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In the synagogues of the Hellenists or Greek Jews, the ing from right to left, they roll off with the left, while they law was always read in the Alexandrian or Greek version : roll on with the right hand. The vignette, at the head of this but in those of the native Jews, the law was always read in section, will convey some idea of the manner in which the Hebrew; whence it became necessary, as soon as that lan- Synagogue Rolls are unrolled. It is taken from the original guage ceased to be vernacular among the Jews, to establish and very valuable manuscript in the British Museum, which an interpreter, by whom the Jewish Scriptures were ex- is described in Vol. I. Part I. chap. iii. sect. i. § ii. pounded in the Chaldee dialect, which was spoken by them “ It should seem also, at least in foreign countries where after the return from the Babylonian captivity 2 The doctor places of worship were established, that when strangers, or reader, therefore, having the interpreter always by him, who were Jews, arrived at such towns, and went to offer softly whispered in his ears what he said, and this interpre- their devotions, it was usual for the presidents of the synater repeated aloud to the people what had thus been commu- gogue, after the appointed portion out of the law and the pronicated to him. To this custom our Saviour is supposed to phets was read, to send a servant to them, and in a very have alluded when he said to his disciples, What ye hear in respectful manner to request that if they could impart any the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops. (Matt. x. 27.)3 thing that might contribute to the religious instruction and

3. The third and last part of the synagogue service is, edification of the audience, they would deliver it. This token Exposition of the Scriptures, and Preaching to the people from of respect and politeness shown to strangers, appears from them. The first was performed at the time of reading them, the following passage in the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts xiii. and the other after the reading of the law and the prophets. 14, 15.) When Paul and his companions, on their arrival In Luke iv. 15—22. we have an account of the service of at Antioch in Pisidia, went into the Jewish synagogue on the synagogue in the time of Christ; from which it appears the Sabbath-day, and sat down after the reading of the law that he taught the Jews in both these ways: And he taught and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, in their synagogues, being glorified of all. And he came to saying, Men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation Nazareth, where he had been brought up; and as his custom for the people, say on. Upon which Paul stood up, and beckwas, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath-day, and stood oning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, up for to read. And there was delivered unto him the book of give audience."9 the prophet Esaias ; and when he had unrolled the volume 4 he The synagogues, however, were not only places set apart found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord for prayer; they were also schools where youth were inis upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to structed. The sages (for so were the teachers called) sat the poor ; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach upon elevated benches, while the pupils stood at their feet deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind; or before them ;20 which circumstance explains St. Paul's to set at liberty them that are bruised; to preach the acceptable meaning (Acts xxii. 3.) when he says that he was brought year of the Lord!" And he folded the volume, and he gave it up AT THE FEET of Gamaliel. again to the minister and sat down : and the eyes of all them V. Those who had been guilty of any notorious crime, or that were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he were otherwise thought unworthy, were cast out of these began to say unto them: This day is this Scripture fulfilled in synagogues, that is, excommunicated, and excluded from your ears. And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gra- partaking with the rest in the public prayers and religious cious words that proceeded out of his mouth.

offices there performed ; so that they were looked upon as From this passage we learn, that when Jesus Christ came mere heathens, and shut out from all benefit of the Jewish to Nazareth, his own city, he was called out, as a member religion, which exclusion was esteemed scandalous. We of that synagogue, to read the haphtorah, that is, the section or are told that the Jews came to a resolution, that whoever conlesson out of the prophets for that day; which appears to have fessed that Jesus was the Christ, he should be put out of the been the fifty-first haphtorah, and to have commenced with synagogue. (John ix. 22.) And, therefore, when the blind the first verse of "Isa. Ixi, and not with the tenth, as in the man,

who had been restored to sight, persisted in confessing table above given. “ Have the Jews," asks an eminent that he believed the person who had been able to work such commentator, “ altered this haphtorah, knowing the use a miracle could not have done it, if he were not of God, they which our blessed Lord made of it among their ancestors ?"6 cast him out. (ver. 33, 34.)!! Further he stood up (as it was customary, at least for the VI. The following are the Shemoneh Esreh, or nineteen officiating minister to do out of reverence for the word of prayers of the Jews, referred to in page 104. as translated by God) to read the Scriptures ; and unrolled the manuscript Dr. Prideaux. That which was formerly the nineteenth is until he came to the lesson appointed for that day; which now the twelfth in the order in which they stand in the Jewish having read he rolled it up again, and gave it to the proper liturgies. The first or precatory part of each article was proofficer; and then he sat down and expounded it, agreeably nounced by the priest, and the last or eucharistical part was to the usage of the Jews. But when Christ entered any the response of the people. synagogue of which he was not a member (as it appears “1. Blessed be thou, O LORD our God, the God of our from Luke iv. 16. he always did on every Sabbath-day, fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of wherever he was), he taught the people in sermons after the Jacob, the great God, powerful and tremendous, the high law and the prophets had been read. * The Sacred Writings, God, bountifully dispensing benefits, the creator and possessor used to this day in all the Jewish synagogues, are written on of the universe, who rememberest the good deeds of our faskins of parchment or vellum, and (like the ancient copies) thers, and in thy love sendest a Redeemer to those who are rolled on two rollers, beginning at each end : so that, in read- descended from them, for thy name's sake, O King our LORD

