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influence of which extend to every part of the world. Here are great book-publishing establishments, which send forth millions of volumes every year—from ponderous encyclopaedias of science, and elegantly illustrated and costly works of art, down to tracts for Sabbath schools, and picture-books for children. The situation of Edinburgh is very romantic and beautiful; the town being built among hills and ravines of the most picturesque and striking character. When Scotland was an independent kingdom, Edinburgh was the capital of it, and thus the old palace of the kings, and the royal castle, are there; and the town has been the scene of some of the most remarkable events in Scottish history.
Glasgow, on the other hand, which is on the Clyde, towards the western side of the island, together with all the country for many miles round it, forms the scene of the mechanical and manufacturing industry of Scotland. The whole district, in fact, is one vast workshop, being full of mines, mills, forges, furnaces, machine shops, shipyards, and iron works, with pipes puffing out steam, and tall chimneys rising everywhere all round the horizon, and sending up volumes of dense black smoke, which come pouring incessantly from their summits, and thence floating majestically away, mingle with the clouds of the sky.
The reason of this is, that the strata of rocks which lie beneath the ground in all this region, consist in great measure of beds of coal and of iron ore. The miners dig down in almost any spot, and find iron ore; and very near it, and sometimes in the same pit, they find plenty of coal. These pits are like monstrous wells: very wide at the mouth, and extending down four or five times as far as the height of the tallest steeples, into the bowels of the earth. Over the mouth of the pit the workmen build a machine, with ropes and a monstrous wheel, to hoist up the iron and coal by, and all round they set up furnaces to smelt the ore and turn it into iron. Then at suitable places, in various parts of the country, they construct great rolling mills and foundries. The rolling mills are to turn the pig iron into wrought iron, and to manufacture it into bars, and sheets, and rails for the railroads; and the foundries are to cast it into the form of great wheels, and cylinders, and beams for machinery, or for any other purpose that may be required.
The Clyde is the river on which steam-boats were first built in Great Britain. The first man-in England or Scotland that found a way of making a steam-engine that could be put in a boat and made to turn paddle-wheels so as to drive the boat along, was James Watt, who was born on the Clyde, which, of course, very naturally became the centre of steam-boat and steam-ship buildingThe iron for the engines was found close at hand, as well as abundant supplies of coal for the fires. The timber they brought from the Baltic. At length, however, they found that they could build ships of iron instead of wood, using iron beams for the framing, and covering them with plates of iron riveted together, instead of planks. These ships were found superior, in almost all respects, to those built of timber; and as iron in great abundance was found all along the banks of the Clyde, and as the workmen in the region were extremely skilful in working it, the business of building ships and steamers of this material increased wonderfully, until, at length, the banks of the river for miles below Glasgow became lined with ship-yards, where countless steamers, of monstrous length and graceful forms, in all stages of construction, lie ; now sloping towards the water and down the stream, ready at the appointed time to glide majestically into the river, and thence to plough their way to every portion of the habitable globe.—Abbott.
Of all the Ceylon birds of this order, the most familiar and notorious are the small glossy crows, whose shining black plumage, shot with blue, has suggested the title of Corons Splendens. They frequent the towns in companies, and domesticate themselves in the close vicinity of every house; and it may possibly serve to account for the familiarity and audacity which they exhibit in their intercourse with men, that the Dutch during their sovereignty in Ceylon enforced severe penalties against any one killing a crow, under the belief that they were instrumental in extending the growth of cinnamon, by feeding on the fruit, and thus disseminating the undigested seed.
All day long these birds are engaged in watching either the offal of the offices, or the preparation for meals in the dining rooms; and as doors and windows are necessarily opened to relieve the heat, nothing is more common than the passage of a crow across the room, lifting on the wing some ill-guarded morsel from the dinner table. No article, however unpromising its quality, provided only it be portable, can with safety be left unguarded in any apartment accessible to them. The contents of ladies' work-boxes, kid gloves, and pocket handkerchiefs, vanish instantly if exposed near a window or open door. They open paper parcels to ascertain the contents; they will undo the knot on a napkin if it encloses anything eatable; and I have known a crow to extract the peg which fastened the lid of a basket in order to plunder the provender within.
One of these ingenious marauders, after vainly attitudinising in front of a chained watch-dog, that was lazily gnawing a bone, and after fruitlessly endeavouring to divert his attention by dancing before him, with head awry, and eye askance, at length flew away for a moment, and returned bringing a companion, which perched itself on a branch a few yards in the rear. The crowd's grimaces were now actively renewed, but with no better success till its confederate, poising itself on its wings, descended with the utmost velocity, striking the dog upon the spine with all the force of its strong beak. The ruse was successful; the dog started with surprise and pain, but not quickly enough to seize his assailant, whilst the bone he had been gnawing was snatched away by the first crow the instant his head was turned. Two well-authenticated instances of the recurrence of this device came within my knowledge at Colombo, and attest the sagacity and powers of communication and combination possessed by these astute and courageous birds.
LESSON LXVIII. LUCI GRAY.
No mate, no comrade, Lucy knew;
She dwelt on a wide moor;
Beside a cottage door!
You yet may spy the fawn at play,
The hare upon the green;
Will never more be seen.
"To-night will be a stormy night,
You to the town must go;
Your mother through the snow."
"That, father, I will gladly do,
'Tis scarcely afternoon— The minster clock has just struck two,
And yonder is the moon."
At this the father raised his hook
And snapped a faggot band;
The lantern in her hand.
Not blither is the mountain roe;
With many a wanton stroke
That rises up like smoke.
The storm came on before its time,
She wandered up and down, And many a hill did Lucy climb
But never reached the town.
The wretched parents all that night
Went shouting far and wide; But there was neither sound nor sight
To serve them for a guide.
At day-break on a hill they stood
That overlooked the moor; And thence they saw the bridge of wood,
A furlong from the door.