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li. 7. 19.) Let my prayer come before thee as incense, and the lumb without blemish and without spot. (1 Pet. i. 19.) Furlifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice. (Psal. cxli. 2.) ther, it was a custom among nations contiguous to Judæa, and Therefore will I offer the sacrifice of joy. (Psal. cxvi. 17.) particularly among the Egyptians," to set a seal upon a victim The sin of Judah, says Jeremiah, is graven upon the that was deemed proper for sacrifice. With this custom the horns of your altars. (Jer. xvii. 1.) Take away all our ini- Jews could not be unacquainted ; and it is possible that simiquity and receive us graciously; so will we render thee the lar precautions were in use among themselves, especially as calves of our lips. (Hos. xiv. 2.)” Nor are similar examples they were so strictly enjoined to have the sacrifices without wanting in the New Testament, whose inspired authors, spot and without blemish. To such a usage Jesus Christ is being educated in the Jewish religion, retain the same supposed to have alluded, when speaking of the sacrifice of phraseology, which has enriched their writings with nume- himself, he says-Him hath God the Father SEALED. (John rous beautiful and expressive allusions to the national sacri- vi. 27.51.).." Infinite justice found Jesus Christ to be withfices and ceremonies.
out spot or blemish, and therefore sealed, pointed out and acMichaelis classes the offerings prescribed to the Israelites cepted him as a proper sacrifice and atonement for the sin of under three general heads-namely, bloody offerings, or the whole world. Collate Heb. vii. 26–28. Eph. v. 27. sacrifices strictly so called; unbloody offerings, or "those 2 Pet. iii. 14., and especially Heb. ix. 13, 14. For, if the taken only from the vegetable kingdom; and drink-offerings, blood of Bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer, sprink. or libations, which were a kind of accompaniment to the ling the unclean, sanctifieth,—how much more shåll the blood two preceding. We shall follow this classification, as ena- of Christ, who through the Eternal Spirit offered himself WITHbling us to present to our readers the most compendious OUT spot to God, purge your consciences from dead works ?"6 account of the Jewish sacrifices.
3. The victim thus chosen, being found immaculate, was 1. Bloody OFFERINGS were sacrifices properly and strictly led up to the altar by the person offering the sacrifice; who so called ; by which we may understand the infliction of laid his hand upon its head, on which he leaned with all his death on a living creature, generally by the effusion of its strength ;; and, while the sacrifice was offering, said some blood in a way of religious worship, and the presenting of particular prayers; and if several persons united in offering this act to God as a supplication for the pardon of sin, and as the same victim, they put their hands upon it in succession. a supposed mean of compensation for the insult and injury (Lev. iv. 13—15.): By this imposition of hands the person offered by sin to his majesty and government. Sacrifices presenting the victim acknowledged the sacrifice to be his have in all ages, and by almost every nation, been regarded own: that he loaded it with his iniquities; that he offered it as necessary to appease the divine anger, and to render the as an atonement for his sins; that he was worthy of death Deity
, propitious :: but whether this universal notion derived because he had sinned, having forfeited his life by violating its origin from divine revelation, or was suggested by con- the law of God; and that he entreated God to accept the life scious guilt and a dread of the divine displeasure, is a ques- of the innocent animal in the place of his own. In this retion that cannot be easily decided. It is, however, not spect the victims of the Old Testament were types of Jesus improbable that it originated in the former, and prevailed Christ, the lamb of God that TAKETH Away the sin of the under the influence of the latter. The Scripture account of world (John i. 29.), and on whom Jehovah in the fulness sacrifices leads us to conclude, that they were instituted by of time laid the iniquity of us all.. (Isa. liii. 6. with 1 Pet. divine appointment, immediately after the entrance of sin by ii. 24.). the fall of Adam and Eve, to be a type or significant emblem Further, in certain cases it was required that the victim of the great atonement or all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ.? should be one, on which never came yoke (Num. xix. 2. Deut. Accordingly we find Abel, Noah, Abraham, Job, and others, xxi. 3. 1 Sam. vi. 7.); because any animal which had been offering sacrifices in the faith of the Messiah that was to be used for a common purpose was deemed improper to be revealed; and the divine acceptance of their sacrifices is offered in sacrifice to God.10 particularly recorded. This hypothesis, and this only, satis- 4. The animal thus conducted to the altar was next imfactorily accounts for the early prevalence of religious sacri- molated, by cutting the throat and windpipe entirely through fices, not only among the worshippers of the true God, but at one stroke; the blood being caught in a vessel, and sprinkalso among Pagan idolaters.
