. Luke xxii, and John xiii.
the cup of blessing), and drank it off. To this circumstance (1.) The guests being placed around the table, they mingled St. Paul particularly alludes when he says, -The cup of blessa cup of wine with water, over which the master of the family ing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? (or, if two or more families were united, a person deputed |(1 Cor. x. 16.) It was also at this part of the paschal supper for the purpose) gave thanks, and then drank it off. The that our Lord took the cup, saying, This is the NEW TESTAMENT thanksgiving for the wine was to this effect, “ Blessed be thou, (rather covenant) in MY BLOOD, which is shed for you, and for O Lord, who hast created the fruit of the vine ;” and for the many, for the REMISSION OF Sins. (Luke xxii. 20. Matt. xxvi. day, as follows—“ Blessed be thou for this good day, and for 27.) The cup here is put for wine; and covenant is put for this holy convocation, which thou hast given us for joy and re- the token or sign of the covenant. The wine, as representjoicing? Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast sanctified Israel ing. Christ's blood, answers to the blood of the passover, and the times!” Of these cups of wine they drank four in which typified it; and the remission of sins here, answers to the course of the ordinance.
the passing over there, and preserving from death.3 (2.) They then washed their hands, after which the table (9.) Lastly, a fourth cup of wine was filled, called the cup was furnished with the paschal lamb, roasted whole, with of the hallel: over it they completed, either by singing or bitter herbs, and with two cakes of unleavened bread, together recitation, the great hallel, or hymn of praise, consisting of with the remains of the peace-offerings sacrificed on the pre-psalms cxv. to cxviii. inclusive, with a prayer, and so conceding day, and the charoseth, or thick sauce, above men- cluded. In like manner our Lord and his disciples, when tioned.
they had sung a hymn, departed to the Mount of Olives. (3.) The officiator, or person presiding, then took a small (Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.) piece of salad, and having blessed God for creating the fruit 3. With regard to the mystical signification of the passe of the ground, he ate it, as also did the other guests: after over, we know generally from St. Paul (1 Cor. v. 7.), who which all the dishes were removed from the table, that the calls Jesus Christ our passover, that this Jewish sacrament children might inquire and be instructed in the nature of the had a typical reference to him: but concerning the points of feast. (Exod. xii. 25, 26.). The text on which they generally resemblance between the type and anti-type, learned men discoursed was Deut. xxvi. 5–11. In like manner our Sa- are not agreed. Godwins has enumerated thirteen points of viour makes use of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, to coincidence ; Dr. Lightfoot, seventeen ; and Keach, nineteen. declare the great mercy of God in our redemption; for it The most judicious arrangement of this subject which we shows forth the Lord's death till he come to judge the world. have seen is that of Herman Witsius, who has treated it The continual remembrance of the sacrifice of the death of under four general heads, viz. the person of Christ,--the Christ, and of the benefits we receive thereby,” which has sufferings he bore for us,—the fruits of those sufferings,been observed ever since the time of the apostles, is a per- and the manner in which we are made partakers of them. manent and irrefragable argument for the reality of that As, however, many of the analogies which Witsius has traced full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction between the passover and the death of Christ are very fancifor the sins of the whole world,” which was made by Jesus ful, his arrangement only has been adopted in the following Christ“ by his one oblation of himself” upon the cross; in observations : opposition to the opinion of those who deny the divinity of (1.). The Person OF CHRIST WAS TYPIFIED BY THE Pasour Saviour, and the vicarious nature of his death.
CHAL LAMB. (4.) Then replacing the supper, they explained the import “ The animal sacrifice at the passover was to be a lamb of the bitter herbs and paschal lamb; and over the second without blemish. (Exod. xii. 5.) Christ is styled the Lamb cup of wine repeated the hundred and thirteenth and hundred of God, which taketh away thé sin of the world (John i. and fourteenth psalms, with an eucharistic prayer.
29. 36.); a lamb without blemish and without spot. (1 Pet. (5.) The hands were again washed, accompanied by an i. 19. See Isa. liii. 7.), The paschal lamb was to be one ejaculatory prayer; after which the master of the house pro- of the flock. Christ the Word who was made flesh, and ceeded to break and bless a cake of the unleavened bread, dwelt among us (John i. 14.), was taken from the midst of which he distributed among the guests, reserving half of the the people, being in all things made like unto his brethren.” cake beneath a napkin, if necessary, for the aphicomen, or (Heb. ii. 17.). last morsel; for the rule was, to conclude with eating a (2.) THE SUFFERINGS AND DEATH OF CHRIST WERE ALSO small piece of the paschal lamb, or, after the destruction of TYPIFIED BY THE PASCHAL LAMB IN VARIOUS PARTICULARS. the temple, of unleavened bread. In like manner our Lord, “The sacrifice of the passover differed from other sacriupon instituting the sacrament of the eucharist, which was
3 Clarke on the Eucharist, p. 39. On this part of the institution of
the prefigured by the passover, took bread; and having blessed Lord's supper, Di. Lightfoot has the following admirable reinarks:-"This or given thanks to God, he brake it, and gave it to his disci- is my blood of the New Testament. Not only the seal of the covenant, ples, saying, Tuke, eat, this is (that is, signifies) my body, and the confirming of a new
. The end of the Mosaic economy,
The confirmation of the old covenant which is given for you. This do in remembrance of me. (Matt. was by the blood of bulls and of goats (Exod. xxiv. Heb. ix.), because xxvi. 26. Mark xiv. 22. Luke xxii. 19. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 29.) In blood was still to be shed: the confirmation of the new was by a cup of the communion service of the Anglican Church, the spirit wine; because under the new covenant there is no further shedding of and design both of the type and antitype are most expres- my blood; so it might be said of the cup of blood. (Exod. xxiv.) That cup sively condensed into one point of view in the following wus the Old Testament in the blood of Christ : there all the articles of that address to the communicant:—“Take and eat this in Re- covenant being read over, Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, and MEMBRANCE that Christ died for thee, and feed upon him in said Hais osathe blood of the corenant which God hath made with you, and thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving.'
