of nitromuriate of cobalt-turns green when heated, / whiteness may have it restored by immersion for ten and disappears again on cooling. 8. Solution of acetate or twelve hours in a weak solution of chloride of lime; of cobalt, to which a little nitre has been added-be- and if oily, a little soda should be added to the solucomes rose-coloured when heated, and disappears again tion. To obtain the skeleton of a small animal, bait on being cooled.

the carcase with honey, and lay it near the nests of Incorrodible and Indelible Inks.-Genuine asphaltum, ants or wasps; in a few days it will be beautifully one part; oil of turpentine, four parts; dissolve, and picked.-Insects, which are usually mounted on pins add lamp-black or black-lead to bring it to a proper in flat trays with cork bottoms, or are kept in pill. consistence. Or-asphaltum, one part; oil of turpen- boxes, test-tubes, and quills, require very delicate tine, four parts; dissolve, and colour with printer's ink, handling. Once in possession of a collection, keep which any printer will sell by way of favour. These it dry and free from dust, and disturb the speciinks supply a cheap and excellent material for mark- mens as little as possible, as they are not only exing linen, &c. They are very permanent. They should tremely fragile, but are apt to lose the rich downy be employed with stamps or types, or with the thin corering of their wings, which gives them colour and brass plates with letters cut therein. This method of beauty. To ward off the attacks of mites, keep a marking is neater and easier than with the brush or pen. supply of camphor, or sponge dipped in spirit of turpenThe marking-inks of the shops generally consist of pre- tine, in each tray; and if these harpies should appear, parations of nitrate of silver; but though capable of bake before a slow fire, or take equal parts of oil of withstanding ordinary washing, are by no means proof anise, oil of thyme, and alcohol; mix, and apply a against chlorine and ammonia. One of these inks may drop to the infected specimen. When large-bodied be prepared as follows :-Nitrate of silver, one to two specimens become greasy, dip in spirits of turpentine, drachms; water, of an ounce; dissolve; add as much and dry with calcined magnesia, which can afterwards of the strongest ammonia water as will dissolve the be blown off.-In collecting shells, kill the animal by precipitate formed on its first addition; then further, gradual immersion in hot water; and remove it with add mucilage one or two drachms, and a little sap- the point of a knife or crooked pin. Retain the opergreen to colour. Writing executed with this ink turns culum of univalves; and tie the bivalves together after black on being passed over a hot Italian-iron.

the animal has been removed. Marine shells should be Common Inks and Writing Fluids, for which there steeped in fresh-water for several hours, to remove all are 80 many receipts, can be obtained so cheaply, and saline matter which would afterwards deliquesce. Reof such excellent quality, that it would be waste of move all extraneous matter, as sen-weed, serpulæ, and time to attempt their manufacture for domestic use. the like, with the knife or brush. Dead shells, or those An excellent ink, suitable for writing with steel pens, picked up along shore, have often a tarnished appearwhich it does not corrode, may be made of the follow ance; this may be remedied by applying a little oliveing articles :-Sixty grains of caustic soda, a pint of oil with a brush. Polishing and whitening with acids water, and as much Indian ink as you think fit for is a barbarity worthy only of the dealer in curiosities. making a proper blackness. Copying ink is prepared No shell is fit for a cabinet after such mutilation. by adding a little sugar to ordinary black ink. Shells may be either kept in trays, divided into nume

Writing rendered illegible by age may be restored by rous compartments, or attached to cards with a little moistening it by means of a feather with an infusion gum. In the latter case it requires two speciinens-one of galls, or a solution of prussiate of potash slightly to exhibit the front, the other the back of the shell. acidulated with muriatic acid, observing so to apply Minute and fragile shells are best preserved in glass the liquid as to prevent the ink from spreading. tubes--common test-tubes.

