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79. to 1367.

a bank for the issue of paper money, the Ming Emperors, who succeeded on a similar plan to tliose which have the Joguls

, were not caly unable to already been noticed. The notes for abolish the paper in circulation, but 2, 4, 8, and 10 ounces of silver, compelled to issue ne* notes. 1:1 were called large notes, and the smal. 1975 six different sorts were issued, ler were for 100, 300, 700, and 900 of the value of 500, 400, 300, 200, pieces of copper. The period of their and 100 pieces of copper, and of 1000 currency was fixed for 7 years; at the deniers, which were equal to an ounce expiration of this terin the oli notes of silver. The use of gold, silver, and were i exchanged for new precious stones, as a inedium of pasThere were hunks in every province, ment, was strictly forbidden. The and the governient took 15 pieces of value of the notes soon telt in the copper on erery 1000, to cover the proportion of nearly 20 per cent. La expenses. Towards the latter part the year 148 the quantity of notes of the 13th century, the Moguls be- was so considerable, that only 3 deniers came inacters of China, where they of specie were given for a note of 1000. founded!'a dynasty which lasted from Every attempt was made, by compid1279

Before the entire sive measures, to restore the paper conquest of China, Chi-isou, the first currency to a better condition. The Emporor of this dynasty, had intro. taxes on the markets of both capitals. duced paper inoney (between the years were even allowed to be paid in paper: 1260 and 1203).' In 1284 he com- but every attempt was fruitless, and manded the mandarin, Lou-chi-jong, the notes went out of circulation.to present him a plan for a new paper At least history makes no mention of currency; but the emission of it did them later than the year 1455. The not take place until the year 1287: The Mandchoux who succeeded the from that period the Joguls continued Ming Emperors, and who are now annually to increase the quantity of their masters of China; have never attempied notes, which were called pao-tchhao, to introduce a paper currency; for or precious paper money. From the these barbarians are happily ignorant year 1264 to 1294, a note was in cir- of the European policy, which declares culátion which replaced that of 1260 that the more a nation is in debt, the to 1263, and which were made of the more it is rich and flourishing.*, bark of the tree tchu (morus papyrifera), and were a Chinese square foot in síze! Towards the latter part of RAMBLES IN CUMBERLAND. the dynasty, paper money had lost

No. 3. much of its credit, and an alteration was made in '1357, with the hope of

TRIP TO CARLISLE. restoring it, but every effort was vain, and the Moguls were obliged to quit

I have, in No. 21, voluntarily asserted China, which they had totally ruined that the Doctor was a moral man, no:

upon more mature consideration do I now by their precio:is paper money.

The

see any occasion for retracting what I then distress of the country was such, that advanced. A man does not by any means

The notes of the Soung Kiu, and Moguls, 'were made of the bark of the tickun printed and sealed by authority. Those of the Ming were of paper, made with different plants, and richly ornamented.

annihilate bis claims to morat rect tude, if were designated by the name of pleasures, bis pursuits and participations of the plea- He, therefore, enjoyed these as they came sures resulting from social intercourse, or successively within his reach, 'in the full the constituted order of society, are, gen- persuasion that not the use, but the abuse, erally speaking, within the barriers which of them constituted criminality of conductors innocence has reared, in order to mark her Tbis was the topic on which the control donnains from the back ground of culpable versial talents of my friend appeared to enjorient. To assert the contrary of this most adyantage, I have oftcn admired would, in effect, be to assert that spotless the originality and perspicuity of his lan, purity of character is attainable ; but this guage, while attacking a cor.clave of these is a plant actually heterogeneous to the Bralimins. But their feelings were of ans , soil of human nature. We would do well other kind, All their attempts to mainto keep this in view at all times, especially tain their favourite theory, namely, that when ire attempt to form an estimate of nothing receiving the name of pleasure aray man's moral character. This will was worthy of the notice of a rational prevent us from augmenting the little creature, were foiled, and themselves comfoibles or peculiarities vibich may be iden- pelled to skulk in their hiding places and tified with that character. No man is from thence whisper the slander , they wholly without these; and they never are dared not openly avow. Indeed, were the so palpable as when exliibited in connec- principles of morality exclusively couched ţion with deeds which, in spite of these in the golden maxim, “Do as you would peculiarities, have been, by the ingenious be done by,' and did a single or even mere and charitable part of mankind, pronounc- violation of this precept, in a minor point ed worthy of esteem and imitation. There of view, nullify the claims of the mornlist are, indeed, some who have with gloomy to morality's reward, the Doctor woulds austerity chalked out a line of conduct for ere this time, have been placed upon the themselves; and to this we would have per contra side. But, eren in this predino reasonable objections, did they not, cament, he might have reasonally con- 'st with egregious effrontery, attempt to staip tented himself; at all events, he might the mark of wanderer from the narrow way have received a temporary gratification upon the brow of every one who deviates froin the hope, that some of those who from the mill-horse round of these every- stand high on the list of good deeds would, day performances. Leagued hand in glove, ere long, by way of courtesy as it were, these snug divars will meet, and, with un-condescend to sit down, cheek by jowl, " relenting acrimony, tear into tatters the with him, and entertain him with a lecture i characters of those around them; and, with upon the tightness of the times in order, more than sober, triumph, note them down to drive dull care away. The coincidence upon the tablets of their hearts as the Ama- of feeling and sentiment which was exhi, lekites of the present day, and hug them- bited between the Doctor and me, at our selves at the same time as the pure in first interview,, was, by the progressive 10! heart, although, in point of fact, those hand of time, mellowed into the most uderet whom they condemn, and consequently reserved friendship, lo placed the most, vi despise, are superior to them in every thing unbounded confidence in my fidelity, by that is graceful in accomplishment, or whispering in my private car those selovely in moral exliibition.