and helper, our Saviour and our shield.-Blessed art thou, o will be found to vary a little. On the above tables, Dr. Clarke remarks, that LORD, who art the shield of Abraham! though the Jews are agreed in the sections of the

law that are read every

“ 2. Thou, O LORD, art powerful for ever; thou raisest the prophets ; as it appears above, that the Dutch and German Jews differ in dead to life, and art mighty to save; thou sendest down the several cases from the Italian and Portuguese ; and there are some slighter dew, stillest the winds, and makest the rain to come down variations besides those above, which he has not noticed. 1 Tertulliani Apologia, c. 18.

upon the earth, and sustainest with thy beneficence all that . From this practice originated the Chaldee Paraphrases, of which an account has been given in the first volume of this work.

8 Dr. A. Clarke, on Luke vi. 17. • Dr. Lightfoot's Horæ Hebraice, on Matt. x. 27.

, Dr. Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 182. • "AvanTVEKS TO 6,5210v. This word signifies to unfold, unroll. The 10 Fleury, Lamy, and other eminent critics, have supposed that the Jew. books of the ancients were written on parchment and rolled up. Hence ish youth sat on low seats or on the ground, at the feet of their preceptors, the word volume. Αλλ' ουκ αναπτυξαντες αυτους και το χειρε περιβαλοντες who occupied a lofty chair; but Vitringa has shown, from Jewish authority, Ayons; Why do we not unfold our arms, and clasp each other in them that the disciples of the rabbins stood before them in the manner above Dion. Halicarn. lib. vi. p. 392. Iludson. 'Tyv &TITTOAM ANANTYZA, represented." See his treatise de Synag. Vet. lib. i. p. 1. c. 7. Kypke unfolding the letter. Josephus, de vitân sua, p. 21. Havercamp. Ipxxx (Observ. Sacræ, in Nov. Fed. Libros, vol. ii. pp. 114, 115.) has collected a και βιβλιον τα εξουδετο, αλιην των Περσων εποιήσατο, μετα δε, ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΑΣ, variety of passages from Greek writers, to show that the expression παρα TO BIBAION,” (the very expression of the evangelist.) Herodotus, lib. i. c. TOUS 0Ses at the feet, is equivalent to notov, near or before. 125. tom. I. p. 158. edit. Oxon. 1809. Dr. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. 11 The preceding account of the Jewish Synagogues has been compiled p. 181.

from Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. ii. pp. 219-221. Prideaux's Connec5 ΙΙτυξας το βιβλιον.

tions (book vi. sub anno 444), vol. i. pp. 374-391. Fleury's Manners of e Dr. A. Clarke, on Deut. xxxiv.

the Israelites by Dr. Clarke, pp. 336 338. Pictet, Antiq. Judaiques, pp. : In like manner, according to the custom of their

public instructers, 12-14, (Theol. Chret. tom. lii.) Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 225, 226. we find our Saviour sitting down (Matt. v. 1.) before he began to deliver Reland's Antiq. Hebr. part i. c. 10. pp. 126—140. Ikenii Antiq. Hebr. part i. his sermon on the mount to the assembled multitudes; and upon another 4-9. pp. 100—105. Schachtii Animadversiones ad Ikenii Antiq. Hebr. pp. occasion sitting down, and out of the ship teaching the people who were 452470. Lardner's

Credibility, book i. c. 9. 86. Pritii Introd. ad Nov. Test. collected on the shore (Matt. xiii. 1.) So also it is said of the scribes, who pp. 447. 595–608.; and Dr. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book ii. c. 2. were the Jewish clergy, that they sat (Matt. xxiii. 2.) in Moses' chair: Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 204-208. Beausobre's and L’Enfant's Introd. whatever therefore they bid you observe, that observe and do, but do not Bp. Watson's Theol. Tracts, pp. 158-169. On the synagogue worship of after their works, for they say and do not.

the modern Jews, see Mr. Allen's Modern Judaism, pp. 319-354.

are therein; and of thy abundant mercy makest the dead “ 13. Upon the pious and the just, and upon the proseagain to live. Thou raisest up those who fall; thou healest lytes of justice, and upon the remnant of thy people of the the sick, thou loosest them who are bound, and makest good house of Israel, let thy mercies be moved, O’LORD our God, thy word of truth to those who sleep in the dust. Who is and give a good reward unto all who faithfully put their trust to be compared to thee, O thou LORD of might! and who is in thy name; and grant us our portion with them, and for like unto thee, O our King, who killest and makest alive, ever let us not be ashamed, for we put our trust in thee.and makest salvation to spring, as the grass in the field! Blessed art thou, O LORD, who art the support and confidence Thou art faithful to make the dead to rise again to life.- of the just ! Blessed art thou, O LORD, who raisest the dead again to life! “ 14. Dwell thou in the midst of Jerusalem, thy city, as

“ 3. Thou art holy, and thy name is holy, and thy saints thou hast promised: build it with a building to last for ever, do praise thee every day, Selah. For a great king and a and do this speedily, even in our days.-Blessed art thou, o holy art thou, O God.-Blessed art thou, LORD God, most LORD, who buildest Jerusalem! holy!

