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it is said, that David delivered this psalm to thank the Lord | also in the lamps of the golden candlestick in the sanctuary; into the hand of Asaph and his brethren. (1 Chron. xyi. 7.) they kneaded the loaves of shew-bread, which they baked, The principal persons of this order, who had the superinten- and offered on the golden altar in the sanctuary: and changed dency over all the rest, were Heman and Asaph of the line them every Sabbath-day. Every day, morning and evening, of Gershon, and Jeduthun of the line of Merari, of whom a priest (who was appointed at the beginning of the week we have an account in 1 Chron. xxv.
by lot) brought into the sanctuary, a smoking censer of The mere circumstance of birth did not give the Levites a incensé, which he set upon the golden table, and which on title to officiate; they were obliged to receive a sort of conse- no account was to be kindled with strange fire, that is, with cration, which consisted chiefly in sprinkling them with any fire but that which was taken from the altar of burnt water, in washing, and in offering sacrifices. (Num. viii. 6, sacrifice. (Lev. x. 1, 2.), And as the number and variety of 7, 8.) The usual age, at which the Levites were to enter on their functions required them to be well read in their law, in their office, was at five-and-twenty years, and they continued order that they might be able to judge of the various legal till fifty. (Num. viii. 24, 25.) But there was a particular uncleannesses, &c. this circumstance caused them to be conprecept which restrained the Kohathites (one of the three sulted as interpreters of the law (Hos. iv. 6. Mal. ii. 7, &c. branches) from being employed to carry the holy things be- Lev. xiii. 2. Num. v. 14, 15.), as well as judges of controlonging to the sanctuary, till they were of the age of thirty versies. (Deut. xxi. 5. xvii. 8—13.) In the time of war, (Num. iv. 30.), probably, because these being the most valu- their business was to carry the ark of the covenant, to sound able and important of all the moveables belonging to the the holy trumpets, and animate the army to the performance tabernacle, required therefore persons of greater experience of its duties. To them also it belonged publicly to bless and strength. Afterwards, when David new-moulded the the people in the name of the Lord. constitution of the Levites, he (by the same authority which The priests were divided by David into twenty-four classes empowered him to give directions about the building and (1 Chron. xxiv. 7–18.); which order was retained by Solosituation of the house of God) ordered that for the future the mon (2 Chron. viii. 14.); and at the revivals of the Jewish Levites should be admitted at the age of twenty years. religion by the kings Hezekiah and Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxi. (1 Chron. xxiii. 24.). It does not appear by the first institu- 2. xxxv. 4, 5.) Ås, however, only four classes returned tion of the Levites that they had any peculiar habit in the from the Babylonish captivity (Ezra ii. 36–39. Neh. vii. ceremonies of religion by which they were distinguished 39—42. xii. 1.), these were again divided into twenty-four from other Israelites. None of the Levites, of what degree classes, each of which was distinguished by its original apor order soever, had any right to sacrifice, for that was the pellation. This accounts for the introduction of the class or proper duty of the priests only: the Levites, indeed, were to order of Abiah, mentioned in Luke i. 5., which we do not assist the priests in killing
and flaying the sacrifices, and, find noticed among those who returned from the captivity. during the time they were offered up, to sing praises to God: One of these classes went up to Jerusalem every week to and in this sense the two passages in 1 Chron. xxiii. 31. and discharge the sacerdotal office, and succeeded one another on 2 Chron. xxxi. 2. are commonly understood; neither had the Sabbath-day, till they had all attended in their turn. To they any title to burn incense to the Lord; and though the each order was assigned a president (1 Chron. xxiv. 6. 31. speech of Hezekiah (mentioned in 2 Chron. xxix. particu- 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14.), whom some critics suppose to be the larly ver. 11.) seems to imply otherwise, yet we ought to same as the chief priests so often mentioned in the New Tesconsider that he is there speaking to the priests as well as to tament, and in the writings of Josephus. The prince or the Levites. It was on account of their aspiring to the priest's prefect of each class appointed an entire family to offer the office in this particular of burning incense, that Korah and daily sacrifices : and at the close of the week they all joined his company (who were Levites) were miraculously destroy- together in sacrificing. And as each family consisted of a ed, and their censers ordered to be beaten into broad plates, great number of priests, they drew lots for the different and fixed upon the altar, to be perpetual monuments of their offices which they were to perform. It was by virtue of such presumptuous sacrilege, and a caution to all the children of lot that the office of burning incense was assigned to ZachaIsrael, that none presume to offer incense before the Lord rias the father of John the Baptist, when he went into the but the seed of Aaron, who alone were commissioned to the temple of the Lord. (Luke i. 9.) According to some Jewish priestly office.
writers, there were three priests employed in the offering of As the Levites were subordinate to the priests, so they the incense; one, who carried away the ashes left on the (the Levites) had others under them, called NetHiNiMS, altar at the preceding service ; another, who brought a pan whose business it was to carry the water and wood that was of burning coals from the altar of sacrifice, and, having wanted in the temple for the use of the sacrifices, and to placed it on the golden altar, departed; a third, who went perform other laborious services there. They were not in with the incense, sprinkled it on the burning coals, and, originally of Hebrew descent, but are supposed to have been while the smoke ascended, made intercession for the people. chiefly the posterity of the Gibeonites, who for their fraudu- This was the particular office which fell by lot to Zacharias ; lent stratagem in imposing upon Joshua and the Hebrew and it was accounted the most honourable in the whole princes (Josh. ix. 3—27.)