Lucifers may be made by first dipping thin slips of Minerals are kept with little trouble, if dust be exfir-wood in melted sulphur, and then tipping them cluded. Never lift & fine specimen with the naked with a mixture of sulphuret of antimony and chlorate hand; stains of grease and perspiration are intolerable. of potash (both in fine powder), made into a paste Dust always with a pair of bellows. Certain species with a solution of gum. They are inflamed by friction will endure washing; in other cases the appearance against a piece of emery or sand-paper. They are now may be restored by fracturing anew. sold so cheaply, that it would be folly to attempt their Drying Flowers as Specimens.-A writer in the New manufacture on a small scale.

Monthly Belle Assemblée' recommends the following plan:- As pressure is necessary for drying flowers,

the first thing requisite is to construct a press, which Taxidermy80 called from the Greek taris, order, in this instance is composed of two of the thickest and derma, skin--is the art of arranging, preparing, milled boards, cach twenty inches in length and fourand preserving the skins and other exuvia of animals, teen in width; also two leatherr straps with buckles, 80 as to represent their natural appearance. It em- and holes at intervals, to allow for the varying bulk of braces the entire art of preparing the skins of quadru- the press; then procure two quires of coarse sugarpeds, the stuffing of birds and fishes, the mounting of paper, which can be purchased at a grocer's. After insects, the cleaning and arranging of shells and having selected the niost perfect specimens of flowers, zoophytes—in fine, the preparation and preservation of with their stems, lower leaves, and roots, when pracspecimens in every department of the animal kingdom. ticable--and carefully observe that the plants be free Much of this lies of course beyond the circle of do- from dew or moisture-lay every portion out nicely on mestic economy, but many persons who have cabinets one of the coarse sheets, being careful at the same so arranged, allow them to fall into ruin and disorder time that one part of the specimen does not interfere for want of proper cleaning and attention.--Skins of with another: the leaf should be filled. Allow several quadrupeds and birds, whether mounted or not, should sheets to intervene before another sheet is occupied by be kept free from dust either by being placed in specimens. If the flowers be delicate, their colour will cabinets, in glass - cases, or under glass shades; be better preserved by placing blotting-paper between when dusty, use bellows, and handle as little as pos- the folds to absorb the moisture. The plants are now sible. Arsenical soap, corrosive subliinate, and oil of ready to be put into the press, the straps forming the turpentine, are the preservative preparations; and once pressure, which, however, must not be great at first, a skin is thoroughly dried, it may be preserved from it is necessary to remove the flowers every day, and putrefaction by being kept dry afterwards. Small bags dry the papers at the fire. When the specimens are of camphor laid in cabinets assist in warding off moths quite dry, they should be taken from the press, and and other insects; but even with this the specimens each plant separately sewed or fastened with gum on will require to be occasionally examined. Should in- to half-sheets of foolscap; they may then be arranged sects have commenced their attacks on any specimen, in their natural orders, with the Linnæan class and the only chance of further preservation is to bake it order, and their place of growth, appended in the thoroughly in an oven.-Bones which have lost their lower corners of the paper. The sheets thus classed


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make up the Herbarium or Hortus Siccus, and are of perspiring; for a damp atmosphere will rob them of kept in trays, boxes, or in a cabinet constructed for the no water-hence they maintain their freshness

. The purpose, in a dry room, when they will be ready for only difference between plants in a “Ward's case" and future reference, which is the principal use to be de- flowers in the little apparatus just described is this, rived from making a collection of plants. Those who that the former is intended for plants to grow in for a can afford the expense, will find botanical paper' (a considerable space of time, while the latter is merely thick, absorbent paper) the best for drying their speci- for their preservation for a few days; and that the air mens; they will also find a bag of small-shot a more which surrounds the flowers is always charged with the delicate and efficient presser than either straps, screws, same quantity of vapour, will vary with the circumor weights. In every case the plants ought to be stances, and at the will of him who has the managethoroughly dried-that is, deprived of their natural ment of it. We recommend those who love to see sap-before they are finally assorted in the Hortus fresh flowers in their sitting-rooms in dry weather to Siccus: if not, they will soon get mouldy, lose their procure it. The experiment can be tried by inserting hues, and become a bundle of useless rubbish.

