for the Sabbath-day, in order to do it honour; and that they actually had Sabbath-feasts, to which they even invited persons with whom they were unacquainted.i

The Sabbath commenced at sunset, and closed at the same time on the following day. (Matt. viii. 16. Mark i. 32.) Whatever was necessary was prepared on the latter part of the preceding day, that is, of our Friday: hence, the day preceding the Sabbath (prabarev) is in the New Testament termed the preparation (rapan), in Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark xv. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. and John xix. 14. 31. 42.2

2. We know not with certainty from the Mosaic writings what constituted the most ancient worship of the Israelites on the Sabbath-day. It is however, evident from the New Testament, that the celebration of this day chiefly consisted in the religious exercises which were then performed: though there is no injunction recorded, except that a burnt-offering of two lambs should on that day be added to the morning and evening sacrifices (Num. xxviii. 9.); and that the shewbread should be changed. (Lev. xxiv. 8.) In the synagogues the Sacred Writings were read and expounded, to which was sometimes added a discourse or sermon by some doctor or eminent teacher. (Luke iv. 16. Acts xiii. 15.) Prayer also appears to have formed a part of their sacred worship in the synagogue, and especially in the temple. (1 Sam. i. 9, 10. 1 Kings viii. 29, 30. 33. Psal. xxvii. 2. Luke xviii. 10. Acts ii. 15. and iii. 1.)

With what reverence the Jews regarded their temple, we have already seen: and in proportion to the sanctity of the place was the solemn and holy behaviour required of all who came to worship there. The law, indeed, had prohibited the approach of all uncleanness; but to the enactments of Moses the great masters of traditions added a variety of other trifling regulations, which the law had not named, while they scruple not to make the "house of prayer" a den of thieves. Dr. Lightfoot has collected many of these traditions respecting the temple worship; an abridgment of which will form a proper supplement to the preceding obser


(1.) No man might enter the "mountain of the house," for so they called the temple, with his staff; weapons of offence being unsuited to the house of peace; and it being reputed indecorous to lean, when there, on any other staff than God. On this account it was, that our Lord expelled the buyers and sellers of cattle from the temple, with a whip of cords. (John ii. 15.)-(2.) No man was permitted to enter with shoes on his feet, nor dust on his feet, which he was obliged to wipe or wash (thus intimating the necessity of approaching the Most High divested of all worldly cares and affections); nor with money in his purse, nor with his purse about him. -(3.) Having arrived at the temple, every worshipper was prohibited from spitting there, as well as from using any irreverent gestures, or making it a thoroughfare to shorten his distance in crossing from one part of the city to another; and on entering the court, he must walk leisurely and gravely to his place, and there demean himself as in the presence of God. -(4.) Having now entered to pray and attend the service, he was to stand with his feet one even with the other; and, casting his eyes downward, while he raised his heart upward, must cross his hands upon his breast, and stand as a servant before his master with all reverence and fear. The practice of looking down in prayer the Jews derived from those passages of Scripture, which speak of being ashamed to look up towards heaven, on account of their sinfulness: to this position of looking down and laying his hands upon his heart, the demeanour of the devout publican (Luke xviii. 13.) seems to be parallel. Even the priests, when they pronounced the blessing upon the people, neither looked up towards heaven, nor level upon the people, but down upon the ground; and the people were prohibited from looking upon them.(5.) However weary the worshipper might be with standing,

Luke xiv. 1. and Lightfoot's Hora Hebraicæ on that passage. (Works, vol. ii. pp. 445, 446.) See also Wetstein's Notes, vol. i. p. 750. Michaelis remarks that our Saviour's observation in Luke xiv. 12-14. can only be fully understood in reference to a feast that formed a part of divine worship, and, as such, might look for a recompense from God: for we do not in ordinary cases expect that God should reward us in another world for every entertainment we give. Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 158. Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. 311-314.; Leusden's Philologus Hebræo-Mixtus, pp. 240-262.; Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introduction (Bp. Watson's Theol. Tracts, vol. iii. pp. 225-234.); the Mosaic statutes relative to the Sabbath are fully discussed by Michaelis, Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 150-181.; vol. ii. pp. 399, 400.

See pp. 104-106. supra.

See pp. 100, 101.

This prohibition was derived from the command of God to Moses (Exod. iii. 5.), and Joshua. (v. 15.) The same usage obtains throughout the East to this day.

he might on no account sit down either in the Israelites' or priests' court: no person whatever being allowed that privilege, except the kings of the house of David.-(6.) Having offered their prayers, and performed the services, they were to depart in the same order in which they had entered: and as they were prohibited to turn their backs upon the altar, they went backward till they were out of the court, and departed from the temple by a different gate from that by which they had entered.

II. The Jewish months being lunar were originally calculated from the first appearance of the moon, on which the FEAST OF THE NEW MOON, or the beginning of the month (as the Hebrews termed it), was celebrated. (Exod. xii. 2. Num. x. 10. xxviii. 11. Isa. i. 13, 14.) It seems to have been in use long before the time of Moses, who by the divine command prescribed what ceremonies were then to be observed. It was proclaimed by the sound of trumpets (Num. x. 10. Psal. lxxxi. 3.); and several additional sacrifices were offered. (Num. xxviii. 11—15.)