“15. Make the offspring of David thy servant speedily to *4. Thou of thy mercy givest knowledge unto men, and grow up, and flourish; and let our horn be exalted in thy salteachest them understanding: give graciously unto us know- vation. For we hope for thy salvation every day.Blessed ledge, wisdom, and understanding.--Blessed art thou, o art thou, O LORD, who makest the horn of our salvation to LORD, who graciously givest knowledge unto men !

flourish! “5. Bring us back, o our Father, to the observance of thy “ 16. Hear our voice, O LORD our God, most merciful law, and make us to adhere to thy precepts, and do thou, O Father, pardon and have mercy upon us, and accept of our our King, draw us near to thy worship, and convert us to prayers with thy mercy and favour, and send us not away thee by perfect repentance in thy presence.-Blessed art thou, from thy presence, 0 our king. For thou hearest with mercy O LORD, who vouchsafest to receive us by repentance ! the prayer of thy people Israel.Blessed art thou, O LORD,

“6. Be thou merciful unto us, 0 our Father : for we have who hearest prayer sinned : pardon us, 0 our King, for we have transgressed “ 17. Be thou well pleased, O LORD our God, with thy against thee. For thou art a God, good and ready to par- people Israel ; and have regard unto their prayers ; restore don.-Blessed art thou, O LORD most gracious, who multipliest thy worship to the inner part of thy house, and make haste thy mercies in the forgiveness of sins !

with favour and love to accept of the burnt sacrifices of Is*7. Look, we beseech thee, upon our afflictions. Be thou rael, and their prayers; and let the worship of Israel thy peoon our side in all our contentions, and plead thou our cause ple be continually well pleasing unto thee. Blessed art thou, in all our litigations; and make haste to redeem us with a O LORD, who restorest thy divine presence to Zion! perfect redemption for thy name's sake. For thou art our “ 18. We will give thanks unto thee with praise. For God, our King, and a strong Redeemer.-Blessed art thou, thou art the Lord our God, the God of our fathers, for ever LORD, the Redeemer of Israel!

and ever. Thou art our rock, and the rock of our life, and “8. Heal us, O Lord our God, and we shall be healed; the shield of our salvation. To all generations will we give save us, and we shall be saved. For thou art our praise. thanks unto thee, and declare thy praise, because of our life Bring unto us sound health, and a perfect remedy for all our which is always in thy hands, and because of thy signs, infirmities, and for all our griefs, and for all our wounds. which are every day with us, and because of thy wonders, For thou art a God who healest and art merciful.-Blessed and marvellous loving-kindness, which are morning, and art thou, O LORD our God, who curest the diseases of thy people evening, and night before us. Thou art good, for thy merIsrael!

cies are not consumed; thou art merciful, for thy loving“9. Bless us, O Lord our God, in every work of our kindnesses fail not. For ever we hope in thee. And for all hands, and bless unto us the seasons of the year, and give us these mercies be thy name, king, blessed and exalted, and the dew and the rain to be a blessing unto us, upon the face lifted up on high for ever and ever; and let all that live give of all our land, and satiate the world with thy blessings, and thanks unto thee. Selah. And let them in truth and sincerity send down moisture upon every part of the earth that is habi- praise thy name, O God of our salvation, and our help. Se table.—Blessed art thou, O LORD, who givest thy blessing to lah.-- Blessed art thou, O LORD, whose name is good, and to the years!

whom it is fitting always to give praise ! " 10. Gather us together by the sound of the great trum- “ 19. Give peace, beneficence, and benediction, grace, bepet, to the enjoyment of our liberty; and lift up thy ensign nignity, and mercy unto us, and to Israel thy people. Bless to call together all the captivity, from the four quarters of the us, our Father, even all of us together as one man, with the earth into our own land.-Blessed art thou, O LORD, who light of thy countenance. For in the light of thy countegutherest together the exiles of the people of Israel!

nance hast thou given unto us, O LORD our God, the law of “11. Restore unto us our judges as at the first, and our life, and love, and benignity, and righteousness, and blessing, counsellors as at the beginning; and remove far from us and mercy, and life, and peace. And let it seem good in affliction and trouble, and do thou only reign over us in be- thine eyes, to bless thy people Israel with thy peace at all nignity, and in mercy, and in righteousness, and in justice. times, and in every moment.--Blessed art thou, O Lord, who -Blessed art thou, Lord, our king, who lovest righteousness blessest thy people Israel with peace! Amen." and justice.

“ 12. 'Let there be no hope to them, who apostatize from bilated speedily, and all the tyrants be cut off quickly ; humble thou them the true religion; and let heretics, how many soever they be, and humblest tyrants !In the Prayer Book of the Spanish and Portu. all perish as in a moment. And let the kingdom of pride guese Jews, this prayer runs thus : Let slanderers have no hope, and be speedily rooted out and broken in our days.-Blessed art and those who hate thee, be suddenly cut off, and all those who act wick

, thou, O Lord our God, who destroyest the wicked, and bringestedly be suddenly broken, consumed, and rooted out; and humble thou down the proud !3

them speedily in our days.-Blessed art thou, O Lord, who destroyest the enemies and humblest the proud!Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 329.