a tumbler over a rose-bud in a saucer of water.' Marine Plants (fuci and alga) may be preserved in a somewhat similar manner. After selecting the freshest

PERSONAL ECONOMY—THE TOILET, specimens either from the rocks on which they grow, Personal cleaning and decoration are the proper duty or from the beach on which they are generally pro- at the toilet, which requires regular performance daily. fusely scattered after a storm, they ought to be well We shall speak first of matters connected with the soaked in fresh-water, to remove all saline particles. gentleman's toilet :This being done, they should next be floated in a Shaving.–Some beards are more hard and difficult broad shallow vessel, and the paper on which they to shave than others. The usual plan is to soften them are to be placed carefully inserted under them - with soap lather; but this is not sufficient with beards gradually raising the paper, and disposing their fila- which are somewhat stubborn. We recommend all to ments in a natural manner with the point of a bodkin try the following plan :-Rub the face or beard with a or knitting-needle. This operation will be greatly little soap and water with the hand over the basin, and facilitated by placing the paper on a thin board or when pretty well rubbed or softened, apply the lather. plate of sheet-iron, so as to keep it smooth and level. Raise the lather from warm water, and apply with a When a specimen has been properly spread out, it brush. The best kind of soap for shaving is Bandana, should be laid aside to dry on a flat board or table; but Windsor is also generally liked. Among the and finally subjected to proper pressure between milled shaving pastes in vogue the following may be menboards. The natural mucus of the specimens will, in tioned :- 1. White wax, spermaceti, and almond-oil

, of general, be sufficient to attach them firmly to the paper: each a quarter ounce; melt, and while warm, beat in two if not, a slight touch of gum from a hair-pencil will squares of Windsor soap, previously reduced to a paste, answer the purpose. Sea-weeds neatly mounted and with rose-water. 2. Melt together a half-ounce each of labelled make a very beautiful and instructive addition spermaceti; white wax, and oil of almonds; beat it up to the cabinet.

with three ounces of the best white soap, and a suffiPreserving Flowers Fresh.---Flowers may be preserved cient quantity of Eau de Cologne. Although warm in a fresh state for a considerable time by keeping water is most agreeable and suitable for sharing with, them in a moist atmosphere. In the Gardeners' it is advantageous for every one to accustom hinuself Chronicle' the following appear on this subject: It is to shaving with cold water, as it will render him indenow eighteen years ago since we first saw, in the draw- pendent of such assistance when travelling, or in cases ing-room of a gentleman, in the hot dry weather of the of emergency. dog-days, flowers preserved day after day in all their It is of no use going to a great expense in purchasing freshness by the following simple contrivance :-A flat razors. A razor of the best kind may be had for from dish of porcelain had water poured into it. In the four to eight shillings; and as their tempering is very water a vase of flowers was set; over the whole a bello much & matter of chance, sometimes a first-rate razor glass was placed with its rim in the water. This was a may be had for two or three shillings. Indeed one of * Ward's case” in principle, although different in its the very best razors now in the market is Rogers' old construction. The air that surrounded the flowers English,' which may be had for three shillings and being confined beneath the bell-glass, was constantly sixpence. Supposing a sharp and good razor to be promoist with the water that rose into it in the form of cured, it may last a whole lifetime with ordinary care. vapour. As fast as the water was condensed, it ran We have used one for twenty years, and it is still as down the sides of the bell-glass back into the dish; and good as new. Some persons prefer keeping six or seren if means had been taken to enclose the water on the razors, and changing them daily; but in this there is outside of the bell-glass, so as to prevent its evaporat- no absolute utility. Razors become blunt more from ing into the air of the sitting-room, the atmosphere bad management than fair work in shaving. When around the flowers would have remained continually to be used, dip the razor in hot water, for this adds damp. What is the explanation of this? Do the keenness to the edge; and before putting it away, wash flowers feed on the viewless vapour that surrounds the razor gently, to remove all'impurities. Do not them? Perhaps they do; but the great cause of their wipe it with or upon paper, for that spoils the edge; preserving their freshness is to be sought in another wipe it only with a fine rag. Before putting it away, fact. When flowers are brought into a sitting-room, in its case, give it a turn or two on a strop. Several they fade because of the dryness of the air. The air of kinds of strops are now offered for sale; and all, very a sitting-room is usually something drier than that of properly, are mounted on bard board. The best we the garden, and always much more so than that of a have seen is an American invention, with four sides of good greenhouse or stove. Flowers, when gathered, are different degrees of fineness, from the hope to smooth cut off from the supply of moisture collected for them stropping. In any case, take care always to draw the by their roots, and their mutilated stems are far from razor smoothly and flatly from heel to point along the having so great a power of sucking up fluids as the strop. Do not draw first one way and then push another