III. Besides the Sabbath, Moses instituted three ANNUAL Festivals, viz. the passover, the feast of pentecost, and the feast of tabernacles: these, which are usually denominated the Great Festivals, were distinguished from the Sabbath, and indeed from all other holy days, by the circumstance of two of them lasting seven, and one for eight, successive days; during which the Jews were bound to rejoice before the Lord for all their deliverances and mercies. (Deut. xvi. 11-15.) All the males of the twelve tribes were bound to be present at these grand festivals (Exod. xxxiv. 23. Deut. xvi. 16.); and for their encouragement to attend they were assured that no man should desire their land during their absence (Exod. xxxiv. 24.): in other words, that they should be secure from hostile invasion during their attendance on religious worship: -a manifest proof this of the divine origin of their religion, as well as of the power and particular providence of God in working thrice every year an especial miracle for the protection of his people; for it is a well known fact, that the Jews constantly attended these ceremonies without any fear of danger, and that their most vigilant enemies never invaded or injured them during these sacred seasons. The design of these meetings was partly to unite the Jews among themselves, and, teaching them to regard each other as brethren and fellow-citizens, to promote mutual love and friendship. To this the Psalmist probably refers in Psal. cxxii. 3, 4.; and it was partly that, as one church, they might make one congregation, join in solemn worship together, and renew their oath of allegiance to the one true God, and to their excellent constitution and religion. Further, so large a concourse of people would give the greater solemnity to these festivals: and as no Israelite was to present himself before the Lord without some offering (Deut. xvi. 16, 17.), ample provision was thus made for the support of the ministers of the sanctuary. On these occasions, although the men were required to attend, it does not appear that women were prevented from going if they chose, at least to the passover. (See 1 Sam. 1. 3. 7. Luke ii. 41.) For greater security, however, against the attacks of robbers on the road, they used to travel in large companies, those who came from the same city, canton, or district, forming one company. They carried necessaries along with them, and tents for their lodg ing at night. It was among such a "company" that Joseph and Mary sought Jesus Christ (Luke ii. 44.): and to their journeying through a dreary valley on one of these festivals the Psalmist probably alludes. (lxxxiv. 6.) Further, as the Jewish sanctuary and service contained in them a shadow of good things to come, and were typical of the Christian church, this prescribed concourse from all parts of the country might be intended to typify the gathering of the people to Christ and into his church, from all parts of the world under the Christian dispensation. Hence St. Paul, alluding to these general assemblies of the Israelites on the three

Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. pp. 947-950.

Nearly similar to this is the mode of travelling in the East to this hour. Such companies they now call caravans; and in many places there are buildings fitted up for their reception, called caravanserais. This account of the Israelites' mode of travelling furnishes a ready answer to the question, how Joseph and Mary could make a day's journey without discovering before night, that Jesus was not in the "company." In the daytime, as circumstances might lead them, the travellers would probably mingle with their friends and acquaintance; but in the evening, when they were about to encamp, every one would join the family to which he belonged. As Jesus then did not appear when it was growing late, his parents first sought him, where they supposed he would most probably be, among his relations and acquaintance; and not finding him, returned to Jerusalem. Dr. Campbell's Translation of the Gospels, vol. ii. p. 449. note on Luke ii. 44.

grand feasts, says, "We are come to the general assembly | the Jewish festivals, is copiously related in the twelfth chapter und church of the first-born." (Heb. xii. 23.)

But besides the benefits to be derived from the religious celebration of these ordinances, Michaelis, to whom we are indebted for part of the preceding remarks, has pointed out several instances in which they produced a salutary effect on the community. Not only would their meeting together in one place for the purposes of religion and social intercourse tend to prevent a total alienation of rival tribes, as well as civil war, but it would also afford them an opportunity of being mutually reconciled. Further, it is not improbable that these annual meetings promoted the internal commerce of the Israelites, who were prohibited from carrying on traffic with foreigners; and, lastly, they had an important influence on the Jewish calendar, inasmuch as the year was arranged, so that the various festivals should fall in their respective months without interfering with the labours of the field.1

of Exodus, it is unnecessary to detail it again in this place: but as various traditional observances were in after-times added to the Mosaic precepts concerning this sacrifice, to which there are manifest allusions in the New Testament, we shall trace them, as briefly as the important nature of the subject will admit, under the following heads:-1. The time when it was to be kept;-2. The ceremonies with which it was to be celebrated;-3. The mystical signification of these rites.