Christ, having published all the articles of the new covenant, he takes the (6.) They then ate the rest of the cake with the bitter cup of wine, and gives them to drink, and saith, This is the New Testa. fices, in being a public act of the whole people : it was to be shed for many for the remission of sins, can the impending slain by the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel.' wrath of heaven be averted from sinful man. Before the (Exod. xii. 6.) The chief priests, and the rulers, and the blood of our Lord was sprinkled upon his church, we stood people, were consenting to the death of Jesus. (Luke xxiii. (as it were) without, exposed, like the Egyptians, to the 13.) The blood of the passover was, at its first institution, vengeance of a justly incensed God: but now his precious o be sprinkled upon the lintel, and the two side-posts (Exod. blood-shedding, like the sprinkled blood of the paschal lamb, xii. 7. 22.), for the protection of the people; and in the sub- is our safety and defence, so that the anger of Jehovah may sequent celebration of the paschal sacrifice, the priests pass over us. The death of the paschal lamb was for the sprinkled the blood which they received of the hand of the deliverance of the Levitical church; yet, if any negligent or Levites.? (2 Chron. xxx. 16. xxxv. 11.) It is by the sprink- unbelieving Israelite availed not himself of the proffered ling of the blood of Jesus Christ, that our consciences are refuge, he perished undistinguished with the Egyptians : purged (Heb. ix. 14.), and protection and salvation obtained. thus likewise the death of the Lamb of God was for the de(Heb. xii. 24. 1 Pet. i. 2.) The passover was to be eaten liverance of the Christian church ; but, if any one claims to by the Israelites, in the character of travellers, with their be a Christian in name, while yet he renounces the doctrine loins girded, their shoes upon their feet, and their staff in of pardon and acceptance through the sprinkled blood of the their hand. (Exod. xii. 11.) They, for whom Christ is sa- Messiah, he then places himself without the doors of the crificed, are compared to strangers and pilgrims (1 Pet. ii. church, and will be strictly judged according to his works 11.), and are commanded to stand, having their loins girt by a law which pronounces that man accursed who observes about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteous, not with undeviating punctuality all the commandments ness, and their feet shod with the preparation of the gospel which it has enjoined. (Gal. iii. 10.) From the creation to of peace. (Eph. vi. 15.). The Israelites were to eat the pass-the day of judgment, there have been, and are, and can be, over in haste. (Exod. xii
ment in my blood, and thus the new covenant was established."-(Works,
vol. ii. p. 260.) Hor. Heb. on Matt. xxvi. 27. 1 This custom, Beausobre well observes, will explain several passages Lightfoot's Temple Service, c. xiji. (Works, vol. i. pp. 959—967.) See of Scripture, particularly those in which mention is made of Abraham's also Mr. Ainsworth's learned and interesting notes on Exod. xii. in his bosom (Luke xvi. 22.), and of the Son's being in the bosom of the Father. Annotations on the Pentateuch. (John i. 18. compared with Phil . ii. 6. and John xiii. 23.)
* Godwin's Moses and Aaron, pp. 114, 115. 2 In this part of the paschal ceremony, among the modern Jews, after Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 1008, 1009. the master of the house has reserved the portion for the aphicomen, the Keach's Key to ścripture Metaphors, pp. 979, 980. 2d edit. See also bone of the lamb and the egg are taken off the dish, and all at table lay M'Ewen on the Types, pp. 148–152. hold of the dish and say,–*Lo! this is (or signifies) the bread of afflic- • Witsius, de &conomia Federum, lib. iv. c. 9. 8535–58. or vol. ii. pp. tion, which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt; let all those who are 275–282. of the English translation. Witsius's View of the Mystical Imhungry
eat thereof; and all who are necessitous, come, and celebrate the port of the Passover has been abridged by Dr. Jennings. Jewish Antiq. Passover." Form of Prayers for the Festivals of Passover and Pente. book iii. ch. iv. pp. 472–477. cost, according to the custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, trans- 9 Chevallier's Hulsean Lectures, on the Historical Types of the Old lated from the Hebrew by David Levi, p. 20.
Testament, p. 285.