were condemned to this employ- service. This office could be held but once by the same ment, which was a sort of honourable servitude. We read person.4 in Ezra, that the Nethinims were devoted by David and the The sacerdotal dignity being confined to certain families, other princes to the service of the temple (Ezra viii. 20.), every one who aspired to it was required to establish his and they are called the children of Solomon's servants (Ezra descent from those families : on this account the genealogies ii. 58.), being probably a mixture of the race of the Gibeon- of the priests were inscribed in the public registers, and were ites, and some of the remains of the Canaanites, whom Solo- preserved in the archives of the temple. Hence, in order mon constrained to various servitudes. (1 Kings ix. 20, 21.) to preserve the purity of the sacerdotal blood, no priest was They had a particular place in Jerusalem where they dwelt, permitted to marry a harlot or profane woman, or one who called Ophel, for the conveniency of being near the service had been divorced; and if any one laboured under any bodily of the temple. (Neh. iii. 26.)
defect, this excluded lum from serving at the altar. Purity In order to enable the Levites to devote themselves to that of body and sanctity of life were alike indispensable ; nor service, forty-eight cities were assigned to them for their could any one undertake the priestly office, in the early residence, on the division of the land of Canaan ; thirteen of period of the Jewish polity, before he had attained thirty these were appropriated to the priests, to which were added years, or, in later times, the age of twenty years. According the tithes of corn, fruit, and cattle. The Levites, however, to Maimonides, the priest whose genealogy was defective in paid to the priests a tenth part of all their tithes; and as any respect was clothed in black, and veiled in black, and they were possessed of no landed property, the tithes which sent without the verge of the court of the priests; but every the priests received from them were considered as the first-one that was found perfect and right was clothed in white, fruits which they were to offer to God. (Num. xviii. and went in and ministered with his brethren the priests. It 21–24.)
is not improbable that St. John refers to this custom of the II. Next to the Levites, but superior to them in dignity, 3 See Matt. xxvii. 1. Acts iv. 23. v. 24. ix. 14. 21. xxii. 30. xxiii. 14. xxv. were the ordinary Priests, who were chosen from the family 15. xxvi. 10.; and also Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 8. $ 8. De Bell
. Jud. of Aaron exclusively. They served immediately at the altar, lib
. i.C.3.167. C.4.3.
et de vita sua, $$ 2. 5. prepared the victims, and offered the sacrifices. They kept 5 Ezra ii. 62. Neh. vii. 64. Josephus contra Apion, lib. i. $7. et in vita up a perpetual fire on the altar of the burnt sacrifices, and sua, $ 1. 1 See p. 16. suprà.
6 'Lev. xxi. 7.17–23. Num. iv. 3. 2 Chron. xxxi. 17. Maimonides has enumerated not fewer
than 140 bodily defects which disqualified persons Jome's script. Hist. of Jews, vol. ii. pp. 214–221. Schulzii Archæol. for the priesthood. See Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. $ 2. and come Hebr. pp. 227-231.
pare Carpzov's Apparatus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, p. 89. et seq.
Jewish sanhedrin in Rev. iii. 5. Those priests, whose birth of man or beast, were dedicated to God, and by virtue of that was pure, lived in certain apartments of the temple, in which devotion belonged to the priests. The men were redeemed was deposited wood for the altar, and were employed in for five shekels (Num. xviii. 15, 16.): the first-born of imsplitting and preparing it, to keep up the sacred fire. No pure animals were redeemed or exchanged, but the clean particular ceremony appears to have taken place at the con- animals were not redeemed. They were sacrificed to the secration of the ordinary priests, who were admitted to the Lord; their blood was sprinkled about the altar, and the rest exercise of their functions by "filling their hands," as the belonged to the priest; who also had the first-fruits of trees, Scriptures term it,—that is, by making them perform the that is, those of the fourth year (Num. xviii. 13. Lev. xix. offices of their order. But when the priests had departed 23, 24.), as well as a share in the tithes of the spoils taken from their religion, or had been a long time without dis- in war." (Num. xxxi. 28—41.) Such were the principal charging their functions (which happened under some of the revenues of the priests, which, though they were sufficient to later kings of Judah), it was deemed necessary to sanctify keep them above want, yet were not as some writers have anew such priests,
as well as those who had never exercised imagined) so ample as to enable them to accumulate riches, their ministry. (2 Chron. xxix. 34.).
or to impoverish the laity; thus their political influence, The priests were not distinguished by their sacerdotal arising from their sacred station, as well as from their supehabits, unless when engaged in the service of the altar, of rior learning and information, was checked by rendering them these garments there are four kinds mentioned in the books dependent on the people for their daily bread. By this wise of Exodus (xxxiii.) and Leviticus (viii.); viz.
constitution of Moses, they were deprived of all power, by · 1. Linen Drawers. These were prescribed for the express which they might injure the liberty of the other tribes, or ir purpose of covering their nakedness; that is, to preserve the any way endanger the Israelitish polity, by any ambitious priests from an indecorous and ludicrous appearance, when views or prospects: for not only were all the estates of the they stood either above the heads of the people, or when their Levites and priests, but also their persons, given into the office required a variety of bodily gestures in the view of the hands of the other tribes, as so many hostages, and as a multitude. This garment would prevent those indecent security for their good behaviour. They were so separated exposures of their persons, which some beathen idolaters from one another, that they could not assist each other in any esteemed honourable, and even religious in the worship of ambitious design; and they were so dispersed among the their gods.