1. Of the time when the Passover was to be kept.-This festival commenced on the evening subsequent to the fourteenth day of the month Nisan, the first in the Jewish sacred or ecclesiastical year (Exod. xii. 6. 8. 18. Lev. xxiii. 4-8. Num. xxviii. 16-27.), with eating what was called the paschal lamb; and it was to continue seven whole days, that is, until the twenty-first. The day preceding its commencement was IV. The first and most eminent of these festivals was the called the preparation of the passover. (John xix. 14.) DurPASSOVER,2 instituted the night before the Israelites' departure ing its continuance no leavened bread was allowed to be from Egypt, for a perpetual memorial of their signal deliver-used; hence the fourteenth day of the month Nisan might ance, and of the favour which God showed them in passing with great propriety be called (as we find it is in Matt. xxvi. over and sparing their first-born, when he slew the first-born 17. Mark xiv. 12.) the first day of unleavened bread, because of the Egyptians. (Exod. xii. 12—14. 29–51.) This festival was also called the feast or the days of unleavened bread (Exod. xxiii. 15. Mark xiv. 1. Acts xii. 3.); because it was unlawful to eat any other bread during the seven days the feast lasted. The name was also by a metonymy given to the lamb that was killed on the first day of this feast (Ezra vi. 20. Matt. xxvi. 17.), whence the expressions to eat the passover (Mark xiv. 12. 14.) and to sacrifice the passover.4 (1 Cor. v. 7.) Hence also St. Paul calls Jesus Christ our | passover (ibid.), that is, our true paschal lamb. But the appellation, passover, belongs more particularly to the second day of the feast, viz. the fifteenth day of the month Nisan.5 It was ordained to be celebrated on the anniversary of the deliverance of the Israelites. This was an indispensable rite to be observed by every Israelite, except in particular cases enumerated in Num. ix. 1-13., on pain of death; and no uncircumcised person was allowed to partake of the passover. On this festive occasion, it was the custom at Jerusalem for the inhabitants to give the free use of their rooms and furniture to strangers at the passover. This usage will explain the circumstance of our Saviour's sending to a man to prepare for his eating the passover, who, by the relation, appears to have been a stranger to him. Further, in order to render this grand festival the more interesting, a custom was introduced in the later times of the Jewish polity 2. Of the ceremonies with which the Passover was to be celeof liberating some criminal. By whom or at what time brated. The paschal lamb was to be a male, without blemish, this practice originated it is now impossible accurately to of the first year, either from the sheep or the goats" (Exod. determine the most probable opinion is, that it was intro-xii. 5.): it was to be taken from the flocks four days before duced by the Romans themselves, perhaps by Pilate at the it was killed; and one lamb was to be offered for each family; commencement of his procuratorship of Judæa, with the per- and if its members were too few to eat a whole lamb, two mission of Augustus, in order to gratify the Jews by show-families were to join together. In the time of Josephus a ing them this public mark of respect. However this may be, it had become an established custom from which Pilate could not deviate (Matt. xxvii. 15. Luke xviii. 17. John xviii. 39.), and therefore he reluctantly liberated the malefactor Barabbas.

As the very interesting history of this most solemn of all 1 Commentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. iii. pp. 182-189. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. 4. pp. 448, 449. Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, pp. 127, 128.

On the true meaning of the word passover Archbp. Magee has a -321. was a kind of fœderal rite (as the Eucharist also is) between

learned disquisition in vol. i. of his Discourses on the Atonement, pp. 309 God and man, Dr. Cudworth has solidly proved in bis "True Notion of the Lord's Supper," chap. vi. pp. 28-36. at the end of vol. ii. of his "Intellect ual Systein," 4to. edit.

Schulzii Archæologia Hebr. p. 318.

and death.

That the passover was a proper and real sacrifice, see largely proved by Archbp. Magee, on the Atonement, vol. i. pp. 297-309. Lev. xxiii. 6. Mark xiv. 1. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. § 5. of at least the thing signified by the sacrament of the Lord's supper, In like manner, Dr. Waterland has observed, a contempt and rejection must necessarily exclude every man from the benefits of Christ's passion So, in the early ages of Christianity, no person was permitted to come to the Lord's supper until he had been baptized. As soon, however, as the passover was celebrated, every one was at liberty to go home the very next morning if he pleased (Deut. xvi. 7.), of course while the festival lasted, in order that those Jews, who came from a distance, might return in time for getting in the harvest. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 183, 184.

Hottinger has discussed the various opinions on the origin of this usage in a dissertation De ritâ dimittendi reum in festo Paschatis, Tempe Helvetic. vol. iv. p. 264. From the Jews the custom proceeded to the Christians; Valentinian and several other emperors having issued their edict that some prisoners should be liberated from their bonds at the annual commemoration of our Saviour's resurrection. This custom obtained among the Venetians till the close of the eighteenth century. (Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. p. 321.)

the passover began in the evening. The fifteenth day, however, might also be called the first day of unleavened bread:9 since, according to the Hebrew computation of time, the evening of the fourteenth was the dawn or beginning of the fifteenth, on which day the Jews began to eat unleavened bread. (Exod. xii. 18.) But, if any persons were prevented from arriving at Jerusalem in time for the feast, either by any uncleanness contracted by touching a dead body, or by the length of the journey, he was allowed to defer his celebration of the passover until the fourteenth day of the following month, in the evening. (Num. ix. 10-12.) As it is not improbable that some difference or mistake might arise in determining the new moon, so often as such difference recurred, there would consequently be some discrepancy as to the precise time of commencing the passover. Such a discordance might easily arise between the rival and hostile sects of Pharisees and Sadducees; and such a difference, it has been conjectured, did exist at the time Jesus Christ celebrated the passover with his disciples, one whole day before the Pharisees offered their paschal sacrifice.10 Sacrifices peculiar to this festival were to be offered every day during its continuance; but the first and last days were to be sanctified above all the rest, by abstaining from servile labour, and holding a sacred convocation. (Exod. xii. 16. Lev. xxiii. 7, 8.)

paschal society consisted at least of ten persons to one lamb, and not more than twenty.12 Our Saviour's society was composed of himself and the twelve disciples. (Matt. xxvi. 20. Luke xxii. 14.) Next followed the killing of the passover: before the exode of the Israelites from Egypt, this was done in their private dwellings; but after their settlement in Canaan, it was ordered to be performed "in the place which the Lord should choose to place his name there." (Deut. xvi. 2.) This appears to have been at first wherever the ark was deposited, and ultimately at Jerusalem in the courts of the temple.13 Every particular person (or rather a delegate from every paschal society)11 slew his own victim: according to Josephus, between the ninth hour, or three in the afternoon, and the eleventh, that is, about sunset; and within that space

