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for the Sabbath-day, in order to do it honour; and that they he might on no account sit down either in the Israelites or actually had Sabbath-feasts, to which they even invited per- priests' court : no person whatever being allowed that privisons with whom they were unacquainted.i
lege, except the kings of the house of David.—(6.) Having The Sabbath commenced at sunset, and closed at the same offered their prayers, and performed the services, they were time on the following day. (Matt. viii. 16. Mark i. 32.) to depart in the same order in which they had entered : Whatever was necessary was prepared on the latter part of and as they were prohibited to turn their backs upon the the preceding day, that is, of our Friday: hence, the day altar, they went backward till they were out of the court, preceding the Sabbath (TPSCAC betev) is in the New Testament and departed from the temple by a different gate from that termed the preparation (Teplo neun), in Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark by which they had entered. XV. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. and John xix. 14. 31. 42.2
II. The Jewish months being lunar were originally ealcu2. We know not with certainty from the Mosaic writings lated from the first appearance of the moon, on which the what constituted the most ancient worship of the Israelites Feast of the New Moon, or the beginning of the month (as on the Sabbath-day. It is however, evident from the New the Hebrews termed it), was celebrated. (Exod. xii. 2. Num. Testament, that the celebration of this day chiefly consisted x. 10. xxviii. 11. Isa. i. 13, 14.) It seems to have been in in the religious exercises which were then performed: though use long before the time of Moses, who by the divine comthere is no injunction recorded, except that a burnt-offering mand prescribed what ceremonies were then to be observed. of two lambs should on that day be added to the morning It was proclaimed by the sound of trumpets (Num. X. 10. and evening sacrifices (Num. xxviii. 9.); and that the shew- Psal. lxxxi. 3.); and several additional sacrifices were bread should be changed. (Lev. xxiv. 8.). In the syna- offered. (Num. xxviii. 11–15.) gogues: the Sacred Writings were read and expounded, to III. Besides the Sabbath, Moses instituted three ANNUAL which was sometimes added a discourse or sermon by some Festivals, viz. the passover, the feast of pentecost, and the doctor or eminent teacher. (Luke iv. 16. Acts xiii. 15.) feast of tabernacles: these, which are usually denominated Prayer also appears to have formed a part of their sacred the Greut Festivals, were distinguished from the Sabbath, and worship in the synagogue, and especially in the temple. indeed from all other holy days, by the circumstance of two (1 Sam. i. 9, 10. 1 kings viii. 29, 30. 33. Psal. xxvii. 2. of them lasting seven, and one for eight, successive days; Luke xviii. 10. Acts ii. 15. and iii. 1.)
during which the Jews were bound to rejoice before the Lord With what reverence the Jews regarded their temple, we for all their deliverances and mercies. (Deut. xvi. 11–15.) have already seen :1 and in proportion to the sanctity of the All the males of the twelve tribes were bound to be present place was the solemn and holy behaviour required of all at these grand festivals (Exod. xxxiv. 23. Deut. xvi. 16.); who came to worship there. The law, indeed, had prohi- and for their encouragement to attend they were assured that bited the approach of all uncleanness; but to the enactments no man should desire their land during their absence (Exod. of Moses the great masters of traditions added a variety of xxxiv. 24.): in other words, that they should be secure from other trifling regulations, which the law had not named, hostile invasion during their attendance on religious worship: while they scruple not to make the “house of prayer" a den —a manifest proof this of the divine origin of their religion, of thieves. Dr. Lightfoot has collected many of these tra- as well as of the power and particular providence of God ditions respecting the temple worship; an abridgment of in working thrice every year an especial miracle for the prowhich will form a proper supplement to the preceding obser- tection of his people; for it is a well known fact, that the Jews vations.
constantly attended these ceremonies without any fear of (1.) No man might enter the mountain of the house,” for danger, and that their most vigilant enemies never invaded so they called the temple, with his staff; weapons of offence or injured them during these sacred seasons. The design being unsuited to the house of peace; and it being reputed of these meetings was partly to unite the Jews among themindecorous to lean, when there, on any other staff than God. selves, and, teaching them to regard each other as brethren On this account it was, that our Lord expelled the buyers and fellow-citizens, to promote mutual love and friendship. and sellers of cattle from the temple, with a whip of cords. To this the Psalmist probably refers in Psal. cxxii. 3, 4.; (John ii. 15.)-(2.) No man was permitted to enter with and it was partly that, as one church, they might make one shoes on his feet, nor dust on his feet, which he was obliged congregation, join in solemn worship together, and renew to wipe or wash (thus intimating the necessity of approaching their oath of allegiance to the one true God, and to their ex; the Most High divested of all worldly cares and affections); cellent constitution and religion. Further, so large a connor with money in his purse, nor with his purse about him. course of people would give the greater solemnity to these
-(3.) Having arrived at the temple, every worshipper was festivals : and as no Israelite was to present himself before prohibited from spitting there, as well as from using any the Lord without some offering (Deut. xvi. 16, 17.), ample irreverent gestures, or making it a thoroughfare to shorten his provision was thus made for the support of the ministers of distance in crossing from one part of the city to another; and the sanctuary. On these occasions, although the men were on entering the court, he must walk leisurely and gravely to required to attend, it does not appear that women were prehis place, and there demean himself as in the presence of God. vented from going if they chose, at least to the passover. -(4.) Having now entered to pray and attend the service, (See 1 Sam. î. 3. 7. Luke ii. 41.). For greater security, he was to stand with his feet one even with the other; and, however, against the attacks of robbers on the road, they casting his eyes downward, while he raised his heart upward, used to travel in large companies, those who came from the must cross his hands upon his breast, and stand as a servant same city, canton, or district, forming one company. They before his master with all reverence and fear. The practice carried necessaries along with them, and tents for their lodeof looking down in prayer the Jews derived from those pas- ing at night. It was among such a “company” that Joseph sages of Scripture, which speak of being ashamed to look and Mary sought Jesus Christ (Luke ii. 44.); and to their up towards heaven, on account of their sinfulness: to this journeying through a dreary valley on one of these festivals position of looking down and laying his hands upon his the Psalmist probably alludes. (lxxxiv. 6.) Further, as the heart, the demeanour of the devout publican (Luke xviii. 13.) Jewish sanctuary and service contained in them a shadow of seems to be parallel. Even the priests, when they pronounced good things to come, and were typical of the Christian the blessing upon the people, neither looked up towards church, this prescribed concourse from all parts of the counheaven, nor level upon the people, but down upon the ground; try might be intended to typify the gathering of the people and the people were prohibited from looking upon them.- to Christ and into his church, from all parts of the world (5.) However weary the worshipper might be with standing, under the Christian dispensation. Hence St. Paul, alluding grand feasts, says, “ We are come to the general assembly the Jewish festivals, is copiously related in the twelfth chapter und church of the first-born.” (Heb. xii. 23.)