. 11.) We are to give diligence to no more than two covenants; that of works, and that of grace. make our calling and election sure (2 Pet. i. 10.); and to Under the one or the other of these compacts, every man flee for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us. (Heb. must arrange himself.”3 vi. 18.) The passover was to be sacrificed only in the taber- Lastly, the passover was to be eaten with unleavened nacle, and afterwards only in the temple at Jerusalem. bread : nor is itin vain that leaven is so often and so expressly (Deut. xvi. 5, 6.) Neither could it be that Christ should forbidden to those who are invited to eat of the lamb, for in perish out of Jerusalem. (Luke xiii. 33.) The month, and Scripture leaven is the symbol of corruption, and especially day of the month, on which the passover was to be sacrificed of hypocrisy. Hence, St. Paul, speaking of Christ the true by the Israelites, is laid down with accuracy. And on the paschal lamb, exhorts Christians to keep the feast, not with very day on which the passover ought to be slain (Luke old leaven, neither with leaven of malice and wickedness, but with xxii. 7. "Er » EAEI Questue To Tx0X2), and on which Christ the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. (2 Cor. v. 7, 8.)" celebrated the paschal feast with disciples, he endured On the second day of the festival (the sixteenth of the his agony and bloody sweat ; and he suffered death upon the month Nisan) was offered the sheaf of the first-fruits of the cross, on the day when, at least the scribes and Pharisees, barley harvest, which was usually ripe at this season, as a and some of the principal men among the Jews, did • eat the grateful acknowledgment of the goodness of God, in bestowpassover. (John xviii. 28.) Further, not a bone of the pas- ing upon them both the former and the latter rains (Jer. v. chal victim was to be broken, (Exod. xii. 46.)—a typical cir- 21.), and also of his right to confer or withhold them as cumstance, which the evangelist specially notices as fulfilled he pleases. It was accompanied with a particular sacriin the person of Jesus Christ. (John xix. 32–36.)
fice, the circumstances of which are detailed in Lev. xxiii. “ Another peculiarity in the paschal offering is the time of 9–14. the day at which it was appointed to be slain. The whole V. The second of the three great Jewish festivals was the assembly of the congregation shall kill it in the evening, Feast of Pentecost, which is called by various names in (Exod. xii. 6.); or, as the expression is rendered in the mar- the Sacred Writings; as the feast of weeks (Exod. xxxiv. 22. gin, between the two evenings.—Now at the very time ap- Deut. xvi. 10. 16.), because it was celebrated seven weeks pointed for the sacrifice of the paschal lamb, between the or a week of weeks after the first day of unleavened bread; two evenings, Christ our passover was sacrificed for us. The —the feast of harvest (Exod. xxiii. 16.), and also the day of scene of suffering began at the third hour of the day. (Mark first-fruits (Num. xviii. 26.), because on this day the Jews xv. 25.) And at the sixth hour there was darkness over all offered thanksgivings to God for the bounties of harvest, and the land until the ninth hour. (Matt. xxvii. 45. Mark xv. 33. presented to him the first-fruits of the wheat harvest, in Luke xxiii. 44.) And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried with bread baked of the new corn. (Exod. xxiii. 16. Lev. xxiii. a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. (Matt. xxvii. 46. 50. 14—21. Num. xxviii. 26–31.) The form of thanksgiving Mark xv. 34. 37.)”i
for this occasion is given in Deut. xxvi. 5—10. On this day (3.) Several of the Fruits of Christ's DEATH were also was commemorated the giving of the law on Mount REMARKABLY TYPIFIED BY THE SACRIFICE OF THE PASCHAL Sinai. The Greek word Pentecost, TertnXEOT(Acts ii. 1. LAMB.
xx. 16.), is derived from the circumstance of its being kept Such are protection and salvation by his blood, of which on the fiftieth day after the first day of unleavened bread. the sprinkling of the door-posts with the blood of the lamb, The number of Jews assembled at Jerusalem on this joyous and the safety which the Israelites by that means enjoyed occasion was very great.5. This festival had a typical referfrom the plague that spread through all the families of the ence to the miraculous effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the Egyptians, was a designed and illustrious emblem. In allu- apostles and first-fruits of the Christian church on the day of sion to this type, the blood of Christ is called the blood of Pentecost (corresponding with our Whit-Sunday), on the sprinkling. (1 Pet. i. 2. Heb. xii. 21.) Immediately upon the fiftieth day after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Israelites eating the first passover, they were delivered from VI. The Feast OF TABERNACLES, like the preceding festitheir Egyptian slavery, and restored to full liberty, of which val, continued for a week. It was instituted to commemothey had been deprived for many years; and such is the fruit rate the dwelling of the Israelites in tents while they of the death of Christ, in a spiritual and much nobler sense, wandered in the desert. (Lev. xxiii, 34. 43.) Hence it is to all that believe in him; for he hath thereby obtained called by St. John the feast of tents (rxavettugle, John vii. 2.)? eternal redemption for us," and " brought us into the glorious It is likewise termed the feast of ingatherings. (Exod. xxiii. liberty of the children of God.” (Heb. ix. 12. Rom. viii. 16. xxxiv. 22.) Further, the design of this feast was, to 21.)2
return thanks to God for the fruits of the vine, as well as of (4.) THE MANNER IN WHICH WE ARE TO BE MADE PAR- other trees, which were gathered about this time, and also to TAKERS OF THE BLESSED Fruits of the SACRIFICE OF CHRIST, implore his blessing upon those of the ensuing year. The WERE ALSO REPRESENTED BY LIVELY EMBLEMS IN THE PASS- following were the principal ceremonies observed in the celeOVER.