The fifteenth day is so called in Lev. xxiii. 6. and by Josephus, who expressly terms the second day of unleavened bread the sixteenth day of the month. Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. $5.

the time of beginning the passover is intimated in John xiii. 1, 2. xviii. 28.
10 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 318, 319. That a difference did exist as to
and xix. 14. 31. The conjecture above noticed was made by Schulze; and
if it could be substantiated, it would reconcile the seeming differences
occurring in the evangelists, respecting the time when Christ actually cele
brated the passover. Dr. A. Clarke has collected the principal opinions on
this much contested point, in his discourse on the Eucharist, pp. 5-24.
See also Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. c. 4. pp. 455-158.
equally proper. The Hebrews, however, in general preferred a lamb.

11 The Hebrew word (sex) means either a lamb or a kid: either was

12 De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. $3.

13 The area of the three courts of the temple, besides the rooms and other places in it, where the paschal victim might be offered, contained upwards of 435,600 square cubits; so that there was ample room for more than 500,000 men to be in the temple at the same time. Lamy, De Tabernacule. lib. vii. c. 9. §§ 4, 5.

14 See Lightfoot's Temple Service, ch. xii. § 5. (Works, vol. i. pp. 957-939.)

of time it was, that Jesus Christ, our true paschal lamb, was crucified. (Matt. xxvii. 46.) The victim being killed, one of the priests received the blood into a vessel, which was handed from one priest to another, until it came to him who stood next the altar, and by whom it was sprinkled at the bottom of the altar. After the blood was sprinkled, the lamb was hung up and flayed: this being done, the victim was opened, the fat was taken out and consumed on the altar, after which the owner took it to his own house. The paschal lamb was to be roasted whole, which might be commanded as a matter of convenience at the first passover, in order that their culinary utensils might be packed up ready for their departure while the lamb was roasting; no part of it was to be eaten either in a raw state, or boiled. (Exod. xii. 9.) The propriety of the prohibition of eating any portion of the paschal lamb in a raw state will readily appear, when it is known that raw flesh and palpitating limbs were used in some of the old heathen sacrifices and festivals, particularly in honour of the Egyptian deity Osiris, and the Grecian Bacchus, who were the same idol under different names. That no resemblance or memorial of so barbarous a superstition might ever debase the worship of Jehovah, He made this early and express provision against it. On the same ground, probably, He required the paschal lamb to be eaten privately and entire, in opposition to the bacchanalian feasts, in which the victim was publicly torn in pieces, carried about in pomp, and then devoured. Further, the prohibition of boiling the paschal lamb was levelled against a superstitious practice of the Egyptians and Syrians, who were accustomed to boil their victims, and especially to seethe a kid or lamb in the milk of its dam; as the command to roast and eat the whole of the lamb-not excepting its inwards without leaving any portion until the following morning, was directed against another superstition of the antient heathens, whose priests carefully preserved and religiously searched the entrails of their victims, whence they gathered their pretended knowledge of futurity. Those, likewise, who frequented pagan temples, were eager to carry away and devote to superstitious uses some sacred relics or fragments of the sacrifices. In short, the whole ceremonial of the passover appears to have been so adjusted as to wage an open and destructive war against the gods and idolatrous ceremonies of Egypt, and thus to form an early and powerful barrier around the true worship and servants of Jehovah.1 After the lamb was thus dressed, it was eaten by each family or paschal society. "The FIRST passover was to be eaten standing, in the posture of travellers, who had no time to lose; and with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and no bone of it was to be broken. (Exod. xii. 8. 11. 46.) The posture of travellers was enjoined them, both to enliven their faith in the promise of their then speedy deliverance from Egypt; and also, that they might be ready to begin their march presently after supper. They were ordered, therefore, to eat it with their loins girded; for as they were accustomed to wear long and loose garments, such as are generally used by the eastern nations to this day, it was necessary to tie them up with a girdle about their loins, when they either travelled or engaged in any laborious employment." Further, "they were to eat the passover with shoes on their feet, for in those hot countries they ordinarily wore sandals, which were a sort of clogs, or went barefoot; but in travelling they used shoes, which were a kind of short boots, reaching a little way up the legs. Hence, when our Saviour sent his twelve dísciples to preach in the neighbouring towns, designing to convince them by their own experience of the extraordinary care of Divine Providence over them, that they might not be discouraged by the length and danger of the journeys they would be called to undertake;-on this account he ordered them to make no provision for their present journey, particularly, not to take shoes on their feet, but to be shod with sandals. (Matt. x. 10, compared with Mark vi. 9,) Again, they were to eat the passover with staves in their hands, such as were always used by travellers in those rocky countries, both to support them in slippery places, and defend them against assaults. (Gen. xxxii. 10.) Of this sort Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, pp. 123, 124, Beausobre says that these sodalities were called brotherhoods, and the guests companions or friends, and that our Saviour's reproof of Judas by calling him friend or companion (Matt, xxvi. 50,) was both just and cutting, because he betrayed him after having eaten the passover with him.