crets, The moral character of the Doctor Which be scarcels teira, fo oppy. r. o KW was such as comparative purity would My conduct towards him,was exactly simies-91 have recognised and owned; bạt not lar; nor had I ever occasion to repent of, altogether such as to shield him from that conduct. His soul was cast in Na. the pestiferous breath of such sancti- ture's truest mould." He well knew the monious pretenders as those to whom I extent of that moral obligation which en roi have just no:v alluded. He looked upon joined fidelity to the contidential commun, all things as being originally made for nications of friendship; nor did he ever man, and placed in a subordinate station violate that obligation by successively pacby an all-wise Providence, in order to being the round of his acquaintanceship, and rendered subservient to his happiness, accosting them, after; a significant hem, in Plente tite picasúre resulting from the en- with— I have something extraordinary torrig joyment of these did not to his gaze con- tell you of; but as I have received it from. tract a sable hue, merely because they such a one, by way of profound secret, I

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THE LITERARY MELANGE;

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Prvi hope you will store it by in some snug | noissieur was, perhaps, a little too masculine; he corner of your tenement, as I would not nor did the food attempi to curb the operRails for the world he should hear of it again, ations of Nature by the constraining in

When the Doctor was requested by any of Auence of corsets; nevertheless he was as

the communicative ones not to divulge handsome a fellow as you would have cast -XS those secrets which Mr. Such-a-one de- your eyes upon in a summer day, I have, sto sired him to keep his thumb upon, he in a former Number, described his large bol generally replied as follows: -1How, in eyes and glossy hair ; the former of these

si the name of wonder, can I expect that any shone in, and the other curled around, a I to one should be faithful to me, if my con- regular set of features, add to those a € đuet is the exact counterpart of all that well-proportioned person, with all the mort's I deserves the name of fidelity, truth, or advantages of dress to give it its proper -*172 honour? Supposing that I were to com- effect,

ply with your demand, one of the preli- And then, 0! What a beau the Doctor was!" 11. minary steps requisite to that compliance

We soon reached Carlisle, and entered would be to enjoin secrecy upon you; but into the Inn of Toby Philpot, sign of the 574 1 have I any reason to expect that unde- Lamb's Foot, Caldew-gate. After we - *-1, viating conformity to my requirement had refreshod ourselves with a dose of mut

28-1 should emanate from your conduet, when ton chops and discussed the contents of a COM 30!! the very cause for which this secrecy is bottle, the Doctor proceeded to Butcher

required is to cloak a positive violation of gate, in order to transact some business,

that trust reposed in me by the person to which did not adınit of my immediate so thony whom the secret originally related ? Cer

presence. The temporary lack of his -60.Ji tainly not. The obligation to secrecy re- company was, at my request, supplied by PIDI faxes in exact proportion as the secret it- the presence of the landlord. He was

self is extended. Were I to set the ex- withal a jolly good-natured fellow, and 2013 17'- ample of infidelity by divulging what you had thoroughly studied the common-place 9117 request, you might possibly take advan- politesse of his profession. Good-nature 17h 9 lage of that by revealing it to another per- is a quality any man will admire, although 1911 ? son, he to a third, and so on until that exemplified in the conduct of an innkeeper Suid st" which was whispered in this ear of sup- of notorious rotundity of form, as was the ****!

posed friendship would ultimately become case at present. I evinced my respect by the table talk of a neighbourbood.'