bration of this feast :“The paschal lamb was ordered to be slain, and his blood was directed to be sprinkled upon the lintel and the door- 3 Faber's Horæ Mosaicæ, vol. ii, p. 273. posts of each dwelling occupied by God's chosen people; * Witsius on the Covenants, book vi. ch. ix. $ 54. vol. ii. p. 280. that, when the angel smote the Egyptians, he might pass
s Acts ii. 9-11. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. ii. c. 3. $1. over the houses of the Israelites and leave them secure from vol
. 1. p. 179. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 960. Michaelis's Commentaries,
• Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 321–323. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, danger : in a similar manner, by the blood of Christ alone, vol. iii. p. 184. Relandi Antiq. Hebr. p. 472. Alber, Inst. Herm. Vet. Test.
tom. i. pp. 172, 173. 1 Chevallier's Lectures, pp. 287–289.
A similar appellation is given by Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xi. c 5. $5. 9 Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iij. ch. iv. pp. 474, 475. lib. viii. c. 4. $1.
1. During the whole of this solemnity they were obliged the temple with more than usual solemnity: (Num. xxix. 1. to dwell in tents, which anciently were pitched on the flat Lev. xxiii. 24.)... On this festival they abstained from all terrace-like roofs of their houses. (Neh. viii. 16.)
labour (Lev. xxiii. 25.), and offered particular sacrifices to 2. Besides the ordinary daily sacrifices, there were several God, which are described in Num. xxix. 1–6. extraordinary ones offered on this occasion, which are de- 2. The other feast alluded to was the Fast or FEAST OF tailed in Num. xxix.
Expiation, or DAY OF ATONEMENT ; which day the Jews 3. During the continuance of this feast, they carried in observed as a most strict fast, abstaining from all servile their hands branches of palm trees, olives, citrons, myrtles, work, taking no food, and afflicting their souls. (Lev. xxiii. 27 and willows (Lev. xxiii. 40. Neh. viii. 15. 2 Macc. x. 7.);' |—30.) Of all the sacrifices ordained by the Mosaic law, the singing Hosanna, save I beseech thee (Psal. cxviii. 25.), in sacrifice of the atonement was the most solemn and importwhich words they prayed for the coming of the Messiah. ant: it was offered on the tenth day of the month Tisri, by These branches also bore the name of Hosanna, as well as the high-priest alone, for the sins of the whole nation. all the days of the feast. In the same manner was Jesus “On this day only, in the course of the year, was the highChrist conducted into Jerusalem by the believing Jews, who, priest permitted to enter the sanctuary,6 and not even then considering him to be the promised Messiah, expressed their without due preparation, under pain of death ; all others boundless joy at finding in him the accomplishment of those being excluded from the tabernacle during the whole cerepetitions, which they had so often offered to God for his mony. (Lev. xvi. 2. 17.) Previously to his entrance he was coming, at the feast of tabernacles. (Matt. xxi. 8, 9.) Dur- to wash himself in water, and to put on the holy linen garing its continuance, they walked in procession round the ments, with the mitre; and to bring a young bullock into the altar with the above-mentioned branches in their hands, amid outer sanctuary, and present it before the Lord to be a sinthe sound of trumpets, singing Hosanna; and on the last or offering for himself and his household, including the priests seventh day of the feast, they compassed the altar seven and Levites, and a ram also for a burnt-offering. (xvi. 3, 4.) times. This was 'called the Great Hosanna. To this last Next, he was to take two young goats, and present them ceremony St. John probably alludes in Rev. vii. 9, 10., where before the Lord, at the door of the tabernacle, to be a sinhe describes the saints as standing before the throne, clothed offering for the whole congregation of Israel, and a ram also with white robes, and palms in their hands; and saying, Sal- for a burnt-offering. (xvi. 5.) He was then to cast lots upon vation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the the two goats, which of them should be sacrificed as a sinLamb."
offering to the Lord, and which should be let go for a scape4. One of the most remarkable ceremonies performed at goat into the wilderness. . After this, he was first to this feast in the later period of the Jewish polity, was the sacrifice the bullock as a sin-offering for himself and his libation or pouring out of water, drawn from the fountain or household, and to take some of the blood into the inner pool of Siloam, upon the altar. As, according to the Jews sanctuary, bearing in his hand a censer with incense burning, themselves,2 this water was an emblem of the Holy Spirit, kindled at the sacred fire on the altar, and to sprinkle the blood Jesus Christ applied the ceremony and the intention of it to with his finger upon the mercy-seat, and before it, seven nimself when he cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him times, to purify it from the pollution it might be supposed to come unto me and drink.” (John vii. 37. 39.)