Thus when Elisha sent his servant Gehazi on a message in haste, he bade him "gird up his loins," 2 Kings iv. 29.; and when our Saviour set about washing his disciples' feet, "he took a towel and girded himself," John xiii. 4. David beautifully alludes to this custom in the twenty-third Psalm; where (ver. 4.), expressing 1.is trust in the goodness of the Almighty, he


was probably Moses's rod which he had in his hand, when God sent him with a message to Pharaoh (Exod. iv. 2.), and which was afterwards used as an instrument in working so many miracles. So necessary in these countries was a staff or walking-stick on a journey, that it was a usual thing for persons when they undertook long journeys to take a spare staff with them, for fear one should fail. When Christ, therefore, sent his apostles on the embassy above mentioned, he ordered them not to take staves (Luke ix. 3. Mark vi. 8.), that is, only one staff or walking-stick, without making provision of a spare one, as was common in long journeys. "The paschal lamb was to be eaten with unleavened bread, on pain of being cut off from Israel, or excommunicated; though some critics understand this of being put to death. The reason of this injunction was, partly to remind them of the hardships they had sustained in Egypt, unleavened being more heavy and less palatable than leavened bread; on which account it is called the bread of affliction (Deut. xvi. 3.); and partly to commemorate the speed of their deliverance or departure from thence, which was such, that they had not sufficient time to leaven their bread; it is expressly said, that their "dough was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not tarry (Exod. xii. 39.); and on this account it was enacted into a standing law, Thou shalt eat unleavened bread, even the bread of affliction; for thou camest forth out of Egypt in haste.' (Deut. xvi. 3.) This rite, therefore, was not only observed at the first passover, but in all succeeding ages." But from the metaphorical sense in which the term leaven is used, this prohibition is supposed to have had a moral view; and that the divine legislator's intention was, that the Israelites should cleanse their minds from malice, envy, and hypocrisy; in a word, from the leaven of Egypt. In consequence of this injunction, the Hebrews, as well as the modern Jews, have always taken particular care to search for all the leaven that might be in their houses, and to burn it.?

The passover was likewise to be eaten "with bitter herbs:" this was doubtless prescribed as "a memorial of their severe bondage in Egypt, which made their lives bitter unto them; and possibly also to denote that the haste, in which they departed, compelled them to gather such wild herbs as most readily presented themselves. To this sauce the Jews afterwards added another, made of dates, raisins, and several ingredients beaten together to the consistence of mustard, which is called charoseth, and is designed to represent the clay in which their forefathers wrought while they were in bondage to the Egyptians.

"It was further prescribed, that they should eat the flesh of the lamb, without breaking any of his bones. (Exod. xii. 46.) This the latter Jews understand, not of the smaller bones, but only of the greater which had marrow in them. Thus was this rite also intended to denote their being in haste, not having time to break the bones and suck out the marrow."

Lastly, "it was ordered that nothing of the paschal lamb should remain till the morning; but, if it were not all eaten, it was to be consumed by fire. (Exod. xii. 10.) The same law was extended to all eucharistical sacrifices (Lev. xxii. 30.); no part of which was to be left, or set by, lest it should be corrupted, or converted to any profane or common use, an injunction which was designed, no doubt, to maintain the honour of sacrifices, and to teach the Jews to treat with reverence whatever was consecrated more especially to the service of God."s

Such were the circumstances under which the first passover was celebrated by the Israelites; for, after they were settled in the land of Canaan, they no longer ate it standing, but the guests reclined on their left arms upon couches placed round exclaims, Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, 1 will fear no evil: for thou art with me, thy ROD and thy STAFF they comfort


Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. iv. pp. 468–470. (London, 1823, 8vo.)

Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp, 953, 954. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 381. See Matt. xvi. 6. St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians a short time ber fore the passover, exhorts them to cleanse out the old leaven of lewdness by casting the incestuous person out of the church; and to keep the feast (of the Lord's supper) not with the old leaven of sensuality and uncleanness, with which they were formerly corrupted, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread (or qualities) of sincerity and truth. Macknight on 1 Cor. v. 7, 8.; who observes, that it is probable from this passage that the disciples of Christ began very early to celebrate the Lord's supper with peculiar solemnity, annually, on the day on which the Redeemer suffered, which was the day of the Jewish pass over, called in modern language Easter. It is with beautiful propriety, therefore, that this passage of Saint Paul is introduced by the Anglican Church among the occasional versicles for Easter Sunday. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iji. ch. iv. pp. 470, 471.

the table. (John xiii. 23.) This posture, according to the Talmudical writers, was an emblem of that rest and freedom which God had granted to the children of Israel by bringing them out of Egypt. This custom of reclining at table, over one another's bosom, was a sign of equality and strict union among the guests.1

Dr. Lightfoot has collected from the Talmud a variety of passages relative to the Jewish mode of celebrating the passover; from which we have abridged the following particulars, as they are calculated materially to illustrate the evangelical history of our Lord's last passover, recorded in Matt. xxvi. Mark xiv. Luke xxii. and John xiii.

(1.) The guests being placed around the table, they mingled a cup of wine with water, over which the master of the family (or, if two or more families were united, a person deputed for the purpose) gave thanks, and then drank it off. The thanksgiving for the wine was to this effect, "Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast created the fruit of the vine," and for the day, as follows-"Blessed be thou for this good day, and for this holy convocation, which thou hast given us for joy and rejoicing! Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast sanctified Israel and the times!" Of these cups of wine they drank four in

the course of the ordinance.