* Concerning these supposed proselytes of justice, see p. 109. infra. • This is the prayer which was added by Rabbi Gamaliel against the

$ i. e. The Adytum Templi

, which in the temple of Jerusalem was the Christians, or as others say by Rabbi Samuel the little, who was one of his holy of holies, into which none ever entered but the high-priest once a scholars. - The Roman empire.

year, on the great day of expiation. From this place, after the Babylonish * The twelfth prayer, as now used by the Jews, varies considerably from divine presence, and the Urim and Thummim, which causing an imperfec.

captivity, were wanting the ark, the mercy-seat, the Shechinah of the that above given in the Prayer Book of the German and Polish Jews, it tion in their worship in respect

of what it was formerly, a restoration of stands thus :-"O let the slanderers have no hope, all the wicked be anni.'them seems to be the subject of this petition.

it is said, that David delivered this psalm to thank the Lord also in the lamps of the golden candlestick in the sanctuary; into the hand of Asaph and his brethren. ,(1 Chron. xvi. 7.) they kneaded the loaves of shew-bread, which they baked, The principal persons of this order, who had the superinten- and offered on the golden altar in the sanctuary: and changed dency over all the rest, were Heman and Asaph of the line them every Sabbath-day. Every day, morning and evening, of Gershon, and Jeduthun of the line of Merari, of whom a priest (who was appointed at the beginning of the week we have an account in-1 Chron. xxv.

by lot) brought into the sanctuary a smoking censer of The mere circumstance of birth did not give the Levites a incense, which he set upon the golden table, and which on title to officiate; they were obliged to receive a sort of conse- no account was to be kindled with strange fire, that is, with cration, which consisted chiefly in sprinkling them with any fire but that which was taken from the altar of burnt water, in washing, and in offering sacrifices. (Num. viii. 6, sacrifice. (Lev. x. 1, 2.) And as the number and variety of 7, 8.) The usual age, at which the Levites were to enter on their functions required them to be well read in their law, in their office, was at five-and-twenty years, and they continued order that they might be able to judge of the various legal till fifty. (Num. viii. 24, 25.) But there was a particular uncleannesses, &c. this circumstance caused them to be conprecept which restrained the Kohathites (one of the three sulted as interpreters of the law (Hos. iv. 6. Mal. ii. 7, &c. branches) from being employed to carry the holy things be- Lev. xiii. 2. Num. v. 14, 15.), as well as judges of controlonging to the sanctuary, till they were of the age of thirty versies. (Deut. xxi. 5. xvii. 8–13.) In ihe time of war, (Num. iv. 30.), probably, because these being the most valu- their business was to carry the ark of the covenant, to sound able and important of all the moveables belonging to the the holy trumpets, and animate the army to the performance tabernacle, required therefore persons of greater experience of its duties. To them also it belonged publicly to bless and strength. Afterwards, when David new-moulded the the people in the name of the Lord. constitution of the Levites, he (by the same authority which The priests were divided by David into twenty-four classes empowered him to give directions about the building and/(1 Chron. xxiv. 7–18.); which order was retained by Solosituation of the house of God) ordered that for the future the mon (2 Chron. viii. 14.); and at the revivals of the Jewish Levites should be admitted at the age of twenty years. religion by the kings Hezekiah and Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxi. (1 Chron. xxiii. 24.) It does not appear by the first institu- 2. xxxv. 4, 5.) Ås, however, only four classes returned tion of the Levites that they had any peculiar habit in the from the Babylonish captivity (Ezra ii. 36–39. Neh. vii. ceremonies of religion by which they were distinguished 39—42. xii. 1.), these were again divided into twenty-four from other Israelites. None of the Levites, of what degree classes, each of which was distinguished by its original apor order soever, had any right to sacrifice, for that was the pellation. This accounts for the introduction of the class or proper duty of the priests only: the Levites, indeed, were to order of Abiah, mentioned in Luke i. 5., which we do not assist the priests in killing and flaying the sacrifices, and, find noticed among those who returned from the captivity. during the time they were offered up, to sing praises to God: One of these classes went up to Jerusalem every week to and in this sense the two passages in 1 Chron. xxiii. 31. and discharge the sacerdotal office, and succeeded one another on 2 Chron. xxxi. 2. are commonly understood ; neither had the Sabbath-day, till they had all attended in their turn. To they any title to burn incense to the Lord; and though the each order was assigned a president (1 Chron. xxiv. 6. 31. speech of Hezekiah (mentioned in 2 Chron. xxix. particu- 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14.), whom some critics suppose to be the larly ver. 11.) seems to imply otherwise, yet we ought to same as the chief priests so often mentioned in the New Tesconsider that he is there speaking to the priests as well as to tament, and in the writings of Josephus. The prince or the Levites. It was on account of their aspiring to the priest's prefect of each class appointed an entire family to offer the office in this particular of burning incense, that Korah and daily sacrifices : and at the close of the week they all joined his company (who were Levites) were miraculously destroy- together in sacrificing. And as each family consisted of a ed, and their censers ordered to be beaten into broad plates, great number of priests, they drew lots for the different and fixed upon the altar, to be perpetual monuments of their offices which they were to perform. It was by virtue of such presumptuous sacrilege, and a caution to all the children of lot that the office of burning incense was assigned to ZachaIsrael, that none presume to offer incense before the Lord rias the father of John the Baptist, when he went into the but the seed of Aaron, who alone were commissioned to the temple of the Lord. (Luke i. 9.). According to some Jewish priestly office.