to these general assemblies of the Israelites on the three : Luke xiv. 1. and Lightfoot's Horæ Hebraicæ on that passage. (Works, vol. ii. pp. 445, 146.) See also Wetstein's Notes, vol. I. p. 750. Michaelis 6 Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. pp. 947–950. remarks that our Saviour's observation in Luke xiv. 12–14. can only be * Nearly similar to this is the mode of travelling in the East to this hour. fully understood in reference to a feast that forined a part of divine wor. Such companies they now call caravans; and in many places there are ship, and, as such, might look for a recompense from God: for we do not buildings fitted up for their reception, called caravanserais. This account in ordinary cases expect that God should reward us in another world for of the Israelites' mode of travelling furnishes a ready answer to the quesevery entertainment we give. Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 158.
tion, how Joseph and Mary could make a day's journey without discovering . Śchulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. 311-314.; Leusden's Philologus before night, that Jesus was not in the "company." In the daytime, as Hebræo-Mixtus, pp. 210-262.; Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introduction circumstances right lead them, the travellers would probably mingle with (Bp. Watson's Theol. Tracts, vol. iji. pp. 225-234.); the Mosaic statutes their friends and acquaintance; but in the evening, when they were about relative to the Sabbath are fully discussed
by Michaelis, Commentaries, to encamp, every one would join the family to which he belonged. As vol. iii. pp. 150-181. ; vol. ii. pp. 399, 400.
Jesus then did not appear when it was growing late, his parents first See pp. 104-106. supra. * See pp. 100, 101. sought him, where they supposed he would most probably be, among
his This prohibition was derived from the command of God to Moses relations and acquaintance; and not finding him, returned to Jerusalem. (Exod. iii. 5.), and Joshua. (v. 13.) The same usage obtains throughout the Dr. Campbell's Translation of the Gospels, vol.ii. p. 449. note on Luke East to this day
of Exodus, it is unnecessary to detail it again in this place: Bat besides the benefits to be derived from the religious but as various traditional observances were in after-times celebration of these ordinances, Michaelis, to whom we are added to the Mosaic precepts concerning this sacrifice, to indebted for part of the preceding remarks, has pointed out which there are manifest allusions in the New Testament, several instances in which they produced a salutary effect on we shall trace them, as briefly as the important nature of the the community. Not only would their meeting together in subject will admit, under the following heads:-1. The time one place for the purposes of religion and social intercourse when it was to be kept ;-2. The ceremonies with which it tend to prevent a total alienation of rival tribes, as well as was to be celebrated ;-—3. The mystical signification of these civil war, but it would also afford them an opportunity of be- rites. ing mutually reconciled. Further, it is not improbable that 1. Of the time when the Passover was to be kept.—This festhese annual meetings promoted the internal commerce of the rival commenced on the evening subsequent to the fourteenth Israelites, who were prohibited from carrying on traffic with day of the month Nisan, the first in the Jewish sacred or foreigners; and, lastly, they had an important influence on ecclesiastical year (Exod. xii. 6. 8. 18. Lev. xxiii. 448. the Jewish calendar, inasmuch as the year was arranged, so Num.xxviii. 16–27.), with eating what was called the paschal that the various festivals should fall in their respective months lamb; and it was to continue seven whole days, that is, until without interfering with the labours of the field.