led round about upon the altar. By this sprinkling the atone1. In all bloody sacrifices it was essential that the animals ment was made, for the blood was the life of the beast, and slaughtered should be clean;
but it does not appear that all it was always supposed that life went to redeem life. (Lev. clean animals were to be offered indiscriminately. Fishes i. 5—7.) The blood remaining after these aspersions was were not brought to the altar; and hence the Israelites are poured out at the foot of the altar, either all at once, or at nowhere prohibited from eating their blood, but only that of different times, according to the nature of the sacrifice offered. birds and quadrupeds. (Lev. vii
. 26.). It would seem that all clean birds might be offered (Lev. xiv. 4—7.), though the white bulls for their sacrifices, will inaterially explain the custom above
5 The following account of the manner in which the Egyptians provided dove was the most common offering of this class. Of quad-alluded to : _"They sacrifice white bulls to Apis, and for that reason make rupeds, oxen, sheep, and goats were the only kinds which the following trial. If they find one black hair upon him, they consider were destined for the altar. No wild beasts were admissi-bim as unclean. In order that they may know this with certainty, the ble: and hence comes the expression in the law of Moses standing
and lying on the ground: after this, he draws out his tongue, to (Deut. xii. 15, 22. xv. 22.), It shall be eaten like the roe or the see if he be clean by certain signs; and in the last place he inspects the hart; by which he means to intimate that, in killing a beast, hairs of his tail, that he may be sure they are, as by nature they should be. all religious intention and all idea of sacrifice was to be lying a label to his horns ; then, having applied wax, he seals it with his avoided. 2. In the selection of the victims, the utmost care was mals, unless he has been marked with such a seal.” Herodotus, lib. ii. c.
33. vol. i. p. 113. edit. Oxon. taken to choose such only as were free from every blemish. 6 Dr. A. Clarke, on John vi. 27. Unless it were pure and immaculate, it was to be rejected, as * This ceremony, it is proper to remark, was omitted in respect to the a sacrifice unacceptable to Jehovah. (Lev. xxii. 22.) In a
turtle doves, and young pigeons, which were allowed to be offered in cer.
tain cases. beautiful allusion to this circumstance, St. Paul beseeches 8 The nature and mystical import of laying hands on the head of the Christians, by the mercies of God, to present their bodies a victim are largely.considered by Archbishop Magee in his Discourses
on living sacrifice, holy and acceptable, which is their reasonable the Atonement, vol. i. pp. 336–377. service. (Rom. xii. 1.) Hence also Jesus Christ is styled a Magee's Discourses on the Atonement, sol i. pp. 352–366.
On the vicarious import of the Mosaic sacrifices, see Archbishop 10 The heathens, who appear to have borrowed much from the Hebrews,
were very scrupulous in this particular. Neither the Greeks, nor the RoHarwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. ii. pp. 216, 217.
mans (who had the same religion, and, consequently, the same sacrifices 1 To this notion of sacrifice our Saviour alluded in John xvi. 2. where he with the Greeks), nor indeed the Egyptians, would offer an animal in sacri. tells his disciples that such would be the enmity with which they should fice that had been employed in agriculture. Just such a sacrifice as that be pnrsued, that he who should kill them would be deeined to have slain a prescribed here docs Diomede vow to offer to Pallas. Iliad, x. 291–294. sacrifice highly acceptable to the Almighty-"He that killeth you shall in the very same words Nestor promises a similar sacrifice to Pallas, think he doeth God service.” In reference also to this notion of sacrifice, Odyss, iii. 382. the apostle by a very beautiful and expressive figure represents Christ as Thus also VIRGIL. Georg. iv. 550. loving us, and giving himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God of
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, a sweet smelling savour. (Eph. v. 2) Harwood's Introd. to the New
Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. Test. vol. ii. p. 218. 3 The divine origin of sacrifices is fully proved by Archbishop Magee,
From his herd he culls, in his Discourses on the Atonement, vol. i. pp. 44-60. and vol. ii. pp. 22–
For slaughter, four the fairest of his bulls ; 46. 184—199., and by Mr. Jeram in his Treatise on the Doctrine of the
Four heifers from his female stock he took, Atonement, pp. 90—292. Mr. Davison has argued on the contrary side in
All fais, and all unknowing of the yoke. DRYDEN. his Inquiry into the Origin of Sacrifice. (London, 1825. Svo.) Mr. Faber It is very probable that the Gentiles learnt their first sacrificial rites from has ably vindicated the divine origin of Sacrifices in a treatise published at the Patriarchs; and on this account we need not wonder to find so many
coincidences in the sacrificial system of the patriarchs and Jews, and of • Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 95
all the neighbouring nations. (Dr. A. Clarke, on Num. xix. 2.)
London in 18:27. 8vo.