have contracted from his sins and transgressions during the On the last day, that great day of the feast (John vii. 37.), preceding year. He was then to sacrifice the allotted goat the Jews fetched water from that fountain in a golden pitcher, for the sins of the whole nation, and to enter the inner sancwhich they brought through the water-gate into the temple, tuary a second time, and to sprinkle it with blood as before, with great rejoicing. The officiating priest poured it, mixed to purify it from the pollution of the people's sins and transwith wine, upon the morning sacrifice, as it lay on the altar. gressions of the foregoing year. After which, he was to The Jews seem to have adopted this custom (for it is not purify, in like manner, the tabernacle and the altar. He was ordained in the law of Moses) as an emblem of future bless- next to bring the live goat, and lay both his hands upon its ings, in allusion to this passage of Isaiah (xii. 3.), With head, and confess over him all the iniquities, transgressions, joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation : expres- and sins of the children of Israel, putting them upon the head sions that can hardly be understood of any benefits afforded of the goat, and then to send him away by the hand of a fit by the Mosaic dispensation. Water was offered to God this person into the wilderness, to bear away upon him all their day, partly in reference to the water which flowed from the iniquities to a land of separation, where they should be rock in the wilderness (1 Cor. x. 4.), but chiefly to solicit remembered no more. After this atonement he was to put the blessing of rain on the approaching seed-time.3
off his linen garments, and leave them in the sanctuary, and No festival was celebrated with greater rejoicing than this, to wash himself again in water, and put on his usual garwhich Josephus calls “ a most holy and most eminent feast.”ments; and then to offer burnt-offerings for himself and for Dancing, music, and feasting were the accompaniments of the people, at the evening sacrifice. (Lev. xvi. 3–28.). The this festival, together with such brilliant illuminations as whole of this process seems to be typical or prefigurative of lighted the whole city of Jerusalem. These rejoicings are the grand atonement to be made for the sins of the whole supposed to have taken place in the court of the women, in world by Jesus Christ, the high-priest of our profession (Heb. order that they might be partakers of the general hilarity.5 iii
. 1.), and a remarkable analogy thereto may be traced in In every seventh year the law of Moses was also read in the course of our Lord's ministry. He began it with perpublic, in the presence of all the people. (Deut. xxxi. 10—sonal purification at his baptism, to fulfil all legal righteous12. Neh. viii. 18.)
ness. (Matt. iii. 13—15.) Immediately after his baptism, he VII. To the three grand annual festivals above described, was led, by the impulse of the Holy Spirit, into the wilderMoses added two others, which were celebrated with great ness, as the true scape-goat, who bore away our infirmities
, solemnity, though the presence of every male Israelite was not and carried off our diseases. (Isa. liii. 4—6. Matt. viii. 17.) absolutely required.
Immediately before his crucifixion, he was aflicted, and his soul 1. The first of these was the Feast or TRUMPETS, and was was exceeding sorrowful unto death, when he was to be made held on the first and second days of the month Tisri, which a sin-offering like the allotted goat (Psal. xl. 12. Isa. liii. 7. was the commencement of the civil year of the Hebrews: Matt. xxvi. 38. 2 Cor. v. 21. Heb. i. 3.); and his sweat, as this feast derived its name from the blowing of trumpets in great drops of blood, falling to the ground, corresponded to the
sprinkling of the mercy-seat (Luke xxii. 44.); and when, to Lamy adds, that the Jews tied these branches with gold and silver prepare for the sacrifice of himself, he consecrated himself in ing them into their synagogues, and keeping them by them while they were prayer to God (John xvii. 1–5. Matt. xxvi. 39–46.); and
then prayed for his household, his apostles, and disciples 9 The sense of the Jews is in this matter plainly shown by the following (John xvii. 6—9.), and for all future believers on him by passage of the Jerusalem Talmud :- Why is it called the place or house their preaching. (John xvii. 20—26.) He put off his garten, And ye shall draw water with joy from the wells of Salvation." Wolfii ments at his crucifixion, when he became the sin-offering Curre
Philol. in N. T. on John vii. 37. 39. Lowth's Isaiah. vol. ii. p. 117. (Psal. xxii. 18. John xix. 23, 24.); and, as our spiritual high• Bp. Lowth’s Isaiah, vol. ii
. p. 117. Doyly's and Mant's Bible, on John priest, entered once for all into the most holy place, heaven, vii. 37
• Ant. Jud. lib. viii. c. 4. $1. The greatness of these rejoicings, and to make intercession with God for all his faithful followers, their happening at the time of vintage, led Tacitus erroneously to suppose (Heb. vii. 24—28. ix. 7—15.). Who died for our sins, and that the Jews were accustomed to sacrifice to Bacchus. Tacit. Hist. lib. rose again for our justification.” (Rom. iv. 25.) V. c. 5. (tom. iii. p. 268. edit. Bipont.)
* Schulžii Archæol. Heb. pp. 323–326. Relandi Antiq. Heb. p. 477. 6 When the tabernacle was to be removed; and set up again, the inner Ikenii Antiq. Heb. pp. 134, 136. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 964. vol. ii
. sanctuary might safely be entered, but not at other times. pp. 611-643. Leusden's Philologus Hebræo-Mixtus, p. 295. Beausobre's Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. pp. 274. 276. See also Jennings's Introd. to the New Test. (Bp, Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. pp. 224, 225.) Har Jewish Antiquities, book iii
. ch. vii. Alber, Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. i. mer's Observations, vol. i. p. 13.
pp. 174–176. Lightfoot's Works, vol. 1. pp. 361, 962. Relandi, Antiq. Hebr.