resigning the elbow-chair to the more ade-*. But to return from this digression. The quate corporation of Toby Philpot. But 9 13 0 profession and habits of my friend induced i solemnly aver that this voluntary evolu-£'911" him to make frequent excursions into the tion did not proceed from any innate conY RH towns and villages around him.' One of viction, that the old adage, viza "the biggest 20 the consequences resulting from our inti- rogue took the mucklest, had any greater

macy was my frequent accompaniment of amplitude in the conduct of Tobias than 2. Tuts him in these perámbulations. It was in it had in my own. I could not for a £: t, '!) the warm time of the year, (but I have in moment entertain an idea so gross, more

e vain ransacked my scraps and patches in especially wben he was so kind as to in93007 | order to recognise the date, probably in form me that he was the kindest, honestest visit the month of August, that I accompanied fellow alive ; moreover, that he could back 2. 35 him to Carlisle. * I well remember that the scratch, or wag a fist withoever a he

93.107 the morning was rather unpromising; the in Cumberland. Indeed, I thought he od 19. density of the atmosphere prevented the formed an arrogant estimate of bis own why ito'lomoke from ascending; it crawled along qualifications. He did not appear to posscird in a horizontal position nearly level with sess that agility of frame which is absa.

the chimney tops, till Sol ascending dissi- lutely requisite to a proper discharge of E!!!!! pated the gloom, and with his bright efful- the pugnacioas qualities of Yorkshire ; but gence scattered smiles' around.

Your why a thought such as this should produce readers will recollect that my impatience astonishment in any man who is blessed Teisil to get to Roseley prevented the Doctor with eyes and ears, Heaven only knows pains from peeling his sables--but in the inter- If he only look with the former, and listen - 347 ) Wening

made the then proposed 'alteration, trayed in the conduct of all sexes and conrevin be

by attiring in the tiptoe style of modern ditions. The man who struts under a dandyism. His form to the eye of a con- powdered wig is sometimes as lavish of it

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as the clodpole whio moves in the soberman coulet fravé Beheld the tire of his eye, habiliments of hodilen grey. The anti- and the animation of his features without quarian who sighs after antideluvían bau- being half convinced that Toby's proposed üles, and wishes otliers to measure the artichdments ton the battlements and walls, moderation of his pretensions by his Naxen and gun ports of Carline Castle were ac

wig, and tlie fourteenth century cut of his tually accomplished wide the breath that 1 coat, with its concomitant launch buttons, pronounced the deficiencies, and then the

sometimes evinces as much of it as the significant shrug of the shoulders, ayıd the
perfuined beau who occupies the foremost exclamation of Oddzooks, a parcel of fel-
rank among the devotees of frivolity, fa- lows think that a landlord can do nothing
shion, and artificial manners. These and but 'broach casks, pierce i uzine-pipes, and
such like considerations, quickly reconciled order Molly the chamber-inaid to warm a
* me to the jargon of mine host, while with bed for Squire Catgut and his-inazorata,"
flippant fluency of tongue, he stated the that trod upon the heels of this idle spe-

per diem rate of livery stables, and the culation, was indicative of tas-mich self1,"shoals of groomsy and lacqueys, and cooks, importance as if by these speculations, s. bu and waiters, that was necessary to such an the time-worn - turrets of Carlisle, had

1' extensive establishment as his own; and reared their heads in as much freestone, then deduced the troubles and inconve- and architectural beauty as distinguishniences which generous landlords puted the first year of their existence.) themselves to, in order to accominodate The Doctor did not seem to relish these

gentlemen who are travelling. I could sallies; but, had he considered for a moa *!; Jiave added, • Yes, and paying too ;' but ment, he would liave seen that, Toby was,

then he was so mighty civil, that one making the best that he could of the selfish, could not for their life be angry with him; maxim, • Every man for himself. Indehe was not inadle of such pitiful stuff as pendent of this he was one of its denizens;

your skin surface souls who doze as long this was a privilege he put a higher value .: : ver a cup of liquor as a cardinal would on, than many a one would to the gem of

over his bends on a high holiday. No, no; Golconda; and then the ramparts, and the a rough-spun comındrum in the shape castle, and the siege it had stood, gave an of a toast was the signal for tly-jack-and- additional pathos to the word freeman.

begune, as the saying is. The exit of the He had, like every one else, known the tas liquor which was in the cup was usually way of exercising this privilege . He per3*3! *"accompanied with a significant smack of tinaciously maintained, in spite of all oppo.

the rosy lips of Tobias, and an assevera- sition, that legislative wisdoin was here11'17' tion by the copper nose of Bacchus, that ditary, and descended like citles to the

js was the bost liquor in Christendom. He children of the third and fourth genera..."** Seemed to have drawn his maxims with tions; and hence inferred that nothing