the twenty-first. The day preceding its commencement was IV. The first and most eminent of these festivals was the called the preparation of the passover. (John xix. 14.) DurPassover, instituted the night before the Israelites' departure ing its continuance no leavened bread was allowed to be from Egypt, for a perpetual memorial of their signal deliver- used; hence the fourteenth day of the month Nisan might ance, and of the favour which God showed them in passing with great propriety be called (as we find it is in Matt. xxvi. over and sparing their first-born, when he slew the first-born 17. Mark xiv. 12.) the first day of unleavened bread, because of the Egyptians. (Exod. xii. 12–14. 29-51.) This fes- the passover began in the evening. The fifteenth day, how. tival was also called the feast or the days of unleavened bread ever, might also be called the first day of unleavened bread:9 (Exod. xxiii. 15. Mark xiv. 1. Acts xii. 3.); because it was since, according to the Hebrew computation of time, the unlawful to eat any other bread during the seven days the evening of the fourteenth was the dawn or beginning of the feast lasted. The name was also by a metonymy given to fifteenth, on which day the Jews began to eat unleavened the lamb that was killed on the first day of this feast (Ezra bread. (Exod. xii. 18.) But, if any persons were prevented vi. 20. Matt. xxvi. 17.), whence the expressions to eat the from arriving at Jerusalem in time for the feast, either by any passover (Mark xiv. 12. 14.) and to sacrifice the passover. I uncleanness contracted by touching a dead body, or by the (1 Cor. v. 7.) Hence also St. Paul calls Jesus Christ our í length of the journey, he was allowed to defer his celebration passover (ibid.), that is, our true paschal lamb. But the of the passover until the fourteenth day of the following appellation, passover, belongs more particularly to the second month, in the evening: (Num. ix. 10–12.) As it is not day of the feast, viz. the fifteenth day of the month Nisan. improbable that some difference or mistake might arise in deIt was ordained to be celebrated on the anniversary of the termining the new moon, so often as such difference recurred, deliverance of the Israelites. This was an indispensable there would consequently be some discrepancy as to the prerite to be observed by every Israelite, except in particular cise time of commencing the passover. Such a discordance cases enumerated in Num. ix. 1–13., on pain of death ;6 might easily arise between the rival and hostile sects of and no uncircumcised person was allowed to partake of the Pharisees and Sadducees; and such a difference, it has been passover.? On this festive occasion, it was the custom at conjectured, did exist at the time Jesus Christ celebrated the Jerusalem for the inhabitants to give the free use of their passover with his disciples, one whole day before the Pharirooms and furniture to strangers at the passover.- This usage sees offered their paschal sacrifice. Sacrifices peculiar to this will explain the circumstance of our Saviour's sending to a festival were to be offered every day during its continuance; man to prepare for his eating the passover, who, by the rela- but the first and last days were to be sanctified above all the tion, appears to have been å stranger to him. Further, in rest, by abstaining from servile labour, and holding a sacred order to render this grand festival the more interesting, a convocation. (Exod. xii. 16. Lev. xxiii. 7, 8.) custom was introduced in the later times of the Jewish polity 2. Of the ceremonies with which the Passover was to be celeof liberating some criminal. By whom or at what time brated.-The paschal lamb was to be a male, without blemish, this practice originated it is now impossible accurately to of the first year, either from the sheep or the goats! (Exod. determine: the most probable opinion is, that it was intro- xii. 5.): it was to be taken from the flocks four days before duced by the Romans themselves, perhaps by Pilate at the it was killed ; and one lamb was to be offered for each family; commencement of his procuratorship of Judæa, with the per- and if its members were too few to eat a whole lamb, two mission of Augustus, in order to gratify the Jews by show- families were to join together. In the time of Josephus a ing them this public mark of respect. However this may paschal society consisted at least of ten persons to one lamb, be, it had become an established" custom from which Pilate and not more than twenty.12 Our Saviour's society was comcould not deviate (Matt. xxvii. 15. Luke xviii. 17. John xviii. posed of himself and the twelve disciples. (Matt. xxvi. 20. 39.), and therefore he reluctantly liberated the malefactor Luke xxii. 14.) Next followed the killing of the passover: Barabbas.
before the exode of the Israelites from Egypt, this was done As the very interesting history of this most solemn of all in their private dwellings; but after their settlement in Ca1 Cominentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. ii. pp. 192–189. Jennings's the Lord should choose to place his name there.” (Deut.
naan, it was ordered to be performed " in the place which Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. 4. pp. 448, 419. Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiqnities, pp. 127, 128.
xvi. 2.) This appears to have been at first wherever the ark * On the true meaning of the word passover Archbp. Magee has a learned disquisition in vol. i, of his Discourses on the Atonement, pp. 309 the temple.13 Every particular person (or rather a delegate
was deposited, and ultimately at Jerusalem in the courts of God and man, Dr. Cudworth has solidly proved in his "True Notion of the from every paschal society)!' slew his own victim : according Lord's Supper," chap. vi. pp. 28–36. at the end of vol. ii. of his “Intellect to Josephus, between the ninth hour, or three in the afternoon, ual Systein,” 4to. edit. • Schulzii Archæologia Hebr. p. 318.
and the eleventh, that is, about sunset; and within that space • That the passover was a proper and real sacrifice, see largely proved by Archbp. Magee, on the Atonement, vol. i. pp. 297–309.
The fifteenth day is so called in Lev. xxiii. 6. and by Josephus, who s Lev. xxiii. 6. Mark xiv. 1. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. 55. expressly terms the second day of unleavened bread the sixteenth day of of at least the thing signified by the sacrament of the Lord's supper, the time of beginning the passover is intimated in John xiii. 1, 2. xviii.
28. In like manner, Dr. Waterland has observed, a contempt and rejection the month... Aut. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. 65.