. roots have. If, then, with diminished powers of feed. In general, one or two turns will be enough. Never ing, they are exposed to augmented perspiration, as is leave your razors in drawers or cases which are accesthe case in a dry sitting-room, it is evident that the sible to servants or children. By locking them up, balance of gain on the one hand by the roots, and of you will keep them in better order than by all the loss on the other hand by their whole surface, cannot other means you employ. be maintained. The result can only be their destruc- Razor Pastes. This is the term applied to certain tion. Now, to place them in a damp atmosphere is to compositions applied to razor-strops to give them the restore this balance; because, if their power of sucking necessary whetting surface. The following are recomby their wounded ends is diminished, so is their power mended:-1. Emery reduced to an impalpable powder,

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two parts; spermaceti ointment, one part; mix together, I terwards to make use of the powdered areca - nut and rub it over the strop. 2. Jewellers' rouge, black- charcoal, and the tincture of rhatany.

The use lead, and suet, mixed in equal parts. 3. Prepared of the diluted acetic acid every morning will, in the putty-powder, one ounce; powdered oxalic acid, one- course of a few days, entirely remove the tartar, and fourth ounce; powdered gum, twenty grains; make it the regular employment of the areca charcoal and into a stiff paste with water, and evenly and thinly tincture of rhatany every, or every other, morning, will spread it over the strop. With very little friction, this effectually prevent the generation of the animalculæ; last is said to give a fine edge to the razor, and its but if there be a strong disposition to their production, efficiency is still increased by being moistened.

he advises the diluted acetic acid to be used once a Cut in Shaving.The bleeding may be at once effec-week. Dentists in general oppose the use of an acid, tually stopped by placing on the wound a small por- on the supposition that it is capable of decomposing tion of wool from a beaver hat. We have known cases the enamel. * This opposition, observes Dr Good, in which bleeding from very serious wounds have been arises from an ignorance of the gradations of chemical stopped by the application of hat stuff, or fine floss, attinities;' all of them, however, very freely use the when all other means failed.

most potent mineral acids to facilitate the removal of The Teeth.-The cleaning and proper management of the tartar in the operation termed scaling. The true the teeth is the most difficult operation of the toilet. vinegar acid is incapable of acting chemically on the Whether arising from heat of the stomach or other con- enamel of the teeth. We have made trial of the stitutional causes, the teeth of some persons are much vinegar acid, which may be had of any chemist, and more liable to become discoloured and decay than found it to be as effectual as above stated. Instead of others. In general, even in the worst cases, much areca-nut charcoal, we use the common refined wood might be done in youth to prevent future deteriora- charcoal, which seems to have the same effect. A lavation of teeth; but children are ignorant, and parents tion of this kind should not be performed oftener than are lamentably careless on this important matter of twice a week, the tooth-brush and plain tepid water personal economy, and remedies often require to be ap- being used all other times. plied when too late. Parents desirous of seeing their The Breath.-Few things are more disagreeable or children grow up with good teeth, should cause them to offensive than a fetid breath. • Various means,' says be cleaned with scrupulous regularity daily, though the author of the 'Encyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, only with a brush and tepid water. If the teeth appear' have been proposed to remove this annoyance, dependcrowded, so that there is a fear of one tooth shooting ing principally on the administration of aromaties, over another, a dentist ought by all means to be em- which, by their odour, might smother it for a time; but ployed to thin the row, and allow all to grow straight. these require continual repetition, and are liable to inter