Around the altar there was a kind of trench into which the ii. The PEACE-OFFERINGS (Lev. iii. 1.) were also freeblood fell; whence
it was conveyed by subterraneous chan-will-offerings, in token of peace and reconciliation between nels into the brook Cedron. This altar, being very high, is God and man; they were either eucharistical, that is, offered considered hy Lamy as a type of the cross to which our as thanksgivings for blessings received, or votive, that is, Saviour was fixed, and which he washed with his precious offered with prayers for the impetration of mercies. These blood. The victim being thus immolated, the skin was offerings consisted either of animals, or of bread or dough; stripped from the neck; its breast was opened ; its bowels if the former, part of them was burnt upon the altar, espewere taken out, and the back bone was cleft. It was then cially all the fat, as an offering to the Lord; and the remainder divided into quarters; so that, both externally and internally, was to be eaten by the priest and the party offering: To it was fully exposed to view. To this custom of laying open this sacrifice of praise of thanksgiving St. Paul alludes in the victim, St. Paul has a very beautiful and emphatic allu- Heb. xiji. 15, 16. In this kind of sacrifices the victims sion in one of the most animated descriptions ever written, might be either male or female, provided they were without of the mighty effects produced by the preached Gospel. blemish. The parts of both, which were appropriated to the (Heb. iv. 12, 13.) The word of God is quick and powerful, priests and Levites, were called heave or wave offerings; besharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing cause they were heaved or lifted up towards heaven, and waved asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and to and fro, before they were eaten, in acknowledgment of is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Neither the goodness and kindness of God, and also in token of their is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight ; for all being consecrated to him. (Lev. iii. 1–6. Exod. xxix. 26, things are naked and opened to the eyes of him to whom we 27. Num. xviii. 24–28.) must give an account. reviously to laying the sacrifice on The peace-offerings are in Hebrew termed Diplo (shelathe altar, it was salted for the fire (Lev. ii. 13. Ezek. xliii. Mim), from Ohm (SHALAM), to complete or make whole: be24. Mark ix. 46.); the law prohibiting any thing to be of- cause, by these offerings that which was deficient was consifered there which was not salted : and according to the nature dered as being now made up; and that which was broken, of the sacrifice, either the whole or part of the victim was viz. the covenant of God, by his creature's transgression, was consumed upon the altar, where the priests kept a fire per- supposed to be made whole: so that, after such an offering, petually burning.1
the sincere and conscientious mind was authorized to consider 5. Before the building of the temple, sacrifices were offered itself as reconciled to God, and that it might lay confident at the door of the tabernacle; but after its erection it was not hold on this covenant of peace. To this St. Paus alludes in lawful to offer them elsewhere. (Deut. xii. 14.). This pro- that fine passage contained in Eph. ii. 14—19. hibition took from the Jews the liberty of sacrificing in any The appointed seasons and occasions of the peace-offering other place. The victims might indeed be slain in any part were, 1. At the consecration of a priest. (Exod. xxix. 1—37. of the priest's court, but not without its precincts; and there 2. At the expiration of the Nazarite vow. (Num. vi. 13—21.) they were also obliged to sacrifice the paschal lamb. All 3. At the solemn dedication of the tabernacle and temple; the victims were to be offered by daylight, and the blood and, 4. At the purification of a leper. was always to be sprinkled on the same day that they were iii
. ȘIN-OFFERINGS, in Hebrew termed anon (chataan), slain; as it became polluted as soon as the sun was set. If, (from the word Non (CHATA) to miss the mark), were offered however, the sprinkling had been made in the day time, the for sins committed through ignorance, or wilfully against members and entrails of the victim might be consumed during knowledge; and which God always punished unless they the night. Subsequently to the time of Moses, indeed, altars were expiated. These offerings in general consisted of a were multiplied, but they fell under suspicion, although some sin-offering to God, and a burnt-offering, accompanied with of them, perhaps, were sacred to the worship of the true God. restitution of damage (Lev. v. 2–19. vi. 1-7.), conformNevertheless, on extraordinary occasions, some prophets, ably to which our Lord requires previous reconciliation with whose characters were above all suspicion, did offer sacri- an injured brother, including restitution, before the burntfices in other places than that prescribed by the Mosaic laws; offering or gift would be acceptable to God. (Matt. v. 23, 24.) as Samuel (1 Sam. xiii, 8–14. xvi. 1–5.), and Elijah. St. Paul (Eph. v. 2.) terms Christ's giving himself for us an (1 Kings xviii. 21–40.).
offering (i. e. a peace-offering), and a sacrifice or sin-offering 6. The sacrifices of the altar were, in general, called by to God for a sweet smelling savour. (Compare Lev. iv. 31.) the Hebrews
Korbanim, that is, offerings or oblations to God, In warm climates nothing is more refreshing than fragrant from the Hebrew word karab, to approach or bring, nigh. odours: and as, in the highly figurative language of the anThis term consequently denotes something brought nigh, in cient Hebrews, smelling is used to denote the perception of a order to be dedicated, or offered to God, to whom the person moral quality in another, God is said to smell a sweet savour offering thus had access in the way appointed by the law; from sacrifice, to signify that he perceived with pleasure the and therefore, at the close of the enumeration of all offerings good disposition which the offerer expressed by such an act by fire it is added (Lev. vii. 37, 38.), This is the law ..... of worship. When, therefore, the apostle tells us that Christ which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai, in the day gave himself for us, an offering and a sweet-smelling sacrifice that he commanded the children of Israel to offer or bring nigh to God, he teaches us that Christ's sacrifice for us was highly their KORBANIM, that is, offerings or sacrifices of all sorts.2 acceptable to God, not only as a signal instance of obedience
The Jewish fire-sacrifices were of three kinds; viz. to his Father's will, but also on account of its happy influi. The Burnt-OFFERINGS, or Holocausts, were free-will-ence in establishing the moral government of God. The offerings wholly devoted to God, according to the primitive sacrifices offered for the purification of lepers, as well as of patriarchal usage. The man himself was to bring them be- women after child-birth (Lev. xii. Luke.i. 24.), were reckfore the Lord, and they were offered in the manner described oned among the sin-offerings, inasmuch as leprosy and the in the preceding page. The victim to be offered was, accord-pains of child-bearing were considered as punishments for ing to the person's ability, a bullock without blemish, or a some particular sin; though both were accompanied by male of the sheep or goats, or a turtle-dove or pigeon. (Lev. eucharistic sacrifices for the recovery of the persons offering i. 3. 10. 14.) If, however, he was too poor to bring either them. Maimonides adds, that if the person who offered this of these, he was to offer a mincha or meat-offering, of which sacrifice did not repent, and make public confession of his an account is given in a subsequent page.3 The Jews sins, he was not cleansed or purified by it. 5 esteemed the burnt-offering the most excellent of all their iv. The TRESPASS-OFFERINGS were made, where the party sacrifices, not only on account of its superior antiquity, but offering had just reason to doubt whether he had violated the also because it was entirely consecrated to God. In allusion law of God or not. (Lev. v. 17, 18.) They do not appear to this, St. Paul exhorts Christians to present their bodies, or to have differed materially from sin-offerings. In both thesa their whole selves, a living sacrifice to God. (Rom. xii. 1.) kinds of sacrifices, the person who offered them placed his The burnt-offerings are in Hebrew termed by (olah), which hands on the victim's head (if a sin-offering), and confessed signifies to ascend; because this offering, as being wholly his sin over it, and his trespass over the trespass-offering; consumed, ascended, as it were, to God in smoke or vapour. saying, “ I have sinned, I have done iniquity, I have tresIt was a very expressive type of the sacrifice of Christ, as passed, and have done thus and thus, and do return by nothing less than his complete and full sacrifice could make repentance before thee, and with this I make atonement." atonement for the sins of the world.