writers, there were three priests employed in the offering of As the Levites were subordinate to the priests, so they the incense; one, who carried away ihe ashes left on the (the Levites) had others under them, called NetHiNiMS, altar at the preceding service ; another, who brought a pan whose business it was to carry the water and wood that was of burning coals from the altar of sacrifice, and, having wanted in the temple for the use of the sacrifices, and to placed it on the golden altar, departed; a third, who went perform other Jaborious services there. They were not in with the incense, sprinkled it on the burning coals, and, originally of Hebrew descent, but are supposed to have been while the smoke ascended, made intercession for the people. chiefly the posterity of the Gibeonites, who for their fraudu- This was the particular office which fell by lot to Zacharias; lent stratagem in imposing upon Joshua and the Hebrew and it was accounted the most honourable in the whole princes (Josh. ix. 3—27.) were condemned to this employ- service. This office could be held but once by the same ment, which was a sort of honourable servitude. We read person. in Ezra, that the Nethinims were devoted by David and the The sacerdotal dignity being confined to certain families, other princes to the service of the temple (Ezra viii. 20.), every one who aspired to it was required to establish his and they are called the children of Solomon's servants (Ezra descent from those families : on this account the genealogies ii. 58.), being probably a mixture of the race of the Gibeon- of the priests were inscribed in the public registers, and were ites, and some of the remains of the Canaanites, whom Solo- preserved in the archives of the temple. Hence, in order mon constrained to various servitudes. (1 Kings ix. 20, 21.) to preserve the purity of the sacerdotal blood, no priest was They had a particular place in Jerusalem where they dwelt, permitted to marry a harlot or profane woman, or one who called Ophel, for the conveniency of being near the service had been divorced; and if any one laboured under any bodily of the temple. (Neh. iii. 26.)

defect, this excluded him from serving at the altar. Purity In order to enable the Levites to devote themselves to that of body and sanctity of life were alike indispensable ; nor service, forty-eight cities were assigned to them for their could any one undertake the priestly office, in the early residence, on the division of the land of Canaan; thirteen of period of the Jewish polity, before he had attained thirty these were appropriated to the priests, to which were added years, or, in later times, the age of twenty years. According the tithes of corn, fruit, and cattle. The Levites, however, to Maimonides, the priest whose genealogy was defective in paid to the priests a tenth part of all their tithes; and as any respect was clothed in black, and veiled in black, and they were possessed of no landed property, the tithes which sent without the verge of the court of the priests; but every the priests received from them were considered as the first one that was found perfect and right was clothed in white, fruits which they were to offer to God. (Num. xviii. and went in and ministered with his brethren the priests. It 21–24.)2

is not improbable that St. John refers to this custom of the II. Next to the Levites, but superior to them in dignity, 3 See Matt. xxvii. J. Acts iv. 23. v. 2. ix. 14. 21. xxii. 30. xxiii. 14. xxv. were the ordinary Priests, who were chosen from the family 15. xxvi. 10. ; and also Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xx. C. 8. $ 8. De Bell. Jud. of Aaron exclusively. They served immediately at the altar, lib. iv.c.3.7. c. 4. 53. et de vita sua, $$ 2.5. prepared the victims, and offered the sacrifices. They kept

s Ezra ii. 62. Neh. vii. 64. Josephus contra Apion, lib. i. $7. et in vita up a perpetual fire on the altar of the burnt sacrifices, and sua, $ 1. 1 See p. 16. suprà.

6 'Lev. xxi. 7. 17-23. Num. iv. 3. 2 Chron. xxxi. 17. Maimonides has

enumerated not fewer than 140 bodily defects which disqualified persons Home's Script. Hist. of Jews, vol. ii. pp. 214–221. Schulzii Archæol. for the priesthood. See Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. 5 2. and comHebr. pp. 227–31.

pare Carpzov's Apparatus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, p. 89. et seq.

are therein; and of thy abundant mercy makest the dead /. “ 13. Upon the pious and the just, and upon the proseagain to live. Thou raisest up those who fall; thou healest lytes of justice, and upon the remnant of thy people of the the sick, thou loosest them who are bound, and makest good house of Israel, let thy mercies be moved, OʻLORD our God, thy word of truth to those who sleep in the dust. Who is and give a good reward unto all who faithfully put their trust to be compared to thee, O thou LORD of might! and who is in thy name; and grant us our portion with them, and for like unto thee, O our King, who killest and makest alive, ever let us not be ashamed, for we put our trust in thee.and makest salvation to spring, as the grass in the field! Blessed art thou, O LORD, who art the support and confidence Thou art faithful to make the dead to rise again to life.- of the just! Blessed art thou, O LORD, who raisest the dead again to life! “ 14. Dwell thou in the midst of Jerusalem, thy city, as

“3. Thou art holy, and thy name is holy, and thy saints thou hast promised : build it with a building to last for ever, do praise thee every day. Selah. For a great king and a and do this speedily even in our days.-Blessed art thou, Ó holy art thou, O God.— Blessed art thou, LORD God, most LORD, who buildest Jerusalem! holy!