The daily cleaning of the teeth should take place fere with the functions of digestion. The real cause of every morning after washing the face. Employ in pre- a fetid breath is either a diseased stomach or carious ference tepid water and a moderately hard brush, teeth. When the former is the case, aperients should be taking care not to injure the gums by the friction. administered, and if these do not succeed, an emetic may Various dentifrices or powders are offered for sale, and be given, followed by a dose of salts or castor-oil occawhich the opulent have opportunities of testing; but sionally. When rotten teeth are the cause, they should we know of none better than finely-powdered charcoal- be removed; or, if this be impossible, they should be that is, charred wood well ground in a mortar, and kept kept clean. Foul teeth often cause the breath to smell; in a box secluded from the air. It may be purchased, and for this the use of the brush should be a daily ready for use, at a small price from perfumers. By habit. Occasionally rinsing out the mouth with a little putting a little of this on the wet brush, and rubbing clean water, to which a few drops of chloride of lime, the teeth with it, impurities and discolorations will be or chloride of soda, has been added, is an effective removed without injuring the enamel. Rinse well method. The following lozenges have also been recomafterwards with clean water. A much stronger den- mended:--Gum catechu, two ounces; white sugar, four tifrice consists of the powder of burnt tobacco; but it ounces; orris powder, one ounce; make them into a contains silica, or gritty particles of sand, and cannot paste with mucilage, and add a drop or two of neroli, be recommended for common use. Indeed all prepara- One or two may be sucked at pleasure.' This, it must tions, such as those of chalk, pumice, cuttle-fish bone, be observed, only disguises, not remedies the evil. A &c. act mechanically, and are liable to the same objec- useful wash for carious teeth is made thus:--Chloride tion. Chemical solutions are free from this objection; of lime, half an ounce; water, two ounces; agitate well but unless their composition is thoroughly known, it is together in a phial for half an hour; filter and add better to avoid them. In case of foulness or sponginess spirit, two ounces; rose or orange-flower water, one of the gums, powdered rhatany, cinchona bark, and ounce. Use diluted, with water. Another very valucatechu, on account of their astringent properties, have able wash for the teeth and gums, consisting of borax been found to be useful.

and tincture of myrrh and camphor, is thus prepared:It is said to have been lately ascertained, by mi. Dissolve two ounces of borax in three pints of warm croscopic examination, that the tartar or crust upon water; before quite cold, add thereto one teaspoonful of teeth is produced in the same manner as coral, by tincture of myrrh, and one tablespoonful of spirits of certain animalcules. After the tartar, which is a camphor; bottle the mixture for use. One wine glass mere nidus, adheres firmly to the teeth, the ani- of the solution, added to half a pint of tepid water, is malculæ, by insinuating themselves between the sufficient for each application. teeth and the gum, occasion disease to both; but the The Nails.-Keeping the nails of the fingers in order secretion from them is often so offensive, as to conta- is a proper duty of the toilet. They should be brushed minate the breath. M. La Beaume has made nu- with soap and water when washing the hands. While merous experiments with different mineral, vegetable, still wet, or when wiping the hands with the towel, push and animal acids, and with alcohol, to ascertain their back the skin which is apt to grow over the nail, and effects on the animalculæ, and on their habitation; and thus keep the top of the nails neatly rounded. The it is a curious fact, that of all the articles he has em- points of the nails should be regularly pared once a ployed, the true vinegar acid (not the pyroligneous week. For whitening the nails, we have seen the folacid, which is now generally sold for it) almost instan- lowing mixture recommended:- Two drachms of ditaneously killed the animalculæ, and acted powerfully luted sulphuric acid; one drachm tincture of myrrh; to decompose the concretions, so that they were easily and four ounces of pure soft water. The nails to be removed by a brush. In order to destroy the animal. dipped into this mixture after the hands have been culæ and their eggs, and to decompose the production thoroughly cleansed with soap and water. Without which protects them, M. La Beaume recommends the adverting to the danger of such preparations, it may teeth to be brushed every morning with the vinegar be remarked that the nails have naturally a delicate acid diluted with rose-water, and immediately af- ) flesh or pinkish colour and shining polish, and that to

arhiten them is as absurd as to stain them yellow after into a small basin, with two ounces of almond-oil. thie fashion of the Orientals.