VIII. Besides the annual festivals above described, the by the Jews in later ages, though not appointed by Moses. Jews in later times introduced several fast and feast days in such are the fast of the fourth month, on account of the takaddition to those instituted by Moses. The two principal ing of Jerusalem by the Chaldæans (Jer. lii. 6, 7.); the fast festivals of this kind were the Feast of Purim, and that of the of the
fifth month, on account of their burning the temple and Dedication of the Second Temple.
city (2 Kings xxv. 8.); and that of the seventh month, on 1. The Feast OF Purim, or of Lots, as the word signifies, account of the murder of Gedaliah (2 Kings xxv. 25.); and is celebrated on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month the fast of the tenth month, when the Babylonjan army comof Adar (or of Ve-Adar if it be an intercalary year), in com- menced the siege of Jerusalem. (Jer. lii. 4.) áll these fasts memoration of the providential deliverance of the Jews from are enumerated together in Zech. viii. 19., and to them we the cruel machinations of Haman, who had procured an edict may, perhaps, add the xylophoria, or feast of wood-offering, from Artaxerxes to extirpate them. (Esth. iii.-ix.) On this when the people brought and offered large quantities of wood occasion the entire book of Esther is read in the synagogues for the use of the altar: it is supposed to have been celebrated of the modern Jews, not out of a printed copy, but from a roll in the time of Nehemiah (x. 34. xiii
. 31.), in whose praises, which generally contains this book alone. All Jews, of both on this occasion, the Jews largely expatiated, and related sexes, and of every age, who are able to attend, are required several wonderful tales concerning him and the fire lighted to come to this feast and to join in the reading, for the better upon the altar. (2 Macc. i. 18–22.) Nine days were appropreservation of the memory of this important fact. When the priated to this festival, viz. The first of Nisan, the 20th of roll is unfolded, the chazan or reader says, “ Blessed be God, Tammuz, the 5th, 7th, 10th, 15th, and 20th of Ab, the 20th the King of the world, who hath sanctified us by his precepts, of Elul, and the 1st of Tebeth. and commanded us to read the Megillah! Blessed be God, IX. The preceding are the chief annual festivals noticed who in those days worked miracles for our fathers !” As in the Sacred Writings, that are particularly deserving of often as the name of Haman occurs, the whole congregation attention: the Jews have various others of more modern inclap their hands, stamp with their feet, and exclaim, “Let stitution, which are here designedly omitted. We therefore his name be blotted out! May the memory of the wicked proceed to notice those extraordinary festivals which were rot!” The children at the same time hiss, and strike loudly celebrated only after the recurrence of a certain number of on the forms with little wooden hammers made for the pur- years. pose. When the reader comes to the seventh, eighth, and 1. The first of these was the SABBATICAL YEAR. For, as ninth chapters, where the names of Haman's ten sons occur, the seventh day of the week was consecrated as a day of he pronounces them with great rapidity, and in one breath, to rest to man and beast, so this gave rest to the land; which, intimate that they were all hanged, and expired in the same during its continuance, was to lie fallow, and the "Sabbath moment. In most manuscripts and editions of the book of of the land,” or its spontaneous produce, was dedicated to Esther, the ten names contained in the chapters just men- charitable uses, to be enjoyed by the servants of the family, tioned are written under each other in ten lines, no other word by the way faring stranger, and by the cattle. (Lev. xxv. 1 being connected with them, in order to exhibit the manner in 1-7. Exod. xxiii
. 11.) This was also the year of release which they were hanged, viz. on a pole fifty cubits, that is, from personal slavery (Exod. xxi. 2.), as well as of the seventy-five feet high; each of the brothers being immedi- remission of debts. (Deut. xv. 1, 2.) Beausobre is of opinion ately suspended, the one under the cther, in one perpendicular that the frequent mention made in the New Testament of the line.
remission of sins is to be understood as an allusion to the When the chazan has finished the reading, the whole con- sabbatical year. In order to guard against famine on this and gregation exclaim-Cursed be Haman !-Blessed be Mor- the ensuing year, God was graciously, pleased to promise a decai !-Cursed be Zeresh! -Blessed be Esther !Cursed triple produce of the lands upon the sixth year, sufficient to be all idolaters !-Blessed be all the Israelites !-And blessed supply the inhabitants till the fruits or harvest sown in the likewise be Harbonah, at whose instance Haman was hang- eighth year were ripe. (Lev. xxv. 2—22.) This was a sined!" In order to heighten the general joy on this festival, gular institution, peculiar to a theocracy: And the breach Buxtorf relates that some Jews wore party-coloured garments, of it was among the national sins that occasioned the captivity, and young foxes' tails in their hats, and ran about the syna- that the land might enjoy her Sabbaths, of which she had been gogue exciting the congregation to laughter! Further, to defrauded by the rebellion of the inhabitants. (Lev. xxvi. 34. excite and increase mirth, the men and women exchange 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21.) apparel; this, though positively forbidden by the law, they 2. The JUBILEE was a more solemn sabbatical year, held consider innocent, and allowable on this festive occasion, every seventh sabbatical year, that is, at the end of every which is a season of peculiar gayety. Alms are given to the forty-nine years, or the fiftieth current year. (Lev. xxv. 8-, poor; relations and friends send presents to each other; and 10.) Concerning the etymology of the Hebrew word jobel all furnish their tables with every luxury they can command. (whence our jubilee is derived) learned men are by no means These two days are the bacchanalia of the modern Jews; agreed; the most probable of these conflicting opinions is who think it no sin to indulge themselves largely in their that of Calmet, who deduces it from the Hebrew verb hobil, cups, some of them indeed to intoxication, in memory of to recall, or bring back; because estates, &c. that had been Esther's banquet of wine; at which she succeeded in defeat- alienated were then brought back to their original owners. ing the sanguinary designs of Haman.!