11 Kigard to his potations from Will Boniface was more requisite than sto, ask a can5*81', hof Anno Domini notoriety. As these didate for parliamentary honours, if any mi imeandered through his tenement, his of his aiicestors for the last two centuries

tongue ran on with increasing volubility. had held a seat 'there jy if he answered in Hi vt "He hat just drawn his pencil from his the affirnative, si 'Thente says Toby, ' my ***, pocket when the Doctor entered, in order mode of procedure iş plainly thing I vote ***p! by to show ine a plan of Carlisle Castle, al. for this gentleman." Toby had scarcely

Thudagh I had seen it fifty times; but, got the words, ' my mode of procedure is thuugh I tupeatedly assured him of this, plainly, rutterek, until the Doctor exclaim

he persisted in his design by drawing a ed, Anet so is mingWaiter, bring the »; parcel of clumsy strokes, and by them bill.? The bill was brought aud discharged,

pointing out the inner and outer walls and We bade adieu to the host of the Lamb's, 11.7" the chasms made on each part by the ra- Foot, and left the house. ta on? “? vayes' of hoary tiine, &c. I have either

sut't be AMICUS. dreamed or read somewliere of a castle so i stof weak that a dozen of women armed with 1. ! )

1* distaffs and spindles were a force sufficient THE RAID OBACILLEGHRIST. I'll luito have storted its would to peace that

Bordering clans, like neighbouring {i sutels a place could at this moment have ir bristele clierunováting influence of Toby's nations, were never ponterms of here 3131 14 brasia andwazudur-wurking hapd! Ną ditary.concordžs vicinity produced rivaltij rene! ET 7.70€

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ry, and rivalry produced war for this the Mackenzies early on a Sundaysa sit reason, the Macdonells and the Mae morning, and surrounded "the Cille oisikere kenzies were never long without some ehrist, while a nuinerous congregation

zarta act of hostility or feud; fring houses,' were assembled within its walis. Labaida driving herds, raising tents, and slaugh-exorable in his purpose, Angus com-hus. tering each other's clansmen, were manded his men to 'set fire, to the radar feats of recreation, which each was e- building, and slaughter all who endeasds to qually willing to exercice upon his voured to break forth. Struck with.co v: neighbour , and if either was more de- despair when the flames rushed ined go ficient than the other, it was more upon the aite of the church, and theyro ir from want of opportunity than lack beheld the circle of bare claymores of good-will., Among all the exploits glancing beyond the door, the colonisen which were thus occasioned between gregation," searce knowing what they to an the two clans, none was more cele- did, endeavoured to force their wayan fur brated, nor more fearful, than the through the weapons and the fiames antibro: burning of the Cillechrist (Christ's but, pent within the narrow pass of Church); it gave occasion and name to single arch, they were not capable to be the pibroch of the Glengarrie family, make way over each other, far less thaises and was provoked and performed in break the ring of broadswords whicha desta the following mannere In the course

, bristled round the porch : men,, no nisam of a long succession of fierce and san, men, and children, were driven back 19 h. guinary conflicts, t the Macleans, a race into the blazing pile, or hewn down, wat who were followers of the Mackenzies, and transfixed at the gorge of the en-i took occasion to intercept' and assasi- trance; the flames increased on everya o sa nate the eldest son of Donald Mac- side, a heavy column of vivid smoke angus of Glengarrie. Donald died rolled upward in the air, and the roarjo seksu shortly after, and his second son, who of infuriated inen, the wailing of suf; ad ts.. succeeded to the chieftaincy of the fering infants, and the shrieks of desas Alser clan, was too young to undertake the pairing women, rung from within the gate ** conduct of any enterprize to revenge dissolving pile. While the church, 1341" the death of his brother a his cousin, was burning, the piper of the Mac od however, Angus Macraonuill of Lundi, donells marched round the buildings mo a. acted as his captain, and, gathering playing, as was customary on extraorals the Macdonells, in two separate raids, dinary occasions, an extempore piece,na hata swept off the trents, from the greater of music; the pibroch which he now degre

, part of Lord Seaforth's country. Still, played was called, from the placer this revenge seemed to him too poor where it was composed, Cillechristyy muk an expiation for the blood of his chief: and afterwards became the pibroch of. do poloer the warm life of the best of his foemen the Glengarrie family. At length the nada was the only sacrifice which he thought flamespoured forth from every quarter of wonder he could offer as an acceptable obla- the building, the roof fell in, there aiding hou tion to appease the manęs of the mur- was one mingled yell

, one dered ; and he, therefore, projected a ruin; the fame sunk in smoulderingiz bo en third expedition, resolving in this to vapour, and all was silent. Augus.bebogen . fill the measure of vengeance to the had looked on with stern unrelenting M ad brím. In the prosecution of his de- determination, but the deed was doneabta alic sign be awaited a favourable oppor- and recollection ' now warped him of ads an ox sunity, and, gathering a small band of the danger of delay; he in inediately anybo men, penetrated into the country of gave orders to retreat, and leading on meik bo

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