“ 15. Make the offspring of David thy servant speedily to * 4. Thou of thy mercy givest knowledge unto men, and grow up, and flourish; and

let our horn be exalted in thy salteachest them understanding: give graciously unto us know. vation. For we hope for thy salvation every day.-Blessed ledge, wisdom, and understanding.-Blessed art thou, 0 art thou, O LORD, who makest the horn of our salvation to LORD, who graciously givest knowledge unto men!

flourish! “5. Bring us back, o our Father, to the observance of thy 6 16. Hear our voice, O LORD our God, most merciful law, and make us to adhere to thy precepts, and do thou, O Father, pardon and have mercy upon us, and accept of our our King, draw us near to thy worship, and convert us to prayers with thy mercy and favour, and send us not away thee by perfect repentance in thy presence.Blessed art thou, from thy presence, 0 our king. For thou hearest with mercy O Lord, who vouchsafest to receive us by repentance ! the prayer of thy people Israel.-Blessed art thou, O LORD,

“6. Be thou merciful unto us, 0 our Father: for we have who hearest prayer! sinned : pardon_us, 0 our King, for we have transgressed “17. Be thou well pleased, O LORD our God, with thy against thee. For thou art a God, good and ready to par- people Israel; and have regard unto their prayers ; restore don.-Blessed art thou, O Lord most gracious, who multipliest thy worship to the inner part of thy house, and make haste thy mercies in the forgiveness of sins !

with favour and love to accept of the burnt sacrifices of Is*7. Look, we beseech thee, upon our afflictions. Be thou rael, and their prayers; and let the worship of Israel thy peoon our side in all our contentions, and plead thou our cause ple be continually well pleasing unto thee. Blessed art thou, in all our litigations; and make haste to redeem us with a O Lord, who restorest thy divine presence to Zion! perfect redemption for thy name's sake. For thou art our “ 18.' We will give thanks unto thee with praise. For God, our King, and a strong Redeemer.-Blessed art thou, thou art the Lord our God, the God of our fathers, for ever Lord, the Redeemer of Israel !

and ever. Thou art our rock, and the rock of our life, and “8. Heal us, 0 LORD our God, and we shall be healed; the shield of our salvation. To all generations will we give save us, and we shall be saved. For thou art our praise. thanks unto thee, and declare thy praise, because of our life Bring unto us sound health, and a perfect remedy for all our which is always in thy hands, and because of thy signs, infirmities, and for all our griefs, and for all our wounds. which are every day with us, and because of thy wonders, For thou art a God who healest and art merciful.-Blessed and marvellous loving-kindness, which are morning, and art thou, O Lord our God, who curest the diseases of thy people evening, and night before us. Thou art good, for thy merIsrael!

cies are not consumed; thou art merciful, for thy Ioving; “9. Bless us, O Lord our God, in every work of our kindnesses fail not. For ever we hope in thee. And for all hands, and bless unto us the seasons of the year, and give us these mercies be thy name, o king, blessed and exalted, and the dew and the rain to be a blessing unto us, upon the face lifted up on high for ever and ever ; and let all that live give of all our land, and satiate the world with thy blessings, and thanks unto thee. Selah. And let them in truth and sincerity send down moisture upon every part of the earth that is habi- praise thy name, O God of our salvation, and our help. Setable.—Blessed art thou, O LORD, who givest thy blessing to lah.-Blessed art thou, O LORD, whose name is good, and to the years!

whom it is fitting always to give praise ! “10. Gather us together by the sound of the great trum- “ 19. Give peace, beneficence, and benediction, grace, bepet, to the enjoyment of our liberty; and lift up thy ensign nignity, and mercy unto us, and to Israel thy people. Bless to call together all the captivity, from the four quarters of the us, our Father, even all of us together as one man, with the earth into our own land.-Blessed art thou, O LORD, who light of thy countenance. For in the light of thy countegatherest together the exiles of the people of Israel!

nance hast thou given unto us, O LORD our God, the law of “11. Restore unto us our judges as at the first, and our life, and love, and benignity, and righteousness, and blessing, counsellors as at the beginning; and remove far from us and mercy, and life, and peace. And let it seem good in affliction and trouble, and do thou only reign over us in be- thine eyes, to bless thy people Israel with thy peace at all nignity, and in mercy, and in righteousness, and in justice. times, and in every moment.-Blessed art thou, O Lord, who -Blessed art thou, O Lord, our king, who lovest righteousness blessest thy people Israel with peace! Amen.” and justice.