other tribes, that these could attach the whole subsistence as 2. A Linen Tunic, which reached down to the ankles, well as arrest all the persons of the Levites and priests at fitting closely to the body, and the sleeves of which were once, in the event of any national quarrel, or if they were tightly drawn round the arms: it was without seam, and suspected of forming any evil designs against the other tribes woven from the top throughout. Such was the tunic worn of Israel. Hence we may perceive, that, whatever power or by Jesus Christ, for which the soldiers cast lots.2
influence the Mosaic constitution gave the Levites to do good, 3. A Girdle or long sash, made of linen curiously embroi- the same constitution carefully provided, that they should dered, and intended to bind the coat closely around them, have no power, either to disturb the peace, or to endanger and thus to serve at once the purposes of warmth and strength, the liberties of their country. 4 of convenience and ornament.
111. Over all the priests was placed the HIGH-PRIEST, who 4. The Tiara was originally a pointed kind of bonnet or enjoyed peculiar dignities and influence. He alone could turban, made of several rolls
of linen cloth twisted round enter the Holy of Holies in the temple : the supreme administhe head; but in the time of Josephus it approached some-tration of sacred things was confined to him; he was the what to a globular form.3
final arbiter of all controversies; in later times he presided In order that the priests, as well as the Levites, might be over the sanhedrin, and held the next rank to the sovereign wholly at liberty to follow their sacred profession, they were or prince. His authority, therefore, was very great at all exempted from all secular burthens or labours. Of the Le- times, especially when he united the pontifical and regal vitical cities already mentioned, thirteen were assigned for dignities in his own person. In the Old Testament he is the residence of the priests, with their respective suburbs sometimes called the priest by way of eminence (Exod. (Num. xxxv.); the limits of which were confined to a thou- xxix. 30. Neh. vii. 65.), and sometimes the head or chief of sand cubits beyond the walls of the city, which served for the high-priests, because the appellation of high-priests was out-houses, as stables, barns, and perhaps for gardens of given to the heads of the sacerdotal families or courses, who herbs and flowers. Beyond this they had two thousand cubits were members of the sanhedrin. This appellation, in the more for their pasture, called properly the fields of the suburbs. New Testament, includes not only the person who actually (Lev. xxv. 34.) So that there were in the whole three thou- held the office of high-priest of the Jews, but also those who, sand cubits round the city; and in this sense we are to under- having once filled that office, still retained the name. (Matt. stand Num. xxxv. 4, 5. where the word suburbs compre- xxvi. 57, 58. Luke xxii. 50. 54. John xi. 49. 51.), When hends both the houses, without the walls, and also the fields. the high-priest became old, or had accidentally been exBut though the tribe of Levi had no portion in Canaan posed to any pollution, a 10 (sagan) or substitute was apassigned them in the first division of it, yet they were not pointed to perform his duties. Zephaniah, the second priezt, prevented from purchasing land, houses, goods, or cattle, out(Jer. lii. 21.) is supposed to have been the sagan or deputy of their own proper effects. Thus we read that Abiathar had of the high-priest Seraiah. Such an officer seems to be inan estate of his own at Anathoth, to which Solomon banished tended in John xviii. 13. and Acts iv. 6.; in which passages and confined him (1 Kings ii. 26.); and the prophet Jeremiah, Annas is called a chief priest either as having formerly been who was also a priest, purchased a field of his uncle's son in high-priest, or as then being actually his sagan.5 his own town. Jer. xxxii. 8, 9.) Such were the residences In order that the person of the high-priest might be deemed allotted to the priests. Their maintenance was derived from more holy, he was inaugurated with great splendour ; being the tithes offered by the Levites out of the tithes by them invested (after ablution was performed) with the sacred received, from the first-fruits, from the first clip of wool when habiliments which conferred this dignity, and anointed with the sheep were shorn, from the offerings made in the temple, a precious oil prepared and preserved for this exclusive purand from their share of the sin-offerings and thanksgiving- pose. (Exod. xxix. 7. xxx. 23. et seq. Lev. viii. 12.) But, offerings sacrificed in the temple, of which certain parts were after the erection of the second temple, this anointing ceased, appropriated to the priests.' Thus in the peace-offerings, and the inauguration of the high-priest was accomplished by they had the shoulder and the breast (Lev. vii. 33, 34.) : in arraying him with the pontifical robes worn by his predethe sin-offerings, they burnt on the altar the fat that covered cessor. certain parts of the victim sacrificed; the rest belonged to the Besides the garments which were common to the highpriest. (Lev. vii. 6. 10.). To him also was appropriated the priest, as well as to the inferior members of the sacerdotal skin or fleece of every victim; and when an Israelite killed order, there were four peculiar to himself; viz. an animal for his own use, there were certain parts assigned 1. The Coat or Robe of the Ephod, which was made of blue to the priest. (Deut. xviii. 3.) All the first-born also, whether wool; on its hem there were seventy-two golden bells, sepa
rated from one another by as many artificial pomegranates. 1 Lamy, Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. 213.
As the pomegranates added to the beauty of the robe, so the · Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 7. 8 2. See also the Observations of Ernesti, Inst. Interp. Nov. Test. part ii. C. 10. $88. pp. 371–373. It was for a long time supposed that the art of making such vests was irrecoverably
• Schulzii Archæologia, Hebraica, pp. 231—236. Lowman's Civil Govern. lost. Braunius, however, rediscovered it, and procured a loom to be made, ment of the Hebrews,
p. 124. in which tunics were woven all of one piece. See his treatise de Vestitú Kuinöel, on Luke ii. 2.