The animal was then considered as vicariously bearing the · Harwood's Introd. to New Test. vol. II. p. 220. Carpzov has assigned • Macknight on Eph. v. 2. many devout and some fanciful reasons why salt was used in the Jewish • De Ratione Sacrificii
, c. iii. n. 13. sacrifices. Antiq. Heb. Gent. pp. 719-723.
• Michaelis is of opinion that sin-offerings were made for sins of coni Dr. Owen on the Epistle to the Hebrews, vol. I. Exercitat. xxiv. mission, and trespass-offerings for sins of omission. Commentaries, vol
• See p. 119. infra.
iii. p. 96.
sins of the person who brought it.l In Isa. liii. 10. Jesus | xxx. 34–36. It was offered twice every day, morning and Christ is said to make his soul an offering for sin, dvs evening, by the officiating priest, upon an altar of gold, where (ASHAM), the very word used in the law of Moses to denote a no bloody sacrifice was to come, during which solemn rite trespass-offering
the people prayed without in silence. (Luke i. 10.) But on II. All the sacrifices were occasional, and had reference the great day of expiation the high-priest himself took fire to individuals : but there were others which were national from the great altar in a golden censer; and, on descending and regular, DAILY, WEEKLY, MONTHLY, and ANNUAL. thence, he received incense from one of the priests, which he
1. The Perpetual or Daily Sacrifice was a burnt-offering, offered on the golden altar. During such offering the people consisting of two lambs, which were offered every day, prayed silently without; and to this most solemn silence morning and evening, at the third and ninth hours. (Exod. St. John alludes in Rev. viii. 1., where he says that there xxix. 38–40. Lev. vi. 9—18. Num. xxviii. 148.) They was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour. To this were burnt as holocausts, but by a small fire, that they might oblation of incense the Psalmist refers (cxli. 2.) in his devocontinue burning the longer. With each of these victims tions, and explains his meaning by his application of it: Let was offered a bread-offering and a drink-offering of strong my prayer be set forth in thy sighi as the incense." As the wine. The morning sacrifice, according to the Jews, made smoke and odour of this offering was wafted into the holy atonement for the sins committed in the night, and the even- place, close by the veil of which stood the altar of incense, ing sacrifice expiated those committed during the day. This so do the prayers of the faithful ascend upwards and find sacrifice was a daily expression of national as well as indi- admission to the highest heaven.": (Acts x: 4.) vidual repentance, prayer, and thanksgiving,
2. The VOLUNTARY or Free OBLATIONS were either the 2. The Weekly Sacrifice on every Sabbath-day was equal fruits of promises or of vows; but the former were not conto the daily sacrifice, and was offered in addition to it. (Num. sidered so strictly obligatory as the latter, of which there xxviii. 9, 10.)
were two kinds. 3. The Monthly Sacrifice, on every new moon, or at the (1.) The vow of consecration, when any thing was devoted beginning of each month, consisted of two young bullocks, either for sacrifice or for the service of the temple, as wine, one ram, and seven lambs of a year old, together with a kid wood, salt, &c.; and for a sin-offering, and a suitable bread and drink offering. (2.) The vow of engagement, when persons engaged to do (Num. xxviii. 11–14.).
something that was not in itself unlawful, as not to eat of 4. The Yearly Sacrifices were those offered on the great some particular meat, nor to wear some particular habits, not annual festivals, viz. (i.) The paschal lamb at the passover, to drink wine, nor to cut their hair, &c. When the Jews which was celebrated at the commencement of the Jewish made a vow, they made use of one of these two forms: "I sacred year; (2.) On the day of pentecost, or day of first-charge myself with a burnt-offering;” or, “ I charge myself fruits; (3.) On the new moon, or first day of the seventh month, with the price of this animal for a burnt-offering.” Besides which was the beginning of their civil year, or in-gathering these they had other shorter forms; for instance, when they of the fruits and vintage; and all these stated burnt-offerings devoted all they had, they merely said, “ All I have shalt were to be accompanied with a sin-offering of a goat, to show be corban," that is, “ I make an oblation of it to God." their insufficiency to "make the comers thereunto perfect" Among other false doctrines taught by the Pharisees, who (Num. xxviii. Heb. x. 1.); (4.) Lastly, on the day of expia- were the depositaries of the sacred treasury, was this, that tion, or great day of atonement. As a particular account is as soon as a person had pronounced to his father or mother given of the solemn festivals in the following section, we this form of consecration or offering, Be it corban (that is, proceed briefly to notice the second general class of sacri- devoted), whatever of mine shall profit thee (Mark vii. 11.), fice, viz.