10 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 315, 319. That a difference did
exist as to must necessarily exclude every man from the benefits of Christ's passion and xix. 14. 31. The conjecture above noticed was made by Schulze ; and
So, in the early ages of Christianity, no person was permitted to come if it could be substantiated, it would reconcile the seeming differences to the Lord's supper until he had been baptized. As soon, however, as the occurring in the evangelists, respecting the
time when Christ actually celepassover was celebrated, every one
was at liberty to go home the very brated the passover, Dr. A. Clarke has collected the principal opinions on next morning if he pleased (Deut. xvi. 7.), of course while the festival this much
contested point, in his discourse on the Eucharist, pp. 5–24. lasted, in order that those Jews, who came from a distance, might return See also Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. c. 4. pp. 455–158. in time for getting in the harvest. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 11 The Hebrew word 119 (sen) means either a lamb or a kid: either was 183, 184.
equally proper. The llebrews, however, in general preferred a lamb. #Ilottinger has discussed the various opinions on the origin of this usage 12 De Bell, Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. $3. in a dissertation De ritâ dimittendi reum in festo Paschatis, Tempe Hel- 13 The area of the three courts of the temple, besides the rooms and other vetic. vol. iv. p. 264. From the Jews the castom proceeded to the Chris places in it, where the paschal victim might be offered, contained upwards tians; Valentinian and several other emperors having issued their edict of 435,600 square cubits; so that there was ample room for more than that some prisoners should be liberated from their bonds at the annual 500,000 men to be in the temple at the same time. Lamy, De 'Tabernacule. commemoration of our Saviour's resurrection. This custom obtained lib. vii. c. 9. $64, 5. among the Venetians till the close of the eighteenth century. (Schulzii " See Lightfoot's Temple Service, ch. xii. 5 5. (Works, vol. i. pp. Archäol. Hebr. p. 321.)
of time it was, that Jesus Christ, our true paschal lamb, was was probably Moses's rod which he had in his hand, when crucified. (Matt. xxvii. 46.) The victim being killed, one God sent him with a message to Pharaoh (Exod. iv. 2.), and of the priests received the blood into a vessel, which was which was afterwards used as an instrument in working so handed from one priest to another, until it came to him who many miracles. So necessary in these countries was a staff stood next the altar, and by whom it was sprinkled at the or walking-stick on a journey, that it was a usual thing for bottom of the altar. After the blood was sprinkled, the lamb persons when they undertook long journeys to take a spare was hung up and flayed: this being done, the victim was staff with them, for fear one should fail. When Christ, opened, the fat was taken out and consumed on the altar, therefore, sent his apostles on the embassy above mentioned, after which the owner took it to his own house. The paschal he ordered them not to take staves (Luke ix. 3. Mark vi. 8.), lamb was to be roasted whole, which might be commanded that is, only one staff or walking-stick, without making proas a matter of convenience at the first passover, in order that vision of a spare one, as was common in long journeys. their culinary utensils might be packed up ready for their “ The paschal lamb was to be eaten with unleavened bread, departure while the lamb was roasting; no part of it was to on pain of being cut off from Israel
, or excommunicated be eaten either in a raw state, or boiled. (Exod. xii. 9.) though some critics understand this of being put to death
The propriety of the prohibition of eating any portion of The reason of this injunction was, partly to remind them of the paschal lamb in a raw state will readily appear, when it the hardships they had sustained in Egypt, unleavened being is known that raw flesh and palpitating limbs were used in more heavy and less palatable than leavened bread; on which some of the old heathen sacrifices and festivals, particularly account it is called the bread of affliction (Deut. xvi. 3.); in honour of the Egyptian deity Osiris, and the Grecian and partly to commemorate the speed of their deliverance Bacchus, who were the same idol under different names. or departure from thence, which was such, that they had not That no resemblance or memorial of so barbarous a supersti- sufficient time to leaven their bread ; it-is expressly said, that tion might ever debase the worship of Jehovah, He made their “dough was not leavened, because they were thrust out this early and express provision against it. On the same of Egypt and could not tarry (Exod. xii. 39.); and on this ground, probably, He required the paschal lamb to be eaten account it was enacted into a standing law, Thou shalt eat privately and entire, in opposition to the bacchanalian feasts, unleavened bread, even the bread of affliction ; for thou camest in which the victim was publicly torn in pieces, carried forth out of Egypt in haste. (Deut. xvi. 3.) This rite, about in pomp, and then devoured. Further, the prohibition therefore, was not only observed at the first passover, but in of boiling the paschal lamb was levelled against a supersti- all succeeding ages."). But from the metaphorical sense in tious practice of the Egyptians and Syrians, who were which the term Teaven is used, this prohibition is supposed accustomed to boil their victims, and especially to seethe a to have had a moral view; and that the divine legislator's kid or lamb in the milk of its dam; as the command to roast intention was, that the Israelites should cleanse their minds and eat the whole of the lamb-not excepting its inwards from malice, envy, and hypocrisy; in a word, from the leaven without leaving any