Place the basin by the side of the fire till the wax is The Hair.-In a sound and healthy constitution, the dissolved in the oil. When quite melted, add two ounces best preserver and beautifier of the hair is regular of rose-water. This must be done very slowly, little aud careful cleaning. Washing, combing, and brushing by little ; and as you pour it in, beat the mixture are quite sufficient to keep it in proper order ; and smartly with a fork to wake the water incorporate. where these fail, no amount of oils, lotions, powders, or when all is incorporated, the cold cream is complete, appliances, will remedy the evil.-- Baldness,' says and you may pour it into jars for future use. This the authority above quoted, “is generally produced by cold cream is much better than that which is usually fever or old age, but is sometimes found in compara- sold in shops, and which is too frequently made of intively young people enjoying perfect health. When ferior ingredients.--Bears'-Grease, which possesses no the hair - bulbs have disappeared, there is no ineans virtue or superiority over other animal fat, has rather known that will restore the hair, notwithstanding the an unpleasant odour, and is always sold (when sold at daily assurances to the contrary by numerous advertising all) disguised with perfumes. A factitious article may impostors. When a disposition to baldness exists, or be prepared as follows:-Hogs'-lard, sixteen ounces; when the hair falls off in large quantities, the constant flowers of benzoin and palm-oil, of each one-half ounce. use of the hair-brush, and any emollient oil or pomatum, Melt together until combined, and stir till cold. This scented with some stimulating aromatic, will generally mixture is said to keep long without becoming rancid, prove sufficient. Should this not succeed, the head and may be scented at pleasure. should be shaved.'--Stray hairs sometimes grow in the A very fragrant Lavender-Water may be prepared by nose and ears to an uncomfortable extent. Thin or mixing two ounces of English oil of lavender, one ounce shorten them with a toilet-scissors; or if it is wished to of essence of ambergris, one pint of Eau de Cologne, and remove them--which is not always a very safe plan- one quart of rectified spirit. do so smartly with a pair of tweezers. The chemical depi- Spermaceti Ointment.—This is a cooling and healing latories in use in the fashionable world are almost with ointment for wounds. Take a quarter of an ounce of out exception bighly objectionable preparations, having white wax, and half an ounce of spermaceti (which is the effect not only of removing the hair, but destroying a hard white material), and put them in a small basin likewise the vitality of the skin to which they may be with two ounces of almond-oil. Place the basin by incautiously applied. The majority of them are com- the side of the fire till the wax and spermaceti are posed of quicklime, orpiment, and some strong alkali- dissolved. When cold, the ointment is ready for use. substances the name of which may warn parties against This is an article which it is also much better to make their application.-Hair-dyes are equally objection than to purchase. When you make it yourself, you able, and are all only temporary expedients, as the know that it has no irritating or inferior materials in it. hair, upon growing, soon leaves an undyed surface be- The Feet-Corns. To keep the feet in a proper conneath. They are principally of two sorts--those into dition, they should be frequently soaked and well which litharge and quicklime enter, and those in which washed. At these times, the nails of the toes should nitrate of silver forms the chief ingredient. Thus to be pared, and prevented from growing into the flesh. render the hair instantaneously black we are directed Corns are the most troublesome evils connected with to moisten it with a solution of nitrate of silver in the feet. They are of two kinds--soft and hard. Soft water (1 to 7 or 8), and then with a weak solution of corns are those which grow between the toes. They hydrosulphuret of ammonia !'

inay be easily remored by applying ivy leaf steeped in Pomatum.- This is a soft unguent which is valuable vinegar; if the corn be very painful, change the piece for softening the hands, and preventing them chopping of ivy leaf every morning. The leaf may be steeped in cold dry weather, or for moistening the hair. It was for one or two days before using. Hard corns, which originally named from its containing apple (pomum, grow on the outside of the toes, are caused by friction Latin), and consisted of lard, rose-water, and the pulp from the shoes; and we know of nothing so likely to of apples. It now consists of perfumed hogs-lard, the prevent them as easy soft shoes and very frequent soakapple being omitted. The famed sultana pomatum is ing of the feet in warm water. Every method of ex: made as follows:-Melt together half a pound of beef tracting corns seems but to afford temporary relief, and suet, the same of bears' grease, an ounce of white wax, never will be attended with complete success unless atand two ounces of olive oil; and add to it, tied up loosely tention is paid to the shoes. It is very dangerous to in muslin, one ounce of bruised cloves, half an ounce cut corns too deep, on account of the multiplicity of of cinnamon, two bruised tonquin beans, and four grains nerves running in every direction of the toes." Caustic, of musk; strain, and put into pots. The article called or strong acids, have the desired effect in removing bears' grease, usually sold in the shops, is little else than corns, but their use should be committed to the hands perfumed beef-marrow; and the many oils offered for of a skilful surgeon.-The bunion, or swelling on the restoring and softening the hair are chiefly olive or ball of the great toe, is produced by the same cause almond-oil, perfumed with different scents. In general, as the corn-pressure and irritation by friction. The if the hair be well brushed, no such applications are treatinent recommended for corns will succeed in cases necessary, and in inost cases they create a scurf on the of bunions; but in consequence of the greater extenhead, which it requires considerable trouble to get rid of. sion of the discase, the cure of course is more tedious.

Pomade Divine. This is a soft and valuable unguent, When a bunion is commencing, it may be effectually possessing a fine aromatic odour. Dr Biddoes recom- stopped by poulticing, and then opening with a lancet; inends it to be made as follows:-Steep twelve ounces but this must be committed to the hands of a surgical of beef-marrow in water ten days (changing the water attendant.–For chilblains, Sir A. Cooper has recomoccasionally), and then steep it in rose-water. Put it mended the following liniment:-One ounce of caminto a jar with half an ounce of flowers of benjamin, phorated spirits of wine, half an ounce of liquid subthe sanie of storax and orris-root in powder, and two acetate of lead; mix, and apply in the usual way three drachms each of cinnamon, nuties, and cloves, in or four times a day. powder. Cover the jar closely, set it in a vessel of Cosmetics.- These consist of washes and pastes for water, and put it on the fire; and when the pomade is improving the skin, and are in general highly objectionthus melted, strain it for use. As a very small quantity able; for the greater number contain poisonous ingreis ever used at a time, in general it will be found much dients, and while removing from the surface any dismore economical to buy a small bottle of it than to coloration, drive the disease inward, and therefore do prepare the article.

much more harm than good. Lotions for pimples, Cold Creum. This is a simple and cooling ointment, freckle-washes, milk of roses, rouge, and all such trash, exceedingly serviceable for rough or chopped hands in we studiously discommend.' The best of all purifiers winter, or for keeping the skin soft. It is very easily is water with a cloth; the best beautifiers are health, made. Take half an ounce of white wax, and put it exercise, and GOOD TEMPER,


The Figures in the columns indicate the pages of the Text in which the particular term or subject is fully explained.

ABATEMENT, in heraldry, symbols of disgrace introduced abstract; so also synopsis, which is a Greek word,

into arms, as in the case of bastardy, cowardice, and signifying a collective view of any subject, as a sythe like; in law, a plea of abatement is pleaded to nopsis of geology, astronomy, and the like. a declaration, writ, and so forth, on account of some Abstractions, in Logic, 361. defect in form.

Academia, a pleasant and finely-wooded spot in the Abbreviation (Lat. brevis, short), a term applied to vicinity of Athens, which derived its name from the

certain processes of abridgment in arithmetic; in proprietor Academus, and became renowned as the music, a stroke which, placed over or under a note, spot where Plato taught philosophy to his pupils. divides it into quavers, if there be only one-if two, These were thence termed Academics; and a famiinto semiquavers--and if three, into demisemiqua- liar appellation (Academy), originating in the same vers; in writing, the use of contractions or initials source, is bestowed on seats of learning and educafor entire words. Before the invention of printing tion at the present day. such abbreviations were exceedingly frequent, now Accolade (Lat. ad, to, and collum, the neck), the touch they are employed chietiy in titles, thus:-

or slight blow given to the neck or shoulder on dubA. B. or B. A., Bachelor of Arts.

bing a knight. A. D. (Anno Domini), in the year of our Lord; A.H., Accordion, musical instrument, 768.

in the year of the Hejira ; A. M. (Anno Mundi), in the Achaia, a district of the Peloponnesus or Morea, the year of the world; A. C. or B.C., the year before Christ;

people of which held so considerable a station among A. C. C. (Anno Urbe Condita), the year from the build- the ancient Greeks, that their name was frequently ing of Rome.

used to denote the entire population of the country. A.M. or M. A., Master of Arts.

Achates, a follower of Æneas, so faithful and devoted, A. M. (Ante Meridian), forenoon; P. M. (Post Meridian), that his name has become proverbially significant of afternoon.

constancy in friendship. B. C.L., Bachelor of Civil Law.

Acheron, a gloomy river in the fabulous infernal reB. D., Bachelor of Divinity.

gions of the classical mythology. C. B., Companion of the Bath.

Achilles, son of Peleus, king of Thessaly, by the seaC. E., Civil Engineer.

goddess Thetis. Educated by Chiron, a learned cenCik., Clerk.

taur (half man, half horse), Achilles is represented D. C. L., Doctor of Civil Law. D.D., Doctor of Divinity.

as having become perfect in all the accomplishments

of his heroic age, and had just attained the prime of D. G. Dei Gratia), by the grace of God. E. I. C., East India Company; E. I. C. S., East India

youthful manhood, when the princes of Greece went Company's Service,

to war with Troy. Thetis, foreknowing that her son F.D., Defender of the Faith.

would fall in that contest, disguised him as a female F. R. S., Fellow of the Royal Society; L., of London ; E.,

to prevent his entering into it; but he was detected, of Edinburgh.

and, not against his will, went with the other chiefs G. C. B., Grand Cross of the Bath.

to Troy, where he distinguished himself above all the G. C. H., Grand Cross of Hanover.

Greeks by consummate daring and prowess. A H. M. S., His or Her Majesty's Servicc.

quarrel with the leader, Agamemnon, caused him at i. e. (id est), that is to say; ib., in the same place; id., length to withdraw in disgust from the field; and in the same.

spite of the intreaties of his countrymen, he remained K. B., Knight of the Bath.

obstinately inactive in his ships, until the death of K.C. B., Knight Commander of the Bath.

Patroclus by the hand of Hector caused him to don K. C. H., Knight Commander of Hanover.

the splendid panoply formed for him by the armourer K. G., Knight of the Garter.

of the gods, and rush to the scene of battle. Many LL. D., Doctor of Laws.

Trojans fell before the infuriated chieftain, and, M. D., Doctor of Medicine.

finally, Hector himself was cast lifeless on the field. M. P., Member of Parliament.

In his youthful days Thetis had rendered her son M.R.C.S., Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

invulnerable by dipping him in the river Styx; but MS., Manuscript; MSS., Manuscripts. M. R. I. A., Member of the Royal Irish Academy.

the tendon of the heel by which she held him (hence

called the tendo Achillis) was left unsecured, and N. B. (nota bene), Observe. Nem. con. (nemine contradicente), no one contradicting;

Paris, the brother of Hector, slew the chief by a Nem. dis., no one dissenting.

wound in that spot, thus fulfilling the decree of fate. 0. S., Old Style; N. S., New Style.

Strength, swiftness, and beauty of person, are the Ph. D., Doctor of Philosophy.

leading characteristics assigned to Achilles by Homer. R. A., