to indicate, with some probability, count for the existence of the numerthat the strata near the surface must ous volcanos of which these strata be

less dense there than elsewhere, show the traces, and explain why and perhaps have, in their interior, they are even now, at intervals, the immense cavities. This would ac- focus of subterraneous convulsions.


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A dreary winter-day had op'd and closed;
Tune- The Garrey O.

The pale moon-beains were struggling through the

sky, I looked long at thy window love,

And, by their dismal fittiin light, expos’d

A scene of awful horror to my eye.
Thy sweet lovely glance to see my love,
The evening sun on thy window shone,

'Twas near the margin of a brawling brook,
And I thought for a while it was thee my love; Now wax'd a torrent with the melted Box,
But when thou cam'st with a smile my love, Its murmurs sooth'd me, like a passive look,
A smile that is just thine own my love,

On man's vicissitudes of joy and woe.
The sun at thy sight withdrew his clear light,
And left thee shining alone my love :

On a rude rock, which overhuing the stream, .!

A human figure stood, and upward giz'd; Then, 0, give a smile to me my love!

His face, now lighted by a pale moonbeam. Sed Who often has sighed for thee my love,

Express'd a soul un...ny'd, and senses craz'd. And my days, though o'ercast with misfortune's He seenr*d to muse upon the deep-blue sky,

keen blast, Will appear bright noonshine to me my love,

The silver twinklers, or some passing cloud ;-)

Then downward would he casi his vacant eye,
The sun shines bright at his parting love,
When he kisses the western wave my love,

And wildly gaze upon the dashing food.
But the sun's bright ray at departing of day, When the loud wind sung low, I heard him mourn
Was never so lovely as thee my love.

Of cruel fortune, and her wanton ways;
His heart, with ill-requited love, did burn, 'off

And poverty hal darken'd his few days, it

He sum'd up all his catalogue of woe, 'Tis not that look of anguish bathed in tears, And beat his breast, and bade the world adieu ! O, poverty ! thy haggard image wears,

Then couch'd, to spring into the stream below; T'is not those famished limbs, naked and bare, When, from the shade, to save the wretch I few. To the bleak temvest's rains, or the keen air, Of winter's piercing winds, nor that sad eye

I sprung, and siez'd him, and he shriek'd aloud Imploring the small boon of charity.

And with a maniac laugh, and fearful leap,

He dash'd me with him in the roaring flood: 'Tis not that voice, whose agonizing tale,

Self-safety bade me leave him in the deep. Might turn the purple tear of grandeur pade,


A drooping willow lent a friendly hand,
Nor all that host of woes thou bringest with thee,
Insues contempt, disdain and contumely,

And sav'd me from a cold, untimely grave;
That bid me call the fate of those forlorn,

And when, with one strong bound, I gain'd the land, Who neath thy rude oppression sigh and mourn.

I saw the maniac sink beneath the wave.

I w. He
But chief, relentless power! thy hard controul,
Which to the earth bends low the aspiring soul;

Paisley, 2d Dec. 1822.
Thine iron grasper-thy fetters drear, which bind
Each generous effort of the struggling mind.

Alas! that genius, melancholy flower,

Scarce opening yet, to even's nurturing shower,
Should, by thy pitiless and cruel dooms

My first breath of love was holy to thee,
Written, ere nature smiles upon her blooms;

My young dream of bliss was thine; That innocence, touched by the deadening wand,

And the wreaths thou hast wove round my heart's Should pine, nor kuow one outstretched hand!

young tree, For this, O poverty! for them I sigh,

No blast shall e'er untwinie. The helpless victims of thy tyranny.

For scarce bad I seen thy sonl-speaking eye, ! For this, I call the lot of those severe

When its charins were round me spun; Who wander 'wid thy haunts and pine unheeded And the seal was set by the spirit on high, there,

That they ne'er should be undone.

But the fetters of gold which were flung round my

heart, THE MANIAC.

Were the free chains of holiest love;

And the magical hand that the bright links can The vernal flush of spring had fled the woods,

Summer had shed his fragrance, and was gone, Must have power from the spirit above.
Brown autumn had discharg'd his thunder-clouds,
And winter's winding-sheet o'er all was thrown.

The mantle of bliss which envelop d me round,

But angel hands could weave; The poet lark had circumscrib'd his fight; A:d its diamond clasps shall be only unbound, 1o No more was heard his warbling, epic lay; When this barcast has ceas'd to heave. The past'ral linnet gave his loves the slight,

N. And sung no more his amours from the spray.


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Thou art blooming and gay, my young Ade, TO ADA


I have gaz'd on pone fairer than tízpu: Fait Ada, I've lov*d thee--fair Ada, my dove, Thy dark eye baris bright, with the lightning of To me, thou art faultless as fair,

truth, Dut time thou hast told me will change my first love, And pure as the show.drop's thy brow. It may change;-jut it einnot impair.

By that brow which is pure as the snow trap w Years have past and disprov'd what was faithlessly spring, said,

By that eye which adds lustre to mine :
While the young spirit strengthened and grew;

To the altar of love my life's oft"ring I bring
And mantling in fervour, exuxingly pray'd And vow it shall ever be thine.
That the presge might still prove miruc.

VARIETIES. CHARACTERISTIC TRATT.-A stranger, deavours to exasperate his perhaps impl passing a Greek church, asked a sailor able enemy, by requesting thrat he may be whom he met, what those figures were, at dispatched with his own clean weapon, and the west front? to which the sailor answer. not with his captor's dirty one. A plain 'ed, The twelve Apostles.' How the insinuation that no quarter is given, devil can that be, replied the other, when MONKEYS.—The number and variety of there is but six of them.. D-n your the monkey species, in these countries, is eyes,' said the sailor, ` would you have beyond conception. Myriads of a small them all upon deck at once.'

black kind, with white breasts, about the SONIA. — The people of Sonia, it is said, size of a cat, assemble every morning on were obliged to carry burdens of white sea- the lofty trees overhanging the brink of the

sånd from the beach to Banza Congo, 150 Congo, in the neighbourhood of Oyster? miles distant, to forn pleasant walks to the haven and Maccatola, to drink. At these ** royal residence. This at last so exaspe- times, it is amusing enough to observe with

rated the Sonia men, whose warlike and what celerity they make their retreat, caus andependant spirit is feared and respected ing the woods to resound with their chatby all the neighbouring nations, that they tering, at the report of a musket. On the

concealed their weapons in the burdens of highest trees they generally build their fr sand, and avenged ihemselves of the indig- nests, which, in form and construction, revity put on them, by plundering the city semble those of the magpie, but are much and killing many of the King's people. larger, and made of dry grass. The enMany wonderful stories are told of the trance is a round hole in the side. The courage and ferocity of the Sonia men.- upper part is covered with grass to a conWhen one of them is taken prisoner, which, siderable height, to keep out the rains. it is admitted, very seldowi happens, he en

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS The Laundress will appear soon. Miiton amet Thorson have written so well on the subject on which Quis fias essayed, that his cominenication caunot be inserted. We eiti try to bring a little more bronze into John Bashful's countenance soon.

First Canto of Glasgow has been read. The poem, we suppose, will contain 120 Stangas. As the first * Vohune finishes of the last Wednesday of the present Month, we cannot meddle with it till we 002

Ilgace tho Sinond, he gives us security, by that time, for the whole, and the succeeding Cantos are equal to the first, we will be happy in giving it to the world. We cannot insert the Woodland

W. M. S. We would gladly give a place to; but there are some strange inconsistences, for which we eannot account. If he would call, we would point them out.

No. 3, Rambles in Cumberland, are come to hand.
We have

paid attention to A B C D we would wish hlin to postpone his Sketches of British Litera. b turo until se termence Volume Second; in the the mean time, any of his lighter pieces will be attended tą We need not say we are obliged to him.

letter to Mix Nancy Crabb is unavoidably postponed. Evil destiny in our next.

Printed, published and sold, every Wednesday, by GEORGE PURVIS & Co. Successons to W. Tatt.

Sold also by Mr Grifin, Public Library, Hatcheson Street; at the shops of the Principal Bootsellers Glowwow. Also of the following Booksellers : John Hislop, Greenack; John Wick, Ayr. Thomas Dick, "Yamey Robert Mathie, Kilmarnock; Malcolm Cutrie, Port Glasgowe; D. Conde Hotbeuty: James Thomson, Hamilton; and M. Dick, Irviae , for ready money only.

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No. 25. WEDNESDAY, 18th DEC. 1822. Pktce 31d. ORIGIN OF PAPER MONEY. China,' composed from the Chinese Translated from the French of Julius Kla- authorities, by P. Gaubil, and pub

proth; as read by him to the Asiatic lished in the year 1739, about 60 Society, in their sitting of 1st October, years before M. Schloetzer wrote his 1822.

work. In this history he speaks of The celebrated traveller, Marco the suppression of the paper money, Paulo, of Venice, was the first per- which was in use under the dynasty son who announced to Europe the of the Soung, who reigned in China existence of paper money in China, previous to the Moguls; and he also runder the Moguls. It was subse- inentions a new species notes, quently introduced, by the Moguls, which were substituted for the ancient into Persia, where their notes were in the year 1264, by the minister Kiacalled djaou. or djaw, a word evi- szu-tao. The original financial spedently derived from the Chinese word culation of the Chinese ministry, to tchaio.*

provide for the extraordinary expenThe fact of the Moguls having, in diture of the state, which was exceed China and Persia, made use of paper ing the revenues, was in the


119 money, has induced many authors to before the Christian æra, under the suppose that they were the inventors reign of the Emperor Ou-li, of the of it. The celebrated Schloetzer, of great dynasty of Hau. At this pea Gottingen, for instance, has published riod were introduced the phipi, or * dissertation tinder 'the following value in skins. These were small title, · The Moguls, Inventors of pieces of the skin of deer, which were

Paper Money in the 13th Century:' kept in a pan, within the precincts of - This learned man, however, would the palace. They were a Chinese have avoided such an error, if he had square foot in size, and were beautiperused the History of Tchinghiz- fully ornamented with painting and khan, and of the Mogul Dynasty in embroidery. Every prince or gran

The Chinese character is composed of kiu, metal, and chao, little ; and is thus intended to signify the want of specie. It is very remarkable, that the Chinese use this word, also, when they wish to convey the idea of taking any thing by force, for vobbing cnother person of his property

true paper

dee, and even the members of the Kuitsii, the founder of the dynasty of imperial family, who wished to pay Soung who ascended the throne in court td the Emperor, or who were the year 960, Christian æra, allowed invited to any public ceremony traders to deposit their money, and or repast in the palace, were obliged even their goods, in the imperial treato citer with one of these skins; elve suries, and gave them in exchange 3 tablertė which they held before their note which was called piantísian, or faces' in presence of the son of heaven. cowenient money. These notes were Thie minister of the household had eagerly sought after, in eonsequence fixed the price of these 'skins' ať a of their contenience. In 997, the sum equal in English money to about quantity of paper money in circulation 12 guineas." They were current at represented 1,700,000 ounces of silthis price in the palace, and amongst ver; and in the year 1021, the quanthe nobles; but it does not appear tity was increased to 3,000,000 ounces. that 'they were ever used in trade, or It was in the country of Chou, which by the people. *Matouanlin states, is, in our days, the prurince of Szu• 'that froth the year 617 of the Chris- tchhouan—where the tian era, to the end of the dynasty of money, as a substitute for money, Soái, the distress and disorder in without being guaranteed by any sort Chilla having reached their height, of mortgage or security, was first inevery possible substitute for money troduced. These 'notes were introwas used. "He particularly mentions duced to supply the place of iron, small pieces of round iron, bits of which was found to be too heavy for cloth, and even pasteboard. At the commercial and general purposes. commencement of the reign of the They were called tchi-tsi. Under the Emperor Hiautzoumg, of the dynasty reign of Tchin-tsoung, from the year of Kang," which was about the year 997 to 1022, the example was fol807 of Christ, copper money being lowed, and new notes were exceedingly rare,* the use of that me- which were called kiao-tšu, or change : tal for any domestic purpose was pro- they were payable every third year; hibited.co The Emperor compelled so that in 65 years there were 22 all traders who arrived in the capital, periods for payment. Each kiao-ts* and;? generally speaking, all monied was equivalent to 1,000 deniers, and persons to deposit their cash in the represented an ounce of pare silver. publio' treasury, and, for the facility of Sixteen of the principal houses in the trade, they received in exchange a empire were at the head of this finansort of promissory note or bond, cial operation ; but, in the end, these which was called Jeythsian, or flying persons were unable to falfil their en money: At the end of three years, gagements, and became bankrupts. however; the use of this paper money The Emperor, in consequence of the was suppressed as to the capital, and distress which this failure brought ba it had cutrency, only in the provinces. (the public, abolished all the notes of




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• The scarcity of copper arose from the vast quantity of this metal used for bronse. If images, sacred to to, and the saints of his religion. Thus, after every persecution of .. the sect, copper became more plentiful.

+ The first iron money was made in China by the rebel Koung-suvi-chov, who died 36 yeam after Christo It was not until the year 5245 bowever, that his exatuple was , followed by the Chinese Emperors. A i mo !! em sa:ft #Emma :0

this society; and resolving that, in fu- only in the cities of Hoei-tcheou and :) ture, no individuals should have the Tchi-tcheou, of Kiang-nan; but ere, power of creating paper money, estu- long it was made in several other places. » blished a bank at Y-ichou, for notes. The first Hoei-tsu were like the paperi Towards the year 1032, the quantity money previously, in circulation, worth of paper money in circulation, in 1,000 deniers, or an ounce of silver $ -;? China, represented 1,256,340 ounces in the following reign, however, they of pure silver. In 1068, some daring were made for 500, 300, and 200 7 speculators began to counterfeit the deniers. In the short space of 5 years i' notes of the government, and a great here were 28,000,000 ounces of notes ut number of forgeries were discovered. in circulation ; and, in the space of The authors of the fraud were sub- the following 11 months the quantity: 1 jected to the same punishment as that was further increased by an issue of if which the law decreed against those 15,600,000 ounces. During the ex-,' who forged the seals of the state. In istence of the same dynasty, the it course of years, banks were established amount was increased annually, , Be- / for the issue of notes, in various parts sides these notes, there were the Kiade: 115 of the empire : the notes of one pro- tsu, and other paper money peculiar vince, however, were not current in to the provinces, to such an extent another, and the mode of circulation that the country was inundated with ! ) and liquidation was frequently altered. notes which daily decreased in value, Under the Emperor Kao-tsoung, in notwithstanding the modifications, to 4 1131, the government were desirous the government had recourse to which; ,12 of creating a military establishment prevent it. In the reign of Ly-tsoung) at Ou-tcheou ; but, as the funds ne- of the same dynasty, in the year 12649,; cessary for the undertaking were re- the minister Kia-szu-tao, seeing the: -1 ceived very tardily, the mandarins, low value of the notes, and the high i» who were entrusted with the manage- price of the provisions, called; in kind inent of the plan, proposed to the great quantity of the former, and sup: Hou-pou, or ministry of the treasury, plied their place with new notes, which : 1 to issue a ouantsu, or notes, with which he styled yn koun, or money bonds auf they might pay those who supplied but, notwithstanding all the exertions 16 provisions to the army. These notes of the minister, he was unable to raise ).:.. were payable at an office opened for the value of the notes, or to reduce the 19 the purpose, but they gave rise to price of provisions. Whilst the last

ile many abuses, and caused the people Emperors of the Soung dynasty were si, si to murmur :

not long afterwards, rctired in the south of China, the however, similar notes were put into north of the country was under the 'n circulation in other provinces of China. dominion of the Niu-tchy, a race who 15 In 1160, under the same monarch, had founded a new empire under the last the Hou-pou created a new paper name of Kiu, or the Kingdom of Gold. money, which they called Hoei-tsu, Their princes are spoken of by the it or agreements. In the commence- Arabian and Persian authors, under ment these notes were only current in the title of Altoun-khan. the province of Tche-kiang, and its tinuał wars in China, had impoverished immediate neighbourhood; but they all the provinces of this fine country, soon became general throughout the to such an extent, that copper was empire. The paper which was used become exceedingly scarce in the kingo

was at first manufactured 'dom of Kiu, and recourse was had to

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