he thereby consecrated all he had to God, and must not thenceIII. The UNBLOODY Sacrifices or Meat-OFFERINGS (Lev. forth do any thing for his indigent parents if they solicited ii.), which were taken solely from the vegetable kingdom, support from him. With great reason, therefore, does Jesus They consisted of meal, bread, cakes, ears of corn, and Christ reproach them with having destroyed, by their tradiparched grain, with oil and frankincense prepared according tion, not only the commandment of the law which ento the divine command. Regularly they could not be pre-joins children to honour their fathers and mothers, but also sented as sin-offerings, except in the single case of the person another divine precept, which, under the severest penalty, who had sinned being so poor, that the offering of two young forbad that kind of dishonour which consists in contumelious pigeons or two turtle doves exceeded his means. They words. (Mark vii. 9, 10. 13.). They, however, proceeded were to be free from leaven or honey: but to all of them even further than this unnatural gloss; for, though the son it was necessary to add pure salt, that is, saltpetre. did not directly give, or mean to give, any thing to God at
IV. DRINK-OFFERINGS were an accompaniment to both that time, yet if he afterwards should repent of his rashness, bloody and unbloody sacrifices: they were never used sepa- and wish to supply them with any thing, what he had for rately, and consisted of wine, which appears to have been merly said precluded the possibility of doing so; for his propartly poured upon the brow of the victim in order to conse- perty became eventually devoted to God, and, according to crate it, and partly allotted to the priests, who drank it with the Pharisaic doctrine, the sacred treasury had a claim upon their portions of both these kinds of offerings. The Psalmist it, in preference to the parents. The words be it corban," shows how the use of drink-offerings degenerated amongst or devoted, consequently implied an imprecation against himidolaters, who in their superstitious rage made use of the blood self, if he should ever afterwards bestow any thing for the of living creatures, perhaps of men, in their libations. Their relief of his parents : as if he should say to them, “ May I DRINK-OFFERINGS OF BLOOD, says he, will I not offer. (Psal. incur all the infamy of sacrilege and perjury if ever ye get xvi. 4.)
any thing from me;", than which it is not easy to conceive V Besides the various kinds of sacrifices above described, of any thing spoken by a son to his parents more contemptuthere were some oblations made by the Jews, consisting of ous or more barbarous, and therefore justly denominated incense, bread, and other things : which have been divided by X-RXON.712," opprobrious language.”4 Lamy into three sorts, viz. such as were ordinary or common; 3. The PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS were either first-fruits or voluntary or free oblations; and such as were prescribed. tithes. 1. The ORDINARY OBLATIONS were,
(1.) All the First-fruits, both of fruit and animals, were (1.) The Shew-bread (Heb. bread of the face), which con- consecrated to God (Exod. xxii. 29. Num. xviii. 12, 13. sisted of twelve loaves, according to the number of the tribes of Israel. They were placed hot, every Sabbath-day, by the - Sir Isaac Newton on the Apocalypse, p. 264. See also Woodhouse on priests, upon the golden table in the sanctuary, before the Rev, viii. 1. p.: 199.
3 Jones on the Fig. Lang. of Script. Lect. iv. towards the close. "The Lord; when they removed the stale loaves which had been prayer of faith,” adds this learned and pious writer, "is acceptable to exposed for the whole of the preceding week. The priests God, as the fragrance of incense is agreeable to the senses of inan; and, alone were to eat the bread thus removed. David, however, spirit of this service is to be kept up at those times throughout all generathrough necessity broke through this restriction (1 Sam. xxi. tions. The prophet Malachi (upon a forced and erroneous interpretation 3, 4.), God preferring mercy to sacrifice, or, in the collision of whose words alone the church of Rome has founded and defended the of duties, allowing a positive to give way to a natural law. use of incense in her worship) foretold that it should be observed through
out the world (Mal. i. 11.), and in the Revelation we hear of this incense (Matt. xii. 7.)
as now actually, carried up and presented
in heaven. (Rev. v. 8.) Happy (2.) Incense, consisting of several fragrant spices, pre- are they who fulfil this service; and at the rising and going down of the pared according to the instructions given to Moses in Exod. sun send up this offering to heaven, as all Christians are supposed
to do, at least twice in every day.” Ibid. (Works, vol. iii. p. 66.)
• Dr. Campbell's Translation of the Four Gospels, vol. ii. pp. 379-382 : Dr. A. Clarke on Exod xxix. 10.
third edition. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iv. p. 300.