“12. 'Let there be no hope to them, who apostatize from bilated speedily, and all the tyrants be cut off quickly; humble thou them the true religion; and let heretics, how many soever they be, and humblest tyrants !" In the Prayer Book of the Spanish and Portu all perish as in a moment. And let the kingdom of pride guese Jews, this prayer runs thus : "Let slanderers have no hope, and be speedily rooted

out and broken in our days.-Blessed art and those who hate thee, be suddenly cut off, and all those who act wick thou, O Lord our God, who destroyest the wicked, and bringest edly be suddenly broken, consumed, and rooted out ; and humble thou down the proud !3

them speedily in our days.-Blessed art thou, O Lord, who destroyest the enemies and humblest the proud!Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 329.

* Concerning these supposed proselytes of justice, see p. 109. infra. • This is the prayer which was added by Rabbi Gamaliel against the Christians, or as others say by Rabbi Samuel the little, who was one of his holy of holies, into which none ever entered but the high-priest once a

$ i. e. The Adytum Templi

, which in the temple of Jerusalem was the 1 The Roman empire.

year, on the great day of expiation. From this place, after the Babylonish The twelfth prayer, as now used by the Jews, varies considerably from divine presence, and the Urim and Thummim, which causing an imperfec.

captivity, were wanting the ark, the mercy-seat, the Shechinah' of the that above given in the

Prayer Book of the German and Polish Jews, it tion in their worship in respect of what it was formerly, a restoration of stands thus :-"O let the slanderers have no hope, all the wicked be anni.' them seems to be the subject of this petition.

scholars.

1

it is said, that David delivered this psalm to thank the Lord also in the lamps of the golden candlestick in the sanctuary; into the hand of Asaph and his brethren. (1 Chron. xvi. 7.) they kneaded the loaves of shew-bread, which they baked, The principal persons of this order, who had the superinten- and offered on the golden altar in the sanctuary: and changed dency over all the rest, were Heman and Asaph of the line them every Sabbath-day. Every day, morning and evening, of Gershon, and Jeduthun of the line of Merari, of whom a priest (who was appointed at the beginning of the week we have an account in 1 Chron. xxv.

by lot) brought into the sanctuary, a smoking censer of The mere circumstance of birth did not give the Levites a incensé, which he set upon the golden table, and which on title to officiate; they were obliged to receive a sort of conse- no account was to be kindled with strange fire, that is, with cration, which consisted chiefly in sprinkling them with any fire but that which was taken from the altar of burnt water, in washing, and in offering sacrifices. (Num. viii. 6, sacrifice. (Lev. x. 1, 2.) And as the number and variety of 7, 8.) The usual age, at which the Levites were to enter on their functions required them to be well read in their law, in their office, was at five-and-twenty years, and they continued order that they might be able to judge of the various legal till fifty. (Num. viii. 24, 25.) But there was a particular uncleannesses, &c. this circumstance caused them to be conprecept which restrained the Kohathites (one of the three sulted as interpreters of the law (Hos. iv. 6. Mal. ii. 7, &c. branches) from being employed to carry the holy things be- Lev. xiii. 2. Num. v. 14, 15.), as well as judges of controlonging to the sanctuary, till they were of the age of thirty versies. (Deut. xxi. 5. xvii. 8–13.) In the time of war, (Núm. iv. 30.), probably, because these being the most valu- their business was to carry the ark of the covenant, to sound able and important of all the moveables belonging to the the holy trumpets, and animate the army to the performance tabernacle, required therefore persons of greater experience of its duties. To them also it belonged publicly to bless and strength. Afterwards, when David new-moulded the the people in the name of the Lord. constitution of the Levites, he (by the same authority which The priests were divided by David into twenty-four classes empowered him to give directions about the building and (1 Chron. xxiv. 7--18.); which order was retained by Solosituation of the house of God) ordered that for the future the mon (2 Chron. viii. 14.); and at the revivals of the Jewish Levites should be admitted at the age of twenty years. religion by the kings Hezekiah and Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxi. (1 Chron. xxiii. 24.) It does not appear by the first institu- 2. xxxv. 4, 5.) As, however, only four classes returned tion of the Levites that they had any peculiar habit in the from the Babylonish captivity (Ezra ii. 36–39. Neh. vii. ceremonies of religion by which they were distinguished 39—12. xii. 1.), these were again divided into twenty-four from other Israelites. None of the Levites, of what degree classes, each of which was distinguished by its original apor order soever, had any right to sacrifice, for that was the pellation. This accounts for the introduction of the class or proper duty of the priests.only: the Levites, indeed, were to order of Abiah, mentioned in Luke i. 5., which we do not assist the priests in killing and faying the sacrifices, and, find noticed among those who returned from the captivity. during the time they were offered up, to sing praises to God: One of these classes went up to Jerusalem every week to and in this sense the two passages in 1 Chron. xxiii. 31. and discharge the sacerdotal office, and succeeded one another on 2 Chron. xxxi. 2. are commonly understood ; neither had the Sabbath-day, till they had all attended in their turn. To they any title to burn incense to the Lord; and though the each order was assigned a president (1 Chron. xxiv. 6. 31. speech of Hezekiah (mentioned in 2 Chron. xxix. particu- 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14.), whom some critics suppose to be the larly ver. 11.) seems to imply otherwise, yet