portion until the following morning, was of Egypt. In consequence of this injunction, the Hebrews, directed against another superstition of the antient heathens, as well as the modern Jews, have always taken particular whose priests carefully preserved and religiously searched care to search for all the leaven that might be in their houses, the entrails of their victims, whence they gathered their and to burn it.? 1 pretended knowledge of futurity. Those, likewise, who The passover was likewise to be eaten with bitter herbs :" frequented pagan temples, were eager to carry away and de- this was doubtless prescribed as "a memorial of their severe vote to superstitious uses some sacred relics or fragments of bondage in Egypt, which made their lives bitter unto them; the sacrifices. In short, the whole ceremonial of the pass- and possibly also to denote that the haste, in which they deover appears to have been so adjusted as to wage an open parted, compelled them to gather such wild herbs as most and destructive war against the gods and idolatrous ceremo- readily presented themselves. To this sauce the Jews afternies of Egypt, and thus to form an early and powerful wards added another, made of dates, raisins, and several inbarrier around the true worship and servants of Jehovah.. gredients beaten together to the consistence of mustard, which
After the lamb was thus dressed, it was eaten by each is called charoseth, and is designed to represent the clay in family or paschal society. “ The First passover was to be which their forefathers wrought while they were in bondage eaten standing, in the posture of travellers, who had no time to the Egyptians. to lose; and with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and no “It was further prescribed, that they should eat the flesh bone of it was to be broken. (Exod. xii. 8. 11. 46.) The of the lamb, without breaking any of his bones. (Exod. xii. posture of travellers was enjoined them, both to enliven 46.) This the latter Jews understand, not of the smaller their faith in the promise of their then speedy deliverance bones, but only of the greater which had marrow in them, from Egypt; and also, that they might be ready to begin Thus was this rite also intended to denote their being in their march presently after supper. They were ordered, there haste, not having time to break the bones and suck out the fore, to eat it with their loins girded; for as they were accus- marrow." tomed to wear long and loose garments, such as are generally Lastly, “it was ordered that nothing of the paschal lamb used by the eastern nations to this day, it was necessary to should remain till the morning; but, if it were not all eaten, tie them up with a girdle about their loins, when they either it was to be consumed by fire. (Exod. xii. 10.) The same travelled or engaged in any laborious employment."3. Fur- law was extended to all eucharistical sacrifices (Lev. xxii. ther, they were to eat the passover with shoes on their feel, 30.); no part of which was to be left, or set by, lest it should for in those hot countries they ordinarily wore sandals, which be corrupted, or converted to any profane or common use, were a sort of clogs, or went barefoot; but in travelling they an injunction which was designed, no doubt, to maintain the used shoes, which were a kind of short boots, reaching a honour of sacrifices, and to teach the Jews to treat with little way up the legs. Hence, when our Saviour sent his reverence whatever was consecrated more especially to the twelve disciples to preach in the neighbouring towns, design- service of God.” ing to convince them by their own experience of the extra- Such were the circumstances under which the first passover ordinary care of Divine Providence over them, that they was celebrated by the Israelites; for, after they were settled might not be discouraged by the length and danger of the in the land of Canaan, they no longer ate it standing, but the journeys they would be called to undertake;-on this account guests reclined on their left arms upon couches placed round he ordered them to make no provision for their present journey, particularly, not to take shoes on their feet, but to be exclaims, Yea, though I walk through the ralley of the shadow of death, 1 shod with sandals. (Matt. x. 10, compared with Mark vi. 9,5 mil fear no evil : for thou art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort Again, they were to eat the passover with staves in their Jennings's Jewish Antiquitios, book iii. ch. iv. pp. 468–470. (London,
1823, 8vo.) hands, such as were always used by travellers in those rocky
& Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 953, 954. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 381, countries, both to support them in slippery places, and de
St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians a short time ber fend them against assaults. (Gen. xxxii. 10.) Of this sort fore the passover, exhorts them to cleanse out the old leaven of lewdness the table. (John xiii. 23.) This posture, according to the herbs, dipping the bread into the charoseth, or sauce. To Talmudical writers, was an emblem of that rest and freedom this practice the evangelists Matthew (xxvi. 21—25.) and which God had granted to the children of Israel by bringing Mark (xiv. 18—21.) manifestly allude; and into this sauce them out of Egypt. This custom of reclining at table, over our Saviour is supposed to have dipped the sop which he one another's bosom, was a sign of equality and strict union gave to Judas. (John xiii. 26.) among the guests.
by casting the incestuous person out of the church; and to keep the feast Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, pp. 123, 124.
(of the Lord's supper) not with the old leaven of sensuality and uncleanBeausobre says that these sodalities were called brotherhoods, and the ness, with which they were formerly corrupted, neither with the leaven guests companions or friends, and that our Saviour's reproof of Judas by of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread (or qualities) of calling him friend or companion (Matt. xxvi. 50,) was botli just and cutting, sincerity and truth. Macknight on 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. ; who observes, that it is because he betrayed hiin after
having eaten the passover with him, probable from this passage that the disciples of Christ began very early to Thus when Elisha sent his servant Gehazi on a message in haste, he celebrate the Lord's supper with peculiar solemnity, annually, on the day bade him "gird up his loins," 2 Kings iv. 29.; and when our Saviour set on which the Redeemer suffered, which was the day of the Jewish pass. about washing bis disciples' seet, "he took a towel and girded himself," over, called in modern language Easter. It is with beautiful propriety, John xiii. 4.
therefore, that this passage of Saint Paul is introduced by the Anglican David beautifully alludes to this custom in the twenty-third Psalm Church among the occasional versicles for Easter Sunday. where (ver. 1.), expressing !.is trust in the goodness of the Almighty, he * Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iji. ch. iv. pp. 470, 471.