Deut. xxvi. 2. Neh. x. 35, 36.); and the first-fruits of corn, are called second tithes.: The Levites paid a tenth of the wine, oil, and sheep's wool were offered for the use of the tithes they received to the priests. Lastly, there were tithes Levites. (Deut. xviii. 4.) The amount of this gift is not allotted to the poor, for whom there was also a corner left in specified in the law of Moses, which leaves it entirely to the every field, which it was not lawful to reap with the rest pleasure of the giver: the Talmudical writers, however, in- (Lev. xix. 9. Deut. xxiv. 19.); and they were likewise alform us, that liberal persons were accustomed to give the lowed such ears of corn, or grapes, as were dropped or scatfortieth, and even the thirtieth ; while such as were covetous | tered about, and the sheaves that might be accidentally foror penurious gave only a sixtieth part. The first of these gotten in the field. Field-tithes might be redeemed by those they called an oblation with a good eye, and the second an who desired it, on paying one-fifth in addition : but all conoblation with an evil eye. To this traditional saying our Lord version of the tithes of cattle was prohibited. (Lev. xxvii. is, by some learned men, supposed to have alluded in Matt. 32, 33.) The payment and appreciation of them Moses left xx. 15. Among animals, the males only belong to God; and to the consciences of the people, without subjecting them to the Jews not only had a right, but were even obliged, to re- judicial or sacerdotal visitations, but at the same time he deem them in the case of men and unclean animals, which did not prohibit the Levites from taking care that they duly could not be offered in sacrifice. These first-fruits were received what was their own. The conscientious accuracy offered from the feast of pentecost until that of dedication, be- of the people, with respect to the second tithe, he secured cause after that time the fruits were neither so beautiful nor merely by the declaration which they made every three years so good as before. Further, the Jews were prohibited from before God. From trifling articles he in no case required gathering in the harvest until they had offered to God the tithes; though we learn from the Gospel that the Pharisees omer, that is, the new sheaf, which was presented the day affected to be scrupulously exact in paying tithes of every after the great day of unleavened bread : neither were they the least herb. (Matt. xxiii. 23.) If, however, a person had allowed to bake any bread made of new corn until they had committed a trespass against the sanctuary, that is, had not offered the new loaves upon the altar on the day of pentecost; paid the tithes of any particular things, and if, at any time without which all the corn was regarded as unclean and afterwards, his conscience were awakened to a sense of his unholy. To this St. Paul alludes in Rom. xi. 16.;. where guilt, he had it in his power to make an atonement, without he says, if the FIRST-Fruit be holy, the lump also is holy. incurring any civil disgrace, by simply paying an additional The presentation of the first-fruits was a solemn and fes- fifth, with his tithe, and making a trespass-offering. * (Lev. tive ceremony. At the beginning of harvest, the sanhe- v. 14–16.) drin deputed a number of priests to go into the fields and reap The custom of giving tithes to the Deity existed long a handful of the first ripe corn; and these, attended by great before the time of Moses. Thus Abraham gave to Melchicrowds of people, went out of one of the gates of Jerusalem sedek king of Salem (who was at the same time the priest into the neighbouring corn-fields. The first-fruits thus of the Most High God) the tithe of all that he had taken reaped were carried with great pomp and universal rejoicing from the enemy, when he returned from his expedition through the streets of Jerusalem to the temple. The Jewish against
the four kings who were in alliance with Chedorlaowriters say that an ox preceded them with gilded horns and mer. (Gen. xiv. 20.) And Jacob consecrated to God the an olive crown upon his head, and that a pipe played before tenth of all that he should acquire in Mesopotamia. (Gen. them until they approached the city: on entering it they xxviii. 22.) The same castom obtained among various crowned the first-fruits, that is, exposed them to sight with ancient nations, who devoted to their gods the tenth part of as much pomp as they could, and the chief officers of the every thing they obtained. temple went out to meet them. They were then devoutly VỈ. From the preceding sketch of the Jewish Sacrifices, offered to God in grateful acknowledgment of his providen- we may strongly infer their FITNESS AND UTILITY. tial goodness in giving them the fruits of the earth. " These According to the refined ideas of modern times animal first-fruits, or handful of the first ripe grain, gave notice to all sacrifices are a very absurd and savage mode of expressing who beheld them that the general harvest would soon be ga- and promoting devout sentiments and dispositions. But, if thered in. How beautiful and striking is St. Paul's allusion we steadily keep in view the genius and habits of ancient to this religious ceremony in that most consolatory and nations, and the special circumstances of the Hebrews, these closely reasoned chapter, the fifteenth of his first Epistle to objections will vanish; and the propriety as well as expethe Corinthians, in which, from the resurrection of Jesus diency of the Jewish institutions will forcibly appear. Christ, he argues and establishes the certainty of the general " When the practice of sacrificing was first appointed, the resurrection; and represents Christ as the first-fruits of a use of letters was probably unknown: consequently, the glorious and universal harvest of all the sleeping dead! Now mode of instruction by visible emblems or symbols was both is Christ risen, and become the first-Fruits of them that slept." | indispensable and highly beneficial. In such a state of (1 Cor. xv. 20.) The use which the apostle makes of this things, the offering of animal victims was made to answer image is very extensive. “In the first place, the growing for that more simple and rational devotion, which words are. of grain from the earth where it was buried is an exact image now happily fitted to express. When we consider sacrifices. of the resurrection of the body; for, as the one is sown, so is with all their attendant rites, as appointed by God in order the other, and neither is quickened except it first die and be to assist the religious instruction, improvement, and consola buried. Then the whole harvest, from its relation to the first- tion of man, we must conclude that the Most High would, fruits, explains and ensures the order of our resurrection. In the first instance, clearly.explain every part of this instiFor, is the sheaf of the first-fruits reaped ? then is the whole tution; otherwise it could not answer its proposed ends. harvest ready. Is Christ risen from the dead ? then shall all Now, if the moral import of sacrifices were thus explained, rise in like manner. Is he accepted of God as a holy offer- the utility of them to mankind in their rude and simple state ing? then shall every sheaf that has grown up with him be is beyond calculation. In untutored man, reason is weak, taken from the earth and sanctified in its proper order :- the mental feelings are heavy and rough, while sense, imagiChrist, the first-FRUITS, and afterwards they that are Christ's nation, and passion are the leading avenues both to the unat his coming? (1 Cor. xv. 23.)