we ought to same as the chief priests so often mentioned in the New Tesconsider that he is there speaking to the priests as well as to tament, and in the writings of Josephus. The prince or the Levites. It was on account of their aspiring to the priest's prefect of each class appointed an entire family to offer the office in this particular of burning incense, that Korah and daily sacrifices : and at the close of the week they all joined his company (who were Levites) were miraculously destroy- together in sacrificing. And as each family consisted of a ed, and their censers ordered to be beaten into broad plates, great number of priests, they drew lots for the different and fixed upon the altar, to be perpetual monuments of their offices which they were to perform. It was by virtue of such presumptuous sacrilege, and a caution to all the children of lot that the office of burning incense was assigned to ZachaIsrael, that none presume to offer incense before the Lord rias the father of John the Baptist, when he went into the but the seed of Aaron, who alone were commissioned to the temple of the Lord. (Luke i. 9.) According to some Jewish priestly office.

writers, there were three priests employed in the offering of As the Levites were subordinate to the priests, so they the incense; one, who carried away the ashes left on the (the Levites) had others under them, called NetHiNIMS, altar at the preceding service ; another, who brought a pan whose business it was to carry the water and wood that was of burning coals from the altar of sacrifice, and, having wanted in the temple for the use of the sacrifices, and to placed it on the golden altar, departed; a third, who went perform other laborious services there. They were not in with the incense, sprinkled it on the burning coals, and, originally of Hebrew descent, but are supposed to have been while the smoke ascended, made intercession for the people. chiefly the posterity of the Gibeonites, who for their fraudu- This was the particular office which fell by lot to Zacharias; lent stratagem in imposing upon Joshua and the Hebrew and it was accounted the most honourable in the whole princes (Josh. ix. 3—27.) were condemned to this employ- service. This office could be held but once by the same ment, which was a sort of honourable servitude. We read person.* in Ezra, that the Nethinims were devoted by David and the The sacerdotal dignity being confined to certain families, other princes to the service of the temple (Ezra viii. 20.), every one who aspired to it was required establish his and they are called the children of Solomon's servants (Ezra descent from those families : on this account the genealogies ii. 58.), being probably a mixture of the race of the Gibeon- of the priests were inscribed in the public registers, and were ites, and some of the remains of the Canaanites, whom Solo- preserved in the archives of the temple.5 Hence, in order mon constrained to various servitudes. (1 Kings ix. 20, 21.) to preserve the purity of the sacerdotal blood, no priest was They had a particular place in Jerusalem where they dwelt, permitted to marry a harlot or profane woman, or one who called Ophel, for the conveniency of being near the service had been divorced; and if any one laboured under any bodily of the temple. (Neh. iii. 26.)

defect, this excluded him from serving at the altar. Purity In order to enable the Levites to devote themselves to that of body and sanctity of life were alike indispensable; nor service, forty-eight cities were assigned to them for their could any one undertake the priestly office, in the early residence, on the division of the land of Canaan; thirteen of period of the Jewish polity, before he had attained thirty these were appropriated to the priests, to which were added years, or, in later times, the age of twenty years. According the tithes of corn, fruit, and cattle. The Levites, however, to Maimonides, the priest whose genealogy was defective in paid to the priests a tenth part of all their tithes; and as any respect was clothed in black, and veiled in black, and they were possessed of no landed property, the tithes which sent without the verge of the court of the priests; but every the priests received from them were considered as the first one that was found perfect and right was clothed in white, fruits which they were to offer to God. (Num. xviii. and went in and ministered with his brethren the priests. It 21–24.)

is not improbable that St. John refers to this custom of the II. Next to the Levites, but superior to them in dignity, 3 See Matt. xxvii. 1. Acts iv. 23. v. 24. ix. 14. 21. xxii. 30. xxiii. 14. xxv. were the ordinary Priests, who were chosen from the family 15. xxvi. 10.; and also Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 8. $8. De Beli. Jud. of Aaron exclusively. They served immediately at the altar, lib. iv.c. 3. 67. c. 4. 63. et de vita

sua, $$ 2.5. prepared the victims, and offered the sacrifices. They kept

• Ezra ii. 62. Neh. vii. 64. Josephus contra Apion, lib. i. $ 7. et in vita up a perpetual fire on the altar of the burnt sacrifices, and sua, $1. · See p. 16. supra.

. Lev. xxi. 7. 17–23. Num. iv. 3. 2 Chron. xxxi. 17. Maimonides has

enumerated not fewer than 140 bodily defects which disqualified persons Home's Script. Hist. of Jews, vol. ii. pp. 214–221. Schulzii Archæol. for the priesthood. See Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 12. $ 2. and cor Hebr. pp. 227-231.

pare Carpzov's Apparatus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, p. 89. et seq.

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