1 See Matt. xvi. 6.
(7.) Next they ate the flesh of the peace-offerings which Dr. Lightfoot has collected from the Talmud a variety of had been sacrificed on the fourteenth day, and then the flesh passages relative to the Jewish mode of celebrating the pass- of the paschal lamb, which was followed by returning thanks over; from which we have abridged the following particulars, to God, and a second washing of hands. as they are calculated materially to illustrate the evangelical (8.) A third cup of wine was then filled, over which they history of our Lord's last passover, recorded in Matt. xxvi. blessed God, or såid grace after meat (whence it was called Mark xiv. Luke xxii. and John xiii.
the cup of blessing), and drank it off. To this circumstance (1.) The guests being placed around the table, they mingled St. Paul particularly alludes when he says,—The cup of blessa cup of wine with water, over which the master of the family ing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? (or, if two or more families were united, a person deputed (1 Cor. x. 16.) It was also at this part of the paschal supper for the purpose) gave thanks, and then drank it off. The that our Lord took the cup, saying, This is the NEW TESTAMENT thanksgiving for the wine was to this effect, “ Blessed be thou, (rather covenant) in MY BLOOD, which is shed for you, and for O Lord, who hast created the fruit of the vine;" and for the many, for the REMISSION OF Sins. (Luke xxii. 20. Matt. xxvi. day, as follows-“ Blessed be thou for this good day, and for 27.). The cup here is put for wine; and covenant is put for this holy convocation, which thou hast given us for joy and re- the token or sign of the covenant. The wine, as representjoicing? Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast sanctified Israel ing Christ's blood, answers to the blood of the passover, and the times !!! Of these cups of wine they drank four in which typified it; and the remission of sins here, answers to the course of the ordinance.
the passing over there, and preserving from death.3 (2.) They then washed their hands, after which the table (9.) Lastly, a fourth cup of wine was filled, called the cup was furnished with the paschal lamb, roasted whole, with of the hallel: over it they completed, either by singing or bitter herbs, and with two cakes of unleavened bread, together recitation, the great hallel, or hymn of praise, consisting of with the remains of the peace-offerings sacrificed on the pre- psalms cxv. to cxviii. inclusive, with a prayer, and so conceding day, and the charoseth, or thick sauce, above men- cluded. In like manner our Lord and his disciples, when tioned.
they had sung a hymn, departed to the Mount of Olives. (3.) The officiator, or person presiding, then took a small (Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.) piece of salad, and having blessed God for creating the fruit 3. With regard to the mystical signification of the passof the ground, he ate it, as also did the other guests: after over, we know .generally from St. Paul (1 Cor. v. 7.), who which all the dishes were removed from the table, that the calls Jesus Christ our passover, that this Jewish sacrament children might inquire and be instructed in the nature of the had a typical reference to him: but concerning the points of feast. (Exod. xii. 25, 26.). The text on which they generally resemblance between the type and anti-type, learned men discoursed was Deut. xxvi. 5–11. In like manner our Sa- are not agreed. Godwin' has enumerated thirteen points of viour makes use of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, to coincidence; Dr. Lightfoot, seventeen ; and Keach, nineteen. declare the great mercy of God in our redemption; for it The most judicious arrangement of this subject which we shows forth the Lord's death till he come to judge the world. have seen is that of Herman Witsius,s who has treated it
The " continual remembrance of the sacrifice of the death of under four general heads, viz. the person of Christ,—the Christ, and of the benefits we receive thereby,” which has sufferings he bore for us,—the fruits of those sufferings,been observed ever since the time of the apostles, is a per- and the manner in which we are made partakers of them, manent and irrefragable argument for the reality of that As, however, many of the analogies which Witsius has traced full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction between the passover and the death of Christ are very fancifor the sins of the whole world,” which was made by Jesus ful, his arrangement only has been adopted in the following Christ“ by his one oblation of himself” upon the cross; in observations: opposition to the opinion of those who deny the divinity of (1.) The Person of CHRIST WAS TYPIFIED BY THE Pasour Saviour, and the vicarious nature of his death.
CHAL LAMB. (4.) Then replacing the supper, they explained the import “ The animal sacrifice at the passover was to be a lamb of the bitter herbs and paschal lamb; and over the second without blemish. (Exod. xii. 5.) Christ is styled the Lamb cup of wine repeated the hundred and thirteenth and hundred of God, which taketh away the sin of the world (John i. and fourteenth psalms, with an eucharistic prayer.
29. 36.); a lamb without blemish and without spot. (1 Pet. (5.) The hands were again washed, accompanied by an i. 19. See Isa. liii. 7.), The paschal lamb was to be one ejaculatory prayer; after which the master of the house pro- of the flock. Christ the Word who was made flesh, and ceeded to break and bless a cake of the unleavened bread, dwelt among us (John i. 14.), was taken from the midst of which he distributed among the guests, reserving half of the the people, being in all things made like unto his brethren.” cake beneath a napkin, if necessary, for the aphicomen, or (Heb. ii. 17.) last morsel; for the rule was, to conclude with eating a (2.) The SUFFERINGS AND DEATH OF CHRIST WERE AL small piece of the paschal lamb, or, after the destruction of TYPIFIED BY THE PASCHAL LAMB IN VARIOUS PARTICULARS. the temple, of unleavened bread. In like manner our Lord, “ The sacrifice of the passover differed from other sacriupon instituting the sacrament of the eucharist, which was prefigured by the passover, took bread; and having blessed Lord's supper, Dr. Lightfoot has the following admirable reinarks:-"This
3 Clarke on the Eucharist, p. 39. On this part of the institution of the or given thanks to God, he brake it, and gave it to his disci- is my blood of the New Testament. Not only the seal of the covenant, ples, saying, Tuke, eat, this is (that is, signifies] my body, and the sconfirming of a new one. The confirmation of the old covenant
The end of the Mosaic economy, which is given for you. This do in remembrance of me. (Matt. was by the blood of bulls and of goats (Exod. xxiv. Heb. ix.), because xxvi. 26. Mark xiv. 22. Luke xxii. 19. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24.) In blood was still to be shed: the confirmation of the new was by a cup of the communion service of the Anglican church, the spirit blood. As it is here said of the cup, This cup is the New Testament in and design both of the type and antitype are most expres- my blood ; so it might be said of the cup of blood. (Exod. xxiv.) That cup sively condensed into one point of view in the following was the old Testament in the blood of Christ, there all the articles of thá address to the communicant :- Take and eat this in Re- covenant being read over, Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, and MEMBRANCE that Christ died for thee, and feed upon him in said: Lais is the blood of the corenant which God hath made with you ; and thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving."
Christ, having published all the articles of the new covenant, he takes the (6.) They then ate the rest of the cake with the bitter cup of wine, and gives them to drink, and saith, This is the New TestaVIIl. Besides the annual festivals above described, the by the Jews in later ages, though not appointed by Moses. Jews in later times introduced several fast and feast days in Such are the fast of the fourth month, on account of the takaddition to those instituted by Moses. The two principal ing of Jerusalem by the Chaldæans (Jer. lii. 6, 7.); the fast festivals of this kind were the Feast of Purim, and that of the of the fifth month, on account of their burning the temple and Dedication of the Second Temple.
ment in my blood, and thus the new covenant was established."-(Works,
vol. ii. p. 260.) Hor. Heb. on Matt. xxvi. 27. 1 This custom, Beausobre well observes, will explain several passages * Lightfoot's Temple Service, c. xiii. (Works, vol. i. pp. 959--967.) See of Scripture, particularly those in which mention is made of Abraham's also Mr. Ainsworth's learned and interesting notes on Exod. xii. in his bosom (Luke xvi. 22.), and of the Son's being in the bosom of the Father. Annotations on the Pentateuch. (John i. 18. compared with Phil. ii. 6. and John xiii. 23.)
Godwin's Moses and Aaron, pp. 114, 115. In this part of the paschal ceremony, among the modern Jews, after • Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 1008, 1009. the master of the house has reserved the portion for the aphicomen, the Keach's Key to ścripture Metaphors, pp. 979, 980. 2d edit. See also bone of the lamb and the egg are taken off the dish, and all at table lay M'Ewen on the Types, pp. 148–152. hold of the dish and say, "Lo! this is for signifies) the bread of afflic- . Witsius, de Economia Federum, lib. iv. c. 9. $$35—58. or vol. ii. pp. tion, which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt; let all those who are 275–282. of the English translation. Witsius's View of the Mystical Im. hungry eat thereof; and all who are necessitous, come, and celebrate the port of the Passover has been abridged by Dr. Jennings. Jcwish Antiq. Passover." Form of Prayers for the Festivals of Passover and Pente-book iii. ch. iv. pp. 472–477. cost, according to the custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, trans- • Chevallier's Hulsean Lectures, on the Historical Types of the Old lated from the Hebrew by David Levi, p. 20.
Testament, p. 285.
city (2 Kings xxv. 8.); and that of the seventh month, on 1. 'The FEAST OF PURIM, or of Lots, as the word signifies, account of the murder of Gedaliah (2 Kings xxv. 25.); and is celebrated on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the
month the fast of the tenth month, when the Babylonian army comof Adar (or of Ve-Adar if it be an intercalary year), in com- menced the siege of Jerusalem. (Jer. lii. 4.) All these fasts memoration of the providential deliverance of the Jews from are enumerated together in Zech. viii. 19.; and to them we the cruel machinations of Haman, who had procured an edict, may, perhaps, add the xylophoria, or feast of wood-offering, from Artaxerxes to extirpate them. (Esth. iii.-ix.) On this when the people brought and offered large quantities of wood occasion the entire book of Esther is read in the synagogues for the use of the altar: it is supposed to have been celebrated of the modern Jews, not out of a printed copy, but from a roll in the time of Nehemiah (x. 34. xiii. 31.), in whose praises, which generally contains this book alone. All Jews, of both on this occasion, the Jews largely expatiated, and related sexes, and of every age, who are able to attend, are required several wonderful tales concerning him and the fire lighted to come to this feast and to join in the reading, for the better upon the altar. (2 Macc. i. 18–22.) Nine days were appropreservation of the memory of this important fact. When the priated to this festival, viz. The first of Nisan, the 20th of
roll is unfolded, the chazan or reader says, “ Blessed be God, Tammuz, the 5th, 7th, 10th, 15th, and 20th of Ab, the 20th • the King of the world, who hath sanctified us by his precepts, of Elul, and the
1st of Tebeth. and commanded us to read the Megillah! Blessed be God, IX. The preceding are the chief annual festivals noticed who in those days worked miracles for our fathers !” As in the Sacred Writings, that are particularly deserving of often as the name of Haman occurs, the whole congregation attention: the Jews have various others of more modern inclap their hands, stamp with their feet, and exclaim, “ Let stitution, which are here designedly omitted. We therefore his name be blotted out! May the memory of the wicked proceed to notice those extraordinary festivals which were rot!” The children at the same time hiss, and strike loudly celebrated only after the recurrence of a certain number of on the forms with little wooden hammers made for the pur- years. pose. When the reader comes to the seventh, eighth, and 1. The first of these was the SABBATICAL YEAR. For, as ninth chapters, where the names of Haman's ten sons occur, the seventh day of the week was consecrated as a day of he pronounces them with great rapidity, and in one breath, to rest to man and beast, so this gave rest to the land; which, intimate that they were all hanged, and expired in the same during its continuance, was to lie fallow, and the “ Sabbath moment. In most manuscripts and editions of the book of of the land,” or its spontaneous produce, was dedicated to Esther, the ten names contained in the chapters just men- charitable uses, to be enjoyed by the servants of the family, tioned are written under each other in ten lines, no other word by the
way faring stranger, and by the cattle. (Lev. xxv. i being connected with them, in order to exhibit the manner in –7. Exod. xxiii. 11.) This was also the year of release which they were hanged, viz. on a pole fifty cubits, that is, from personal slavery (Exod. xxi. 2.), as well as of the seventy-five feet high; each of the brothers being immedi- remission of debts. (Deut. xv. 1, 2.) Beausobre is of opinion ately suspended, the one under the cther, in one perpendicular that the frequent mention made in the New Testament of the line.