derstanding and heart. To man thus situated, the appoint(2.) Besides the first-fruits, the Jews also paid the Tenths ment of sacrifices is peculiarly adapted : for these convey or 7'ithes of all they possessed. (Num. xviii. 21.) They a most pathetic and awful address to his very senses, and were in general collected of all the produce of the earth thus rouse him to the most serious and impressive reflections. (Lev. xxvii. 30. Deut. xiv, 22, 23. Neh. xiii. 5. 10.), but The frequent spectacles of bleeding and smoking victims, chiefly of corn, wine, and oil, and were rendered every year suffering and atoning for the guilty offerers, would give them except the sabbatical year. When these tithes were paid, the deepest impressions of the purity, justice, and majesty the owner of the fruits further gave another tenth part, which of God, of the evil of transgressions, of their own ill desert, was carried up to Jerusalem, and eaten in the temple at offer- and of the necessity of some adequate atonement, and of the ing feasts, as a sign of rejoicing and gratitude to God. These readiness of the Deity to pardon the penitent. The nume
rous and diversified offerings of the ancient Jews, with the • From the Jewish custom of offering first-fruits to Jehovah, the hea striking pomp which preceded and attended them, were fitted thens borrowed a similar
rite. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. xviii. c. 2. Horace, not only to excite and express the most reverential, humble, * Jones's Works, vol. iii. p. 61. Harwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. and grateful devotion ; but also to give the best direction to ii. p. 307. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 146–149. Beausobre's the whole temper and conduct. The many washings and Introd. to the New Test. (vol. iii. p. 200. of Bishop Watson's Collection of Tracts.) Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 981. vol. ii. pp. 184. 306, 307. folio edit. Lammy's Apparatus, vol. I. p. 204.' Ikenii Antiq. Hebr. part i. c. 15. .: On the application of these second tithes, see Michaelis's Commenta. rp: 210–221. Schulzii Archæol." Hebr. pp. 237-232. Lamy's
Apparatus ries, vol. iii. pp. 142, 143. Biblicus, vol. i. pp. 203-206.
• Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 141—145.
purifications, enjoined previous to the oblation of sacrifice, ing, a perfect sacrifice for the sins of the world. In a word, were not only physically beneficial in the eastern countries, the religion of the Jews and that of Christians form one but directly tended to impress a simple people with a scru- great and harmonious plan. The Jews saw gospel-truth in pulous regard to inward and moral purity, especially in all its early and gradual dawn; we behold in it its meridian their approaches to the Deity. That this was the primary splendour. When Christ appeared, the candid and pious intention of these ceremonies, was a maxim frequently and Jews embraced him; because they saw in him a glorious solemnly enforced. In those early ages, the language of counterpart, a perfect accomplishment of their ancient rites these well-chosen emblems could not fail to be well under- and predictions. The Gentiles, on the other hand, were led stood and strongly felt. Above all, the frequent sacrifices of to venerate and believe in the Hebrew Law; because they the Jewish law were intended to prefigure, and gradually to beheld in it an exact, though imperfect figure and prophecy prepare men for the great atoning sacrifice of the promised of the Gospel. What beauty and glory do these observa. Messiah.” Accordingly," our Saviour, in allusion to those tions reflect both on the Jewish and Christian dispensations! ancient oblations, is called by way of eminence a sin-offer- What admirable depth of wisdom do they discover in both !"
SACRED TIMES AND SEASONS OBSERVED BY THE JEWS.
I. THE SABBATH.—1. How observed.—2. Jewish Worship on that Day;
particularly their Manner of worshipping in the Temple.-II. New Moons.—III. Annual Festivals.-Their important Design.-IV. The Passover; when celebrated, and with what Ceremonies ; its mystical or typical Reference.-V. The Day of PENTECOST.-VI. THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES. -VII. Other annual Festivals.-1. THE FEAST OF TRUMPETS.—2. The Day of EXPIATION.–VIII. Annual Festivals instituted by the Jews in later Times.-1. THE Feast or Purim. 2. THE FEAST OF DEDICATION.-IX. Other Festivals observed at stated Intervals.-1. THE SABBATICAL YEAR.—2. THE YEAR OF JUBILEE.