Such appears to have been the meaning of the word, as un2. The Feast of DedicaTION (mentioned in John x. 22.) derstood by the Septuagint translators, who render the Hewas instituted by Judas Maccabæus, in imitation of those by brew word jobel by aperis
, remission, and by Josephus, who Solomon and Ezra, as a grateful memorial of the cleansing says that it signified liberty.. of the second temple and altar, after they had been profaned This festival commenced on the tenth day of the month by Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Macc. iv. 52–59.) 'It com- Tisri, in the evening of the day of atonement (Lev. xxv. menced on the twenty-fifth of the month Cisleu, correspond-9.): a time, Bishop Patrick remarks, peculiarly well chosen, ing with our December, and lasted eight days. This festival as the Jews would be better disposed to forgive their brethren was also called the feast of lights, because the Jews illumi- their debts when they had been imploring pardon of God for nated their houses in testimony of their joy and gladness on their own transgressions. It was proclaimed by the sound this very important occasion. The whole of this feast was of trumpet throughout the whole land, on the great day of spent in singing hymns, offering sacrifices, and every kind atonement. All debts were to be cancelled; all slaves or of diversion 3 it was celebrated with much solemnity in the captives were to be released. Even those who had voluntatime of Josephus.
rily relinquished their freedom at the end of their six years' Besides these two festivals, we find several others inci- service, and whose ears had been bored in token of their dentally mentioned in the Old Testament, as being observed perpetual servitude, were to be liberated at the jubilee: for
then they were to proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto p. 491. et seq. Schulzii Archäol. Hebr. pp. 328–334. The typical refer- all the inhabitants thereof. (Lev. xxv. 10.) Further, in this ence of the sacrifice offered on this day is discussed at considerable year all estates that had been sold, reverted to their original length by Witsius, de Econ. Fæd. lib. iv. c. 6. or vol. ii. pp. 213—231, of proprietors, or to the families to which they had originally the English translation. On the manner in which this fact is observed by the inodern Jews, see Allen's Modern Judaism, pp. 391–399.
4 Schulzii Archäol. Hebr. p. 316. Pictet. Antiq. Judaiques, p. 37. 1 Buxtorf de Synagog. Jud. cap. 29. Iken. Antiq. Hebr. pp. 336–338. (Theologie Chrétienne, tom. iii.) Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 334, 335. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 405. Dr. Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 337–339. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. Clarke's Commentary on Esther.
1. pp. 387. et seq. Leusden, Philol. Hebr. Mixt. p. 307. Reland's Antjq. ? Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 7. $$ 6, 7.
Hebr. p. 524. Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i: p. 278. Beausobre and 3 Schulzii Archæol
. Hebr. pp. 335, 336. Lamy, vol. i. p. 186. Lightfoot's L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 124. Jennings's Jewish Works, vol. i. pp. 246.979. vol. ii. pp. 576. 1033. 1039. Relandi Antiq. Heb. Antiq. book iii. ch. 9. P. 534.
6 Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. $3.
belonged this provision was made, that no family should providing, in a particular manner by this law, that they be totally ruined, and doomed to perpetual poverty for the should not be thrown away through their own folly ; since family estate could not be alienated for a longer period than the property, which every man or family had in their divififty years. The value and purchase-money of estates there- dend of the land of Canaan, could not be sold or any way fore diminished in proportion to the near approach of the alienated for above half a century. By this means, also, the jubilee. (Lev. xxv. 15.) From this privilege, however, distinction of tribes was preserved, in respect both to their houses in walled towns were excepted these were to be families and possessions ; for this law rendered it necessary redeemed within a year, otherwise they belonged to the pur- for them to keep genealogies of their families, that they chaser, notwithstanding the jubilee. (ver. 30.) During this might be able when there was occasion, on the jubilee year, year, as well as in the sabbatical year, the ground also had to prove their right to the inheritance of their ancestors. By its rest, and was not cultivated.1
this means it was certainly known from what tribe and The law concerning the sabbatical year, and especially family the Messiah sprung. Upon which Dr. Allix observes, the year of jubilee, affords a decisive proof of the divine that God did not suffer them to continue in captivity out of legation of Moses. No legislator, unless he was conscious their own land for the space of two jubilees, lest by that that he was divinely inspired, would have committed himself means their genealogies should be lost or confounded. A by enacting such a law : nor can any thing like it be found further civil use of the jubilee might be for the easier comamong the systems of jurisprudence of any other nations, putation of time. For, as the Greeks computed by olymwhether ancient or modern. “ How incredible is it that any piads, the Romans by lustra, and we by centuries, the Jews legislator would have ventured to propose such a law as probably reckoned by jubilees; and it might be one design this, except in consequence of the fullest conviction on both of this institution to mark out these large portions of time sides, that a peculiar providence would constantly facilitate for the readier computation of successive ages. its execution. When this law, therefore, was proposed and “ There was also a typical design and use of the jubilee, received, such a conviction must have existed in both the which is pointed out by the prophet Isaiah, when he says, in Jewish legislator and the Jewish people. Since, then, reference to the Messiah, "The Spirit of the Lord God is nothing could have produced this conviction, but the expe- upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good rience or the belief of some such miraculous interposition as tidings unto the meek: he hath sent me to bind up the the history of the Pentateuch details, the very existence of broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the this law is a standing monument that, when it was given, opening of the prison to them that are bound, to proclaim the Mosaic miracles were fully believed. Now this law was the acceptable year of the Lord.” (Isa. lxi. 1, 2.) Where coeval with the witnesses themselves. If, then, the facts ' the acceptable year of the Lord,? when • liberty' was prowere so plain and public, that those who witnessed them claimed to the captives,' and the opening of the prison to could not be mistaken as to their existence or miraculous them that were bound,' evidently refers to the jubilee; but, nature, the reality of the Mosaic miracles is clear and unde- in the prophetic sense, means the Gospel state and dispensaniable."2
tion, which proclaims spiritual liberty from the bondage of The reason and design of the law of the jubilee was partly sin and Satan, and the liberty of returning to our own pospolitical and partly typical. “It was political, to prevent session, even the heavenly inheritance, to which, having the too great oppression of the poor as well as their liability incurred a forfeiture by sin, we had lost all right and claim." to perpetual slavery; By this means the rich were prevented That our Lord began his public ministry, on a jubilee, Dr. from accumulating lands upon lands, and a kind of equality Hales thinks, is evident from his declaration : The LORD was preserved through all the families of Israel. Never was hath anointed me (as THE CHRIST) to preach the Gospel to there any people sa effectually secure of their liberty and the poor: he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to property as the Israelites were: God not only engaging so proclaim deliverance to the captives, and restoration of sight to protect those invaluable blessings by his providence, that to the blind; to set at liberty the bruised ; to proclaim the they should not be taken away from them by others; but acceptable year of the LORD." (Luke iv. 18, 19.)
SACRED OBLIGATIONS AND DUTIES,
1. Nuture of Vows.—How far acceptable-to God.—II. Requisites essential to the Validity of a Vow.—III. Different Sorts of
Vows :- 1. The Cherim, or Irremissible Vow.—. Other Vows, that might be redeemed.-Of the Nazareate. I. A yow is a religious engagement or promise voluntarily | Mark vii. 9–13. Christ himself notices the vow of Korban undertaken by a person towards Almighty God.“ Unless (already considered), which was common in his time, and the Deity has expressly declared his acceptance of human by which a man consecrated to God what he was bound to vows, it can at best be but a very doubtful point, whether they apply to the support of his parents; and he declares it to be are acceptable in his sight; and if they are not so, we cannot so impious that we cannot possibly hold it to be aceeptable deduce from them the shadow of an obligation; for it is not to God. In the New Testament, no vows whatever are oblifrom a mere offer alone, but from an offer of one party, and gatory, because God has nowhere declared that he will accept its acceptance by another, that the obligation to fulfil an en-them from Christians. But the people of Israel had such a gagement arises. The divine acceptance of vows, we can declaration from God himself; although even they were not by no means take for granted; considering that from our counselled or encouraged to make vows. In consequence of vows God can derive no benefit, and that, in general, they this declaration, the vows of the Israelites were binding; and are of just as little use to man." In Matt. xv. 4—6. and that not only in a moral view, but according to the national
Leusden, Philol. Hebræo-Mixt. p. 309. Michaelis's Commentaries, law; and tħe priest was authorized to enforce and estimate vol. i. pp. 376-386.
their fulfilment. The principal passages relating to this 2 Dr. Graves's Lectures on the Pentateuch, vol. i. p. 171. 3 Jennings's Jewish Antiq. book ii. ch. x. pp. 511, 542. Schulzii Archæol. 12, 23.5
point are Lev. xxvii. Num. xxx. and Deat. xxiii. 18. 21, * Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. p. 279. Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. II. In order to render a vow valid, Moses requires,
The best practical illustration we have seen, of the analogy be- 1. " That it be actually uttered with the mouth, and not ween the Mosaic jubilee and the Gospel, is to be found in the late Rev. merely made in the heart. In Num. xxx. 3. 7. 9. 13. and the 25th October, 1809, on the occasion of King George Ill.'s entering on Deut. xxiii. 24. he repeatedly calls it the expression of the the fiftieth year of his reign. • Michaelis's Conumentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. ii. p. 263. 6 Michaelis's Commentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. ii. pp. 264--266. VOL. II.