(2.) They then washed their hands, after which the table was furnished with the paschal lamb, roasted whole, with bitter herbs, and with two cakes of unleavened bread, together with the remains of the peace-offerings sacrificed on the preceding day, and the charoseth, or thick sauce, above mentioned.

(3.) The officiator, or person presiding, then took a small piece of salad, and having blessed God for creating the fruit of the ground, he ate it, as also did the other guests: after which all the dishes were removed from the table, that the children might inquire and be instructed in the nature of the feast. (Exod. xii. 25, 26.) The text on which they generally discoursed was Deut. xxvi. 5-11. In like manner our Saviour makes use of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, to declare the great mercy of God in our redemption; for it shows forth the Lord's death till he come to judge the world. The "continual remembrance of the sacrifice of the death of Christ, and of the benefits we receive thereby," which has been observed ever since the time of the apostles, is a permanent and irrefragable argument for the reality of that full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world," which was made by Jesus Christ "by his one oblation of himself" upon the cross; in opposition to the opinion of those who deny the divinity of our Saviour, and the vicarious nature of his death.

(4.) Then replacing the supper, they explained the import of the bitter herbs and paschal lamb; and over the second cup of wine repeated the hundred and thirteenth and hundred and fourteenth psalms, with an eucharistic prayer.

(5.) The hands were again washed, accompanied by an ejaculatory prayer; after which the master of the house proceeded to break and bless a cake of the unleavened bread, which he distributed among the guests, reserving half of the cake beneath a napkin, if necessary, for the aphicomen, or last morsel; for the rule was, to conclude with eating a small piece of the paschal lamb, or, after the destruction of the temple, of unleavened bread. In like manner our Lord, upon instituting the sacrament of the eucharist, which was prefigured by the passover, took bread; and having blessed or given thanks to God, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, Tuke, eat, this is [that is, signifies] my body, which is given for you. This do in remembrance of me. (Matt. xxvi. 26. Mark xiv. 22. Luke xxii. 19. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24.) In the communion service of the Anglican church, the spirit and design both of the type and antitype are most expressively condensed into one point of view in the following address to the communicant:-"TAKE and EAT this in REMEMBRANCE that Christ died for THEE, and feed upon him in thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving."

(6.) They then ate the rest of the cake with the bitter

1 This custom, Beausobre well observes, will explain several passages of Scripture, particularly those in which mention is made of Abraham's bosom (Luke xvi. 22.), and of the Son's being in the bosom of the Father. (John i. 18. compared with Phil. ii. 6. and John xiii. 23.)

In this part of the paschal ceremony, among the modern Jews, after the master of the house has reserved the portion for the aphicomen, the bone of the lamb and the egg are taken off the dish, and all at table lay hold of the dish and say,-Lo! this is [or signifies] the bread of afflic tion, which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt; let all those who are hungry eat thereof; and all who are necessitous, come, and celebrate the Passover." Form of Prayers for the Festivals of Passover and Pentecost, according to the custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, translated from the Hebrew by David Levi, p. 20.

herbs, dipping the bread into the charoseth, or sauce. To this practice the evangelists Matthew (xxvi. 21-25.) and Mark (xiv. 18-21.) manifestly allude; and into this sauce our Saviour is supposed to have dipped the sop which he gave to Judas. (John xiii. 26.)

(7.) Next they ate the flesh of the peace-offerings which had been sacrificed on the fourteenth day, and then the flesh of the paschal lamb, which was followed by returning thanks to God, and a second washing of hands.

(8.) A third cup of wine was then filled, over which they blessed God, or said grace after meat (whence it was called the cup of blessing), and drank it off. To this circumstance St. Paul particularly alludes when he says,―The cur of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? (1 Cor. x. 16.) It was also at this part of the paschal supper that our Lord took the cup, saying, This is the NEW TESTAMENT (rather covenant) IN MY BLOOD, which is shed for you, and for many, for the REMISSION OF SINS. (Luke xxii. 20. Matt. xxvi. 27.) The cup here is put for wine; and covenant is put for the token or sign of the covenant. The wine, as representing Christ's blood, answers to the blood of the passover, which typified it; and the remission of sins here, answers to the passing over there, and preserving from death.3

(9.) Lastly, a fourth cup of wine was filled, called the cup of the hallel: over it they completed, either by singing or recitation, the great hallel, or hymn of praise, consisting of psalms cxv. to cxviii. inclusive, with a prayer, and so concluded. In like manner our Lord and his disciples, when they had sung a hymn, departed to the Mount of Olives. (Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.)

3. With regard to the mystical signification of the passover, we know generally from St. Paul (1 Cor. v. 7.), who calls Jesus Christ our passover, that this Jewish sacrament had a typical reference to him: but concerning the points of resemblance between the type and anti-type, learned men are not agreed. Godwins has enumerated thirteen points of coincidence; Dr. Lightfoot, seventeen; and Keach, nineteen. The most judicious arrangement of this subject which we have seen is that of Herman Witsius, who has treated it under four general heads, viz. the person of Christ,-the sufferings he bore for us,-the fruits of those sufferings,and the manner in which we are made partakers of them. As, however, many of the analogies which Witsius has traced between the passover and the death of Christ are very fanciful, his arrangement only has been adopted in the following observations:


"The animal sacrifice at the passover was to be a lamb without blemish. (Exod. xii. 5.) Christ is styled the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world (John i. 29. 36.); a lamb without blemish and without spot. (1 Pet. i. 19. See Isa. liii. 7.) The paschal lamb was to be one of the flock. Christ the Word who was made flesh, and dwelt among us (John i. 14.), was taken from the midst of the people, being in all things made like unto his brethren." (Heb. ii. 17.)9

(2.) THE SUFFERINGS AND DEATH Of Christ were also TYPIFIED BY THE PASCHAL LAMB IN VARIOUS PARTICULARS. "The sacrifice of the passover differed from other sacri

Clarke on the Eucharist, p. 39. On this part of the institution of the

As it is here said of the cup, This cup is the New


Lord's supper, Dr. Lightfoot has the following admirable remarks:-"This is my blood of the New Testament. Not only the seal of the covenant, and the confirming of a new one. The confirmation of the old covenant the sanction of the new covenant. The end of the Mosaic economy, was by the blood of bulls and of goats (Exod. xxiv. Heb. ix.), because blood was still to be shed: the confirmation of the new was by a cup of wine; because under the new covenant there is no further shedding of my blood; so it might be said of the cup of blood. (Exod. xxiv.) That cup was the Old Testament in the blood of Christ: there all the articles of that covenant being read over, Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, and said, This is the blood of the covenant which God hath made with you; and thus that old covenant, or testimony, was confirmed. In like manner, Christ, having published all the articles of the new covenant, he takes the cup of wine, and gives them to drink, and saith, This is the New Testa ment in my blood, and thus the new covenant was established."-(Works, vol. ii. p. 260.) Hor. Heb. on Matt. xxvi. 27.

Lightfoot's Temple Service, c. xiii. (Works, vol. i. pp. 959-967.) See also Mr. Ainsworth's learned and interesting notes on Exod. xii. in his Annotations on the Pentateuch.

Godwin's Moses and Aaron, pp. 114, 115.

• Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 1008, 1009.

Keach's Key to Scripture Metaphors, pp. 979, 980. 2d edit. See also M'Ewen on the Types, pp. 148-152.

Witsius, de Economia Fœderum, lib. iv. c. 9. $$ 35-58. or vol. ii. pp. 275-282. of the English translation. Witsius's View of the Mystical Import of the Passover has been abridged by Dr. Jennings. Jewish Antiq. book iii. ch. iv. pp. 472-477.

Chevallier's Hulsean Lectures, on the Historical Types of the Old Testament, p. 285.

VIII. Besides the annual festivals above described, the Jews in later times introduced several fast and feast days in addition to those instituted by Moses. The two principal festivals of this kind were the Feast of Purim, and that of the Dedication of the Second Temple.

by the Jews in later ages, though not appointed by Moses. Such are the fast of the fourth month, on account of the taking of Jerusalem by the Chaldæans (Jer. lii. 6, 7.); the fast of the fifth month, on account of their burning the temple and city (2 Kings xxv. 8.); and that of the seventh month, on account of the murder of Gedaliah (2 Kings xxv. 25.); and the fast of the tenth month, when the Babylonian army comare enumerated together in Zech. viii. 19.; and to them we may, perhaps, add the xylophoria, or feast of wood-offering, when the people brought and offered large quantities of wood for the use of the altar: it is supposed to have been celebrated in the time of Nehemiah (x. 34. xiii. 31.), in whose praises, on this occasion, the Jews largely expatiated, and related several wonderful tales concerning him and the fire lighted upon the altar. (2 Macc. i. 18-22.) Nine days were appropriated to this festival, viz. The first of Nisan, the 20th of Tammuz, the 5th, 7th, 10th, 15th, and 20th of Ab, the 20th of Elul, and the 1st of Tebeth.

1. The FEAST OF PURIM, or of Lots, as the word signifies, is celebrated on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar (or of Ve-Adar if it be an intercalary year), in commenced the siege of Jerusalem. (Jer. lii. 4.) All these fasts memoration of the providential deliverance of the Jews from the cruel machinations of Haman, who had procured an edict from Artaxerxes to extirpate them. (Esth. iii.-ix.) On this occasion the entire book of Esther is read in the synagogues of the modern Jews, not out of a printed copy, but from a roll which generally contains this book alone. All Jews, of both sexes, and of every age, who are able to attend, are required to come to this feast and to join in the reading, for the better preservation of the memory of this important fact. When the roll is unfolded, the chazan or reader says, "Blessed be God, the King of the world, who hath sanctified us by his precepts, and commanded us to read the Megillah! Blessed be God, who in those days worked miracles for our fathers!" As often as the name of Haman occurs, the whole congregation clap their hands, stamp with their feet, and exclaim," Let his name be blotted out! May the memory of the wicked rot!" The children at the same time hiss, and strike loudly on the forms with little wooden hammers made for the pur-years. pose. When the reader comes to the seventh, eighth, and ninth chapters, where the names of Haman's ten sons occur, he pronounces them with great rapidity, and in one breath, to intimate that they were all hanged, and expired in the same moment. In most manuscripts and editions of the book of Esther, the ten names contained in the chapters just mentioned are written under each other in ten lines, no other word being connected with them, in order to exhibit the manner in which they were hanged, viz. on a pole fifty cubits, that is, seventy-five feet high; each of the brothers being immediately suspended, the one under the cther, in one perpendicular line.

When the chazan has finished the reading, the whole congregation exclaim "Cursed be Haman!-Blessed be Mordecai!-Cursed be Zeresh!-Blessed be Esther!-Cursed be all idolaters!-Blessed be all the Israelites!-And blessed likewise be Harbonah, at whose instance Haman was hanged!" In order to heighten the general joy on this festival, Buxtorf relates that some Jews wore party-coloured garments, and young foxes' tails in their hats, and ran about the synagogue exciting the congregation to laughter! Further, to excite and increase mirth, the men and women exchange apparel; this, though positively forbidden by the law, they consider innocent, and allowable on this festive occasion, which is a season of peculiar gayety. Alms are given to the poor; relations and friends send presents to each other; and all furnish their tables with every luxury they can command. These two days are the bacchanalia of the modern Jews; who think it no sin to indulge themselves largely in their cups, some of them indeed to intoxication, in memory of Esther's banquet of wine; at which she succeeded in defeating the sanguinary designs of Haman.!

2. The FEAST OF DEDICATION (mentioned in John x. 22.) was instituted by Judas Maccabæus, in imitation of those by Solomon and Ezra, as a grateful memorial of the cleansing of the second temple and altar, after they had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Macc. iv. 52-59.) It commenced on the twenty-fifth of the month Cisleu, corresponding with our December, and lasted eight days. This festival was also called the feast of lights, because the Jews illuminated their houses in testimony of their joy and gladness on this very important occasion.2 The whole of this feast was spent in singing hymns, offering sacrifices, and every kind of diversion: it was celebrated with much solemnity in the time of Josephus.

Besides these two festivals, we find several others incidentally mentioned in the Old Testament, as being observed

p. 491. et seq. Schulzii Archaeol. Hebr. pp. 328-334. The typical reference of the sacrifice offered on this day is discussed at considerable length by Witsius, de Econ. Fœd. lib. iv. c. 6. or vol. ii. pp. 213-231. of the English translation. On the manner in which this fact is observed by the modern Jews, see Allen's Modern Judaism, pp. 391-399.

1 Buxtorf de Synagog. Jud. cap. 29. Iken. Antiq. Hebr. pp. 336-338. Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 334, 335. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 405. Dr. Clarke's Commentary on Esther.

2 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 7. §§ 6, 7.

Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 335, 336. Lamy, vol. i. p. 186. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 246. 979. vol. ii. pp. 576. 1033. 1039. Relandi Antiq. Heb.

p. 534.

IX. The preceding are the chief annual festivals noticed in the Sacred Writings, that are particularly deserving of attention: the Jews have various others of more modern institution, which are here designedly omitted. We therefore proceed to notice those extraordinary festivals which were celebrated only after the recurrence of a certain number of

1. The first of these was the SABBATICAL YEAR. For, as the seventh day of the week was consecrated as a day of rest to man and beast, so this gave rest to the land; which, during its continuance, was to lie fallow, and the "Sabbath of the land," or its spontaneous produce, was dedicated to charitable uses, to be enjoyed by the servants of the family, by the way faring stranger, and by the cattle. (Lev. xxv. 1 7. Exod. xxiii. 11.) This was also the year of release from personal slavery (Exod. xxi. 2.), as well as of the remission of debts. (Deut. xv. 1, 2.) Beausobre is of opinion that the frequent mention made in the New Testament of the remission of sins is to be understood as an allusion to the sabbatical year. In order to guard against famine on this and the ensuing year, God was graciously pleased to promise a triple produce of the lands upon the sixth year, sufficient to supply the inhabitants till the fruits or harvest sown in the eighth year were ripe. (Lev. xxv. 2-22.) This was a singular institution, peculiar to a theocracy. And the breach of it was among the national sins that occasioned the captivity, that the land might enjoy her Sabbaths, of which she had been defrauded by the rebellion of the inhabitants.5 (Lev. xxvi. 34. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21.)

2. The JUBILEE was a more solemn sabbatical year, held every seventh sabbatical year, that is, at the end of every forty-nine years, or the fiftieth current year. (Lev. xxv. 810.) Concerning the etymology of the Hebrew word jobel (whence our jubilee is derived) learned men are by no means agreed; the most probable of these conflicting opinions is that of Calmet, who deduces it from the Hebrew verb hobil, to recall, or bring back; because estates, &c. that had been alienated were then brought back to their original owners. Such appears to have been the meaning of the word, as understood by the Septuagint translators, who render the Hebrew word jobel by aperis, remission, and by Josephus, who says that it signified liberty.

This festival commenced on the tenth day of the month Tisri, in the evening of the day of atonement (Lev. xxv. 9.): a time, Bishop Patrick remarks, peculiarly well chosen, as the Jews would be better disposed to forgive their brethren their debts when they had been imploring pardon of God for their own transgressions. It was proclaimed by the sound of trumpet throughout the whole land, on the great day of atonement. All debts were to be cancelled; all slaves or captives were to be released. Even those who had voluntarily relinquished their freedom at the end of their six years' service, and whose ears had been bored in token of their perpetual servitude, were to be liberated at the jubilee: for then they were to proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof. (Lev. xxv. 10.) Further, in this year all estates that had been sold, reverted to their original proprietors, or to the families to which they had originally 4 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. p. 316. Pictet. Antiq. Judaiques, p. 37. (Theologie Chrétienne, tom. iii.)

Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 337-339. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. i. pp. 387. et seq. Leusden, Philol. Hebr. Mixt. p. 307. Reland's Antiq. Hebr. p. 524. Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. p. 278. Beausobre and L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 124. Jennings's Jewish Antiq. book iii. ch. 9.

6 Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. § 3.

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