In order to perpetuate the memory of the numerous won- Sabbath-day ;' and how much its observance was strained by ders God had wrought in favour of his people, Moses, by the traditions of the elders in the time of our Lord, is suffithe Divine command, instituted various festivals, which they ciently manifest. Hence, we find it was deemed unlawful were obliged to observe: these sacred seasons were either to pluck ears of corn (Matt. xii. 2.) to satisfy the cravings weekly, monthly, or annual, or recurred after a certain num- of nature, because that was a species of reaping: We learn ber of years.
from the Talmudical writers that it was unlawful to use oil 1. Every seventh day was appropriated to sacred repose, 'medicinally, though they allowed it as a luxury; the anointand called the SABBATH ; although this name is in some pas- ing of the body with fragrant oils being then, as it is now, sages given to other festivals, as in Lev. xxv. 4., and some in the East, one of their highest enjoyments. It was a tratimes it denotes a week, as in Matt. xxviii. 1. Luke xxiv. 1. ditional rule of the ancient Jewish doctors that “whatever Acts xx. '7. and 1 Cor. xvi. 2. (Gr.) It was originally insti- could possibly be done on the day before, or might be defertuted to preserve the memory of the creation of the world red until the following day, ought not to drive out the Sab(Gen. ii. 3.); whether it continued to be observed by the bath ;” an excellent maxim when rightly understood, but Israelites as a day of rest and holy convocation during their when applied to cases of infirmity or sickness, they maniresidence in Egypt, is a question concerning which learned festly showed that they did not comprehend the meaning of men are no means agreed. When, however, God gave them the divine declaration I will have mercy and not sacrifice. In rest in the land of Canaan, he gave them his Sabbaths to be chronical diseases, therefore, of which description were those statedly kept (Exod. xx. 10, 11. and xvi. 23.); and its cured by Jesus Christ on the Sabbath-day, they conceived observance was specially enjoined on the Israelites in Deut, that the persons who had so long struggled with them might v. 15., because they were the redeemed people of God, and very well bear them a day longer, rather than prepare medithey were to make the Sabbath a day of peculiar recognition cines or in any way attempt to be cured on that day. The of their deliverance from bondage 3
knowledge of this circumstance will greatly illustrate the 1. In the observance of the Sabbath, the following circum- conduct of our Lord in healing the sick on the Sabbath-day, stances were enjoined by divine command :-(1.) This day and particularly the man who had been born blind. (John was to be held sacred as a day of worship, in memory of the ix.). The rule above stated was made before he began to creation of the world by Jehovah, and also of the deliverance teach, and he gladly availed himself of the first opportunity of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, as well as a day of to refute their erroneous notions, and expose their gross prérepose both for man and beast, that they might be refreshed, varication in interpreting many of the sabbatical laws, and not have their bodily strength exhausted by uninterrupted Further, seeing it was prohibited to put fasting spittle upon labour (Gen. ii. 1–3. Deut. v. 13. Exod. xx. 10, 11. Ezek. or into the eyes of a blind man on the Sabbath-day, our Saxx, 20.); hence the celebration of the Sabbath was the viour effected a cure by using both clay and spittle (John ix. making of a weekly profession that they received and revered 6. 11.), to show his dívine authority, in employing means to the Creator of heaven and earth, and was closely connected human reason the most improper, even on that sacred day, with the fundamental principle of the Mosaic law, whose directly in opposition to the above rule; which was good object was to keep the people from idolatry, and to maintain and just in itself, but hypocritical, superstitious, and cruel, the worship of the one true God; and hence, also, the pun- when applied to the case of healing, on the Sabbath. The ishment of death was denounced against the wilful profana- services of the temple, however, might be performed withtion of this solemnity: (2.) On this day they were most out profaning the Sabbath, such as preparing the sacrifices religiously to abstain from all manner of work. (Exod. xx. (Lev. vi. 8–13. Num. xxviii. 3—10. Matt. xii. 5.); and it 10. xxiii. 12. xxxi. 12—17. xxxv. 2. Deut. v. 14, 15. Jer. was also lawful to perform circumcision on that day. (John xvii. 22.). It was, therefore, unlawful to gather manna vii. 23.) (3.) The Sabbath was to be devoted to cheerful (Exod. xvi. 22—30.), to light a fire for culinary purposes rest, that not only the Israelites, but also strangers living Exod. xxxv. 3. Num. xv. 32–36.), and to sow or reap. with them, as well as their cattle, might be refreshed. Exod. xxxiv. 21.) To these enactments the Jewish doctors (Exod. xxiii. 12.). Hence, it is not improbable, that they added a variety of other regulations, for which there is not celebrated sacrificial or offering feasts, to which, from the the slightest foundation in the law of Moses. Thus, it was commencement of their polity, the poor were invited. In formerly accounted unlawful to repel force by force on the later times, at least, we know from history, that the Jews
purchased and prepared the best viands they could procure 1 Tappan's Lectures, pp. 116. 118.
• ] Macc. ii. 31–38. See other examples in Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. For a minute and able discussion of this and every other
question con. c. 6. & 2. De Bell
. Jud. lib. ii. c. 16. $4. lib. iv.c. 2. 3. and de vità suà, $ 32. nected with the Sabbath, the reader is referred to The Christian Sab- Dr. Wotton's Misna, title Shabbath, pp. 101-103. 123. The Sabbath, bath; or, an Inquiry into the religious Obligation of keeping holy one Day we may observe, was a type of that eternal rest, which all the true serjn Seven. By the Rev. Geo. Holden, M. A."
London, 1825, 8vo.
Lectures on the * Stuart's Hebrew Chrestomathy, p. 175.
Epistle to the Hebrews, lect. ii. (Works, vol. iji. pp. 240--22.) i. VOL. II.