remission of sins is to be understood as an allusion to the When the chazan has finished the reading, the whole con- sabbatical year. In order to guard against famine on this and gregation exclaim-Cursed be Haman !-Blessed be Mor- the ensuing year, God was graciously pleased to promise a decai !—Cursed be Zeresh !--Blessed be Esther Cursed triple produce of the lands upon the sixth year, sufficient to be all idolaters !-Blessed be all the Israelites !-And blessed supply the inhabitants till the fruits or harvest sown in the likewise be 'Harbonah, at whose instance Haman was hang- eighth year were ripe. (Lev. xxv. 2—22.) This was a sined!” In order to heighten the general joy on this festival, gular institution, peculiar to a theocracy. And the breach Buxtorf relates that some Jews wore party-coloured garments, of it was among the national sins that occasioned the captivity, and young foxes' tails in their hats, and ran about the syna- that the land might enjoy her Sabbaths, of which she had been gogue exciting the congregation to laughter! Further, to defrauded by the rebellion of the inhabitants. (Lev. xxvi. 34. excite and increase mirth, the men and women exchange 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21.) apparel; this, though positively forbidden by the law, they 2. The JUBILEE was a more solemn sabbatical year, held consider innocent, and allowable on this festive occasion, every seventh sabbatical year, that is, at the end of every which is a season of peculiar gayety. Alms are given to the forty-nine years, or the fiftieth current year. (Lev. xxv. 8— poor; relations and friends send presents to each other; and 10.) Concerning the etymology of the Hebrew word jobel all furnish their tables with every luxury they can command. (whence our jubilee is derived) learned men are by no means These two days are the bacchanalia of the modern Jews; agreed; the most probable of these conflicting opinions is who think it no sin to indulge themselves largely in their that of Calmet, who deduces it from the Hebrew verb hobil, cups, some of them indeed to intoxication, in memory of to recall, or bring back; because estates, &c. that had been Esther's banquet of wine; at which she succeeded in defeat- alienated were then brought back to their original owners. ing the sanguinary designs of Haman.
Such appears to have been the meaning of the word, as un2. The Feast of Dedication (mentioned in John x. 22.) derstood by the Septuagint translators, who render the Hewas instituted by Judas Maccabæus, in imitation of those by brew word jobel by upesls
, remission, and by Josephus, who Solomon and Ezra, as a grateful memorial of the cleansing says that it signified liberty.. of the second temple and altar, after they had been profaned This festival commenced on the tenth day of the month by Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Macc. iv. 52–59.) 'It com- Tisri, in the evening of the day of atonement (Lev. xxv. menced on the twenty-fifth of the month Cisleu, correspond- 9.); a time, Bishop Patrick remarks, peculiarly well chosen, ing with our December, and lasted eight days. This festival as the Jews would be better disposed to forgive their brethren was also called the feast of lights, because the Jews illumi- their debts when they had been imploring pardon of God for nated their houses in testimony of their joy and gladness on their own transgressions. It was proclaimed by the sound this very important occasion. The whole of this feast was of trumpet throughout the whole land, on the great day of spent in singing hymns, offering sacrifices, and every kind atonement. All debts were to be cancelled; all slaves or of diversion : it was celebrated with much solemnity in the captives were to be released. Even those who had voluntatime of Josephus.
rily relinquished their freedom at the end of their six years' Besides these two festivals, we find several others inci- service, and whose ears had been bored in token of their dentally mentioned in the Old Testament, as being observed perpetual servitude, were to be liberated at the jubilee: for
then they were to proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto p. 491. et seq. Schulzii Archäol. Hebr. pp. 328–334. The typical refer- all the inhabitants thereof. (Lev. xxv. 10.) Further, in this ence of the sacrifice offered on this day is discussed at considerable year all estates that had been sold, reverted to their original length by Witsius, de Econ. Fæd. lib. iv. c. 6. or vol. ii. pp. 213—231, of proprietors, or to the families to which they had originally the
English translation. On the manner in which this fact is observed by the inodern Jews, see Allen's Modern Judaism, pp. 391–399.
Schulzii Archäol. Hebr. p. 316. Pictet. Antiq. Judaiques, p. 37. 1 Buxtorf de Synagog. Jud. cap. 29. Iken. Antiq. Hebr. pp. 336–338. (Theologie Chrétienne, tom. iii.) Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 331, 335. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 405. Dr. 5 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 337–339. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. Clarke's Commentary on Esther.
i. pp. 387. et seq. Leusden, Philol. Hebr. Mixt. p. 307. Reland's Antiq. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 7. $$ 6, 7.
Hebr. p. 524. Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book í: p. 278. Beausobre and - Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 335, 336. Lamy, vol. I. p. 186. Lightfoot's L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 124. Jennings's Jewish Works, vol. i. pp. 246. 979. vol. ii. pp. 576. 1033. 1039. Relandi Antiq. Heb. Antiq. book iii. ch. 9. p. 534.
6 Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. $3.