Moses and Aaron, p. 18. Lightfoot's Horæ Hebraicæ, and Sacerdotum Hebræorum, lib. i. c. 16. p. 264. • Josephus, Antiq. Jud. lib. iii. c. 7. $ 3. Tappan's Lect. on Jewish
• Similar bells are still in use in the East. See Hasselquist's Travels, Antiquities, pp. 155-157.
p. 58., and D'Arvieux's Travels in Arabia the Desert, p. 226. VOL. II.
sound of the bells gave notice to the people in the outer court of extravagant; but such wild comments serve no other purpose the high-priest's entrance into the holy place to burn incense; than to throw an air of romance, of uncertainty, and of ridiin order that they might then apply themselves to their devo-cule over sacred things. It is sufficient for us to be assured, tions, as an expression of their concurrence with him in his that these minute prescriptions were adapted to wise and offering, and of their hope that their prayers, accompanied excellent purposes, in the comparatively infant state of the with the incense offered by him, would ascend as a fragrant church; and, particularly, that they served the general uses odour before God.
of an emblematical and typical religion, which was intended 2. The Ephod was a vest, which was fastened on the to impress moral and spiritual truth by sensible and striking shoulders, the hinder part reaching down to the heels, while representations. the fore part descended only a little below the waist. It was The high-priest, who was the chief man in Israel, and of fine twisted linen, splendidly wrought with gold and pur- appeared before God in behalf of the people in their sacred ple: to each of the shoulder-straps of this ephod was affixed services, and who was appointed for sacrifice, for blessing, a precious stone, on which were engraven the names of the and for intercession, was a type of Jesus Christ, that great twelve tribes of Israel.
high-priest, who offered himself a sacrifice for sin, who blesses 3. The Breastplate of Judgment, or oracle, was a piece of his people, and who evermore liveth to make intercession for cloth doubled, one span square, and of similar texture and them. The term priest is also applied to every true believer, workmanship with the ephod : on it were set twelve precious who is enabled to offer up himself a spiritual sacrifice acceptstones, containing the engraved names of the twelve sons of able to God through Christ. (1 Pet. ii. 5. Rev. i. 6.) Jacob, and also the words Urim and Thummim, signifying The pontifical dignity, in its first institution, was held for “ lights and perfections,” and emblematical of divine illumi- life, provided the high-priests were not guilty of crimes
that nation. Concerning the nature of the Urim and Thummim, merited deposition. For we read that Solomon deprived learned men are not agreed. All that we know with cer- Abiathar of this office for being concerned in treasonable tainty is, that when the high-priest went to ask counsel of practices with Adonijah, who aspired to the throne of Israel. Jehovah, he presented himself arrayed with this breastplate, | (1 Kings ii. 27.). At its first institution, also, the high-priestand received the divine commands. This mode of consulta- hood was made hereditary in the family of Aaron (Num. iii. tion subsisted under the tabernacle erected by Moses in the 10.), who was the first person invested with this dignity. wilderness, and until the building of Solomon's temple. As (Lev. viii. 1. et seq. Heb. v. 4,5.) From Aaron it descended God was the political sovereign of the Hebrews, the high-to Eleazar, his eldest son, from whom it passed in long sucpriest was of course his minister of state: the names of the cession to Eli; from him, on account of the wickedness of twelve tribes being worn at his breast, when he went to ask his sons, the dignity subsequently devolved to the descendants counsel of his sovereign, were a fit pledge and medium of of Ithamar the second son of Aaron. (1 Sam. ii. 35, 36.) In divine direction. At the same time, these names being worn the reign of Solomon, however, it returned again into the both on his breast and shoulders would forcibly instruct him family of Eleazar by Zadok (1 Kings ii. 35.); in which it to cherish the tenderest affection, and to exert his utmost remained until the Babylonian captivity. During this period power, for their welfare.!
the high-priest was elected by the other priests, or else by 4. The last peculiarity in the dress of the high-priest was an assembly partly consisting of priests. a Crown or Mitre, on the front of which was tied, by a blue The first high-priest, after the return from the captivity, riband, a plate of pure gold, on which were engraven 717 was Joshua the son of Josedek, of the family of Eleazar ; oop (KODESH LaJehovah), or Holiness unto the Lord, emble- whence the succession went into a private Levitical family. matical of that holiness which was the scope and end of the The office was then filled by some of the princes of the law.
Maccabæan family. According to the law, it was or ought With all these vestments the high-priest was necessarily to have been held for life; but this was very ill obeyed under arrayed when he ministered in the tabernacle or temple, but the Roman government, especially during the time of our at other times he wore the ordinary dress of the priests; and Saviour, and in the latter years of the Jewish polity, when this, according to some learned persons, was the reason why election and the right of succession were totally disregarded. St. Paul who had been long absent from Jerusalem, knew The dignity, sanctity, and authority of the high-priest were not that Ananias was the high-priest, when he appeared be then almost annihilated ; and this office was not unfrequently fore him in the sanhedrin. (Acts xxiii. 5.). The frequent sold to the highest bidder, to persons who had neither age, and violent changes in the pontifical office, which happened learning, nor rank to recommend them; nay, even to indiviin those times, confirms the probability of this conjecture. duals who were not of the sacerdotal race; and sometimes The supreme pontiff was not allowed to rend his garments, the office was made annual. This circumstance will account as the other Jews did, on any occasions of domestic calamity for the variations in the lists of the succession to the high(Lev. xxi. 10.); but in the time of Jesus Christ it had be- priesthood contained in the Scriptures, in Josephus, and in come lawful, or at least was tolerated as an expression of the Talmudical writers; and will also explain the circumhorror at hearing what was deemed blasphemy against God. stance of several high-priests being in existence at the same This will explain the conduct of Caiaphas, who is said (Matt. time, or, rather, of there being several pontifical men who, xxvi. 65.) to have rent his garments.3
having once held the office for a short time, seem to have The Jewish writers have discovered much recondite mean, retained the original dignity attached to the name.8 ing in the pontifical vestments. According to Josephus and
* Besides the authorities already cited in the course of this article, the Philo, the high-priest's linen garments represented the body reader who is desirous of investigating the nature and functions of the of the earth ; the glorious robe which encompassed it, heaven; Jewish priesthood is referred to Reland's Antiquitates veterum Hebræo. the bells and promegranates, thunder
and lightning. Or, the rum, part ii. cc. 1 pp: 141—238.; Ikenius's Antiquitates Hebraica, part ephod of various colours is the universe; the breastplate, Antiquitates, pp. 471–544. Dr. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book i. c. 5. the earth in its centre ; the girdle, the sea; the onyx-stone pp. 95174, Michaelis's Commentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. i. pp. on each shoulder, the sun and moon; the twelve jewels in S_22 Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 401. 915–918. and vol. ii. PP.
377–380. 397. 681. ; Carpzovii Antiquitates Hebr. Gentis, pp. 64–110. the breastplate, the twelve signs of the zodiac; the mitre, $ The typical nature of the Jewish priesthood, especially of the high. heaven; and the golden plate, with the name of God en- priest, is discussed by the Rev. W. Jones, in his Lectures on the
Figuragraven on it, the splendour of Jehovah in heaven. Some tive Language of Scripture, and on the Epistle to the Hebrews. (Works, Christian divines have allegorized them in a manner equally
vol. iii. pp. 58–62. 223-227.)
6 Josephus de Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. 3. $67, 8.
- That this was the case with Annas and Caiaphas, is fully proved by Dr. 1 Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiq. pp. 157–160.
Lardner, Credibility, book ii. c. 4. $1. (Works, vol. i. pp. 383–386.) The 1 The dress and ornaments of the high-priest above noticed, together Antiq. Hebr. part ii. c. 2. pp. 160–168. Utrecht, 12mo. 1717, and by Calmet,
various successions of the high-priests are given at length by Reland, with the mode of consecrating him, as directed by Moses, are described at Dissertations,
tom. I. pp. 481-490., and Dict. voce Priest, from whom we length in Exod. xxviii. and xxix. 1-37. 3 Tappan's Lectures, p. 164.
have copied the Table in the following pages.
& Antiq. Jud. lib. viii. c. 2. 82. c. 4. $3.
The following TABLE exhibits a CARONOLOGICAL SERIES OF THE HIGH- 35. Simon I. called the Just, made high-priest in 3843, and died in PRIESTS OF THE HEBREWS, from the Commencement to the Subversion high-priest in 3702 or 3703, and died 3860. of their State and Government.
48. Simon Maccabæus made in 36. Eleazar, made in 3712. Under 3860, died in 3869. 13. Succession, ta
this pontiff, the translation of the 49. John Hyrcanus, made in 3869, 1. Succession, taken from seve
2. Succession, ta
ken from Jose
4. Succession, taken Septuagint is said to have been died in 3898. ral places of the Holy Scrip- Chron. Tim phus, Ant. Jud. From the Jewish Choron made, about the year 3721 : he died 50. Aristobulus,
king and pontifr
of the Jews, died 3899.
37. Manasseh, made in 3745, died 51. Alexander Jannæus, also king in 3771.
and pontiff during 27 years, from 1. Aaron, the brother of 1. Aaron. 1. Aaron. 1. Aaron.
38. Onias II. made in 3771, died in 3899 io 3926. Moses, created high.
52. Hyrcanus was high-priest for priest, A. M. 2514, died
39. Simon II. made in 3785, and the space of 32 years in the whole, 2552.
died in 3805.
from 3926 to 3958. 2. Eleazar, created in 2. Eleazar. 2. Eleazar. 2. Eleazar.
40. Onias III. made in 3805, deposed 53. Aristobulus, brother to Hyrca. 2552, and died about
3829, died in 3834.
nus, usurped the high-priesthood, 2571.
41. Jesus, or Jason, made in 3830, and held it three years and three 3. Phinehas, A. M. 2571, 3. Phinehas. 3. Phinehas. 3. Phinehas.
deposed in 3831.
months, from 3935 to 3940. died 2590.
42. Onias IV. otherwise called 54. Antigonus, his son, also usurp 4. Abiezer, or These 4. Abishua. 4. Abiezer. 4. Eli.
Menelaus, made in 3832, died in 3842. ed the priesthood in prejudice to the Abishua. were un
43. Lysimachus, vicegerent of rights of Hyrcanus, and possessed b. Bukki. 5. Bukki. 5. Bukki. 5. Ahitub.
Menelaus, killed in 3834.
it for three years and seven months, 6. Uzzi.
44. Alcimus, or Jacimus, or Joa: from 3964 to 3967, when he was taken 7. Eli, of the race of Itha. 7. Zerahiah. 7. Eli. 7. Zadok.
chim, made in 3842, died in 3814. by Sosius. mar, created in 2848,
45. Onias V. He did not exercise 55. Ananeel of Babylon, made higlidied in 2888.
his pontificate at Jerusalem, but re- priest by Herod in 3968 till 3970. 8. Ahitub I. 8. Meraioth. 8. Ahitub.
8. Ahimaaz, under tired into Egypt, where he built the 56. Aristobulus, the last of the Rehoboam. temple Onion in 3854.
Asmonæans: he did not enjoy the 9. Ahiah. He lived in 9. Ainariah. 9. Abimelechl 9. Azariah, under 16. Judas Maccabæus, restored the pontificate a whole year. He died 2911, or 2912
altar and the sacrifices in 3840, died in 3970. Ananeel was made high10. Ahimelech, or Abia-10, Ahitub I. 10. Abiathar. 10. Jehoachash, un in 3813.
priest a second time in 3971. thar, he was murdered
der Jehoshaphat. 47. Jonathan, the Asmonsan, bro- 57. Jesus, the son of Phabis, de. by Saul, 2944.
ther to Judas Maccabæus, created posed in 3981. 11. Abiathar, Ahimelech, 11. Zadok I. (11. Zadok. 11. Jehoiarib, under or Abimelech, under
Jehoram. David, from 2914 to
Succession of High-priests after the Captivity. 2989.
58. Simon, son of Botheus, made 70. Simon, surnamed Cantharus, 12. Zadok I. under Saul, 12. Ahimaaz. 12. Ahimaaz. 12. Jehoshaphat, un high-priest in 3981, deposed in 3999. and son of Simon Boethus, was David, and Solomon,
der Ahaziah. 59. Matthias, son of Theophilus, made high-priest in 41. from 2944 to about
made high-priest in 3999. Ellem was 71. Matthias, son of Ananus, made 3000.
substituted in his place for a day, high-priest in 42. 13. Ahimaaz, under Re. 13. Azariah. 13. Azariah. 13.Jehoiadah, because of an accident that happen. 72. Elioneus, inade in 44, and conhoboam, about A. M.
ed to Matthias, which hindered him tinued till 45. Simon, son of Cantha3030.
from performing his office that day. rus, was a second time made high. 14. Azariah, under Je- 14. Johanan, 14. Joram. 114. Phadaiah, 60. 'Joazar, son of Simon, son of priest, A. D. 45, and deposed the hoshaphat; perhaps 1 Chron. vi.
Boethus, made high-priest in 2000, same year, the same as Amariah. 9, 10.
the year of the birth of Jesus Christ, 73. Joseph, son of Caneus, was (2 Chron. xix. 11.)
four years before the commence made high-priest in A. D. 45, till 57. 15. Johanan, perhaps Je. 15. Azariah. 15. Issus. 15. Zedekiah, under ment of the vulgar era.
74. Ananias, the son of Nebodeus, hoiada, in the reign of
61. Eleazar, brother to Joazar, was made high-priest in the year of Joash, 2 Chron. xxiv.
made bigh-priest in 4004, of Christ the vulgar era 47, and enjoyed the 15. in 3126. He died at
4, of the vulgar era I.
priesthood till 63. the age of 130.
62. Jesus, son of Siah, made high- 75. Ismael was ordained high16. Azariah, perhaps the 16. Amariah. 16. Axiora. 16. Joel, under Uz- priest in the year of the vulgar era priest, A. D. 63. same with Zechariah,
6. Joazar was made a second time 76. Joseph, surnamed Cabei, in 63, son of Jehoiadah, whó
in 7, and deposed in 13.
77. Ananus, the son of Ananus, was killed in 3164.
63. Ananus, son of Seth, for 11 in 63. 17. Amariah, perhaps 17. Ahitub II. 17. Phideus. 17. Jotham, under years, from 4016 to 4027, of the vul- 78. Jesus, the son of Ananus, in 64. Azariah, under Uzziah,
79. Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, in in 3221.
64. Ishmael, son of Phabi, in 24. 64. 18. Ahitub II.) Under Jo- 18. Zadok II. 18. Sudeas. 18. Uriah, under :- 65. Eleazar, son of Ananus, made 80. Matthias, the son of Theophi.
in 24. 19. Zadok 11. S of Judam. 19. Shallum.
lus, was made high-priest in the year 19. Julus. 19. Neriah, under 66. Simon, son of Camithus, made of the vulgar Christian era 70. Hezekiah. high-priest in 25.
81. Phannias, the son of Samuel, 20. Uriah, under Ahaz, 20. Hilkiah. 20. Jotham. 20. Hosaiah, under 67. Joseph, surnamed Caiaphas, was made high-priest in the year 70, 3265.
made in 26, and continued till 35. in which year Jerusalem and the 21. Shallam, the father 21. Azariah. 21. Uriah. 21. Shallum, under 68. Jonathan, son of Ananus, made temple were destroyed by the Ro. of Azariah, and grand
mans, and a final period was put to father to Hilkiah
69. Theophilus, son of Jonathan, the Jewish priesthood. 22. Azariah, who lived in 22. Seraiah. 22. Neriah. 22. Hilkiah, under made in 37, and continued till 41. the time of Hezekiah
Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxi. 10.),
3278. 23. Ililkiah, under leze. 23. Jehzadak./23. Odeas. 23. Azariah, under
Of those who discharged the functions of high-priest durkiah.
Jehoiakim, and ing the decline of the Jewish polity, there are two particu
Zedekiah. larly mentioned in the New Testament, namely, Annas (John 24. Eliakim, or Joakim, 24. Joshua. 24. Saldam.
24. Jehozadak, after xviii. 13. Acts iv. 6.), and CAIAPHAS. (Matt. xxvi. 3. 57, under Manasseh, and
the taking of Je. at the time of the siege
John xviii. 13. 24. 28.) The former is by Josephus called of Bethulia, in 3318.
Ananus, of which name Annas is an abridgment: the latter He continued to live under Josiah to 3380,
he calls Joseph, intimating also that he was known by the and longer. He is also
name of Caiaphas. Annas enjoyed the singular felicity called Hilkiah. (Ba
(which indeed' had never happened to any other of the Jews ruch i. 7.) 26. Azariah perhaps Ne.
25. Hilkiah. 25. Jesus, son of Jo- ish high-priests), not only of having himself held the supreme riah, the father of Sera
zadak, after the pontifical office for many years, but also of seeing it filled iah and of Baruch.
captivity. by several successors out of his own family, five of them 26. Seraiah, the last high
26. Seraiah. priest before the cap.
being his sons, and others his sons-in-law. Hence, although tivity; put to death in
he was deprived of the high-priesthood by the Romans, he 3414.
afterward continued to take the chief sway, in the adminis. 27: Jozadak, during the
27. Jozadak. captivity of Babylon,
tration of the Jewish affairs; and is represented in the sacred from 3414 to 3169.
history, together with Caiaphas, as being chief priest ana 28. Joshua, or Jesus, the
28. Jesus, or
exercising supreme authority. son of Jozadak: hé re
Joshua. turned from Babylon
IV. Next to the Levites, priests, and high-priests, the in 3468.
OFFICERS OF THE SYNAGOGUE may be mentioned here, as being in some degree sacred persons; since to them was
confided the superintendence of those places which were set The following succession is collected from Ezra, Nehemiah, and
apart for prayer and instruction. Their functions and powers V. The NAZARITES (as the Hebrew word Nazir implies) | 19.) that, because the Rechabites had obeyed the precepts of were persons separated from the use of certain things, and Jonadab their father, therefore Jonadab should not want a man sequestered or consecrated to Jehovah. They are commonly to stand before him for ever. The Rechabites flourished as a regarded as sacred persons ; a notice of their institute will community about one hundred and eighty years, and were supbe found infra, in chapter v. sect. i. S iii. 2.
have been fully stated in p. 104. supra. Josephus. 29. Joachim, under the reign of 33. Jaddua, or Jaddus, who receiv. * Luke iii. 2. Acts iv. 6. In like manner Josephus (de Bell. Jud. lib. ii. Xerxes, Jos. Ant. I. ii. c. 5.
ed Alexander the Great at Jerusa. c. 12. 86.) places Jonathan, who had been high-priest (Antig. Jud. lib. xviii. 30. Eliasib, Joasib, or Chasib, un- lem in 3673, and died in 3682. c. 4. 83.), and who still continued to possess great authority, before Ananias, der Nehemiah, A. M. 3550.
34. Onias I. made high-priest in who at that time discharged the functions of sovereign pontift. (Ant. Jud. 31. Joiarla, or Juda, Neh. xij. 10. 3681, governed 21 years, and died in lib. XX. c. 5. $ 2.) See also Lardner's Credibility, book i. c. 7. $ 1. and book 32. Jonathan, or John. 3702
ii. c. 4. (Works, vol. i. pp. 143. 383–389.)
posed to have been dispersed after the captivity; but modern VI. The RECHABITES are by many writers considered as travellers have discovered their descendants in a tribe of a class of holy persons, who, like the Nazarites, separated Bedouin Arabs, who dwell alone in the vicinity of Mecca, themselves from the rest of the Jews, in order that they and are called Beni Khaibr, or the sons of Khaibr (that is, might lead a more pious life. But this is evidently a mistake; of Heber). They continue to obey the injunctions of their for they were not Israelites or Jews, but Kenítes or Midi- ancestor Rechab."" To this moment they drink no wine, and anites, who used to live in tents, and traversed the country have neither vineyard, nor field, nor seed; but dwell like in quest of pasture for their cattle, as the Nabathæan Arabs Arabs in tents, and are wandering nomades. They believe anciently did, and as the modern Arabians, and Crim-Tatars and observe the law of Moses by tradition, for they are not (or Tartars)" still do. Their manner of living was not the in possession of the written law."'3 result of a religious institute, but a mere civil ordinance, VII. The PROPHETS were eininently distinguished among grounded upon a national custom. They derived their name the persons accounted holy by the Jews: they were raised from Jonadab the son of Rechab, a man of eminent zeal for up by God in an extraordinary manner for the performance the pure worship of God against idolatry, who assisted king of the most sacred functions. Originally they were called Jehu in destroying the house of Ahab and the worshippers Seers: they discovered things yet future, declared the will of of Baal. (2 Kings x. 15, 16. 23.) It was he who gave the God, and announced their divine messages, both to kings and rule of life to his children and their posterity, which is people, with a confidence and freedom that could only be recorded by the prophet Jeremiah (xxxvi. 5—7.); and which produced by the conviction that they were indeed authoconsisted of these three articles: 1. 'That they should drink rized messengers of Jehovah. The gift of prophecy was not no yine; 2. That they should neither possess nor occupy always annexed to the priesthood : there were prophets of any houses, fields, or vineyards; and, 3. That they should all the tribes, and sometimes even among the Gentiles. The dwell in tents. In these regulations he appears to have had office of a prophet was not confined to the prediction of future no retigious, but merely a prudential view, as is intimated events; it was their province to instruct the people, and they in the reason assigned for them, viz. that they might live interpreted the law of God: hence the words prophet and many days in the land where they were strangers. And prophecy are, in many passages of the Scriptures, synonysuch, in fact, would be the natural consequence of their tem-mous with interpreter or teacher, and interpretation or teachperate and quiet mode of living. On the first invasion of ing. It is unanimously agreed both by Jews and Christians Nebuchadnezzar, with intent to besiege Jerusalem, these that Malachi was the last of the prophets under the Old Rechabites, apprehending themselves in more danger in the Testament dispensation : and it is a remarkable fact, that so open country, came to Jerusalem for safety; by these people long as there were prophets among the Jews, they were not God intended to convince the Jews of their disobedience to divided by sects or heresies, although they often fell into him; and, therefore, he ordered his prophet Jeremiah to bring idolatry. This circumstance may thus be accounted for:-As them to an apartment of the temple, and there offer them the prophets received their communications of the divine wine to drink, which when they refused, on account of its will immediately from God himself, there was no alternative being contrary to their institute, which they never had vio- for the Jews: either the people must obey the prophets, and lated, the prophet, after due commendation of their obedience, receive their interpretations of the law, or no longer acknowaddressed the Jews, and reproached them, who were God's ledge that God who inspired them. When, however, the peculiar people, for being less observant of his laws than law of God came to be explained by weak and fallible men, these poor Rechabites had been of the injunctions of their who seldom agreed in their opinions, sects and parties were ancestor. (Jer. xxxv.) Wherefore Jehovah declares (ver. 18,/ the unavoidable result of such conflicting sentiments,
General Classification of Sacrifices and offerings ;-I. BLOODY OFFERINGS, and the divine Origin of Sacrifices ;-1. Differ
ent kinds of Victims ;-—2. Selection of Victims ;-3. Manner of presenting them ;—4. Immolation of the Sacrifice;—5. The Place and Time appointed for sacrificing';—6. Different kinds of Fire-sacrifices ;-i. Burnt-offerings ;-ii
. Peace-offerings ;-iii. Sin-offerings ;-iv. Trespass-offerings ;—II. National, regular, weekly, monthly, and annual Sacrifices.III. UNBLOODY OFFERINGS.-IV. Drixk-OFFERINGS.-V. Other Oblations made by the Jews :- 1. ORDINARY OBLATIONS ;-(1.) The Shew-bread.--(2.) Incense.—2. VOLUNTARY OBlations.-Corban.—3. PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS;-(1.) First-fruits ; —(2.) Tithes.-VI. Filness and Utility of the Jewish Sacrifices.
A SACRIFICE is an offering made to God upon his altar by or destruction of the thing offered : whereas, an oblation is the hand of a lawful minister. Sacrifice differs from oblation only a simple offering or gift.6 in this respect, viz. in a sacrifice there must be a real change The sacrifices and oblations of the Jews demand particular
• See Mrs. Hoiderness's Notes relating to the Manners and Customs of notice in this sketch of their ecclesiastical state. Such a the Crim-Tatars. London, 1821. 12mo.
ritual as they were enjoined to observe, the multiplicity of 2. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. 1. p. 223. Michaelis's Commentaries victims they were appointed statedly to offer, together with Commentaire Littérale, tome i p. xvii. The reader will find an instructive the splendour of that external worship in which they were discourse on the history of the Rechabites, in Dr. Townson's Works, vol. daily engaged,—all tended to replenish and adorn their lan:: Wolff's Missionary Journal and Memoir, p. 257.; Carne's Recollections derived from the pomp of their religion. Hence it is that
guage with numerous allusions, and striking metaphors of the East, pp. 95, 96. • For a more particular account of the sacred prophets, see part i. chap. the writings of the Jews, more than of any other people, s General authorities from which this chapter is compiled: -Schulzii worship and service. The psalms and prophetical writings
abound with phrases and terms borrowed from the temple 203. Relandi Antiq. Sacr. Hebræorum, part iii. cap. 1–5, pp. 250-368. may in particular be adduced in illustration of this remark. Ikenii Antiq. Heb. part i. cap. 13, 14. pp. 152–191. Beausobre and L’En Purge me with hyssop, says David, and I shall be clean. fant's Introd. to the New Test. (Bishop Watson's Tracts, vol. i. pp. 196- Thou shalt be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness. (Psal. taries, vol. iii. pp. 94–97. 109-115. 246–254. Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. Archæol. Biblica, SS 360—372. Tappan's Jewish Antiq. pp. 106-118. Brun. book ii. pp. 270-272. Jahn, Archæol. Biblica, $$ 373 390. Dr. Owen on ings, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 172–192. Carpzovii Antiq. Hebr. Gentis op. the Epistle to the Hebrews, vol. i. Exercit. xxiv. pp. 306-318. Dr. Light. 699-725. foot's Works, vol. i. pp. 926–911. folio edition, $S 313-385. Ackermann, 6 Calmnet's Dictionary, voce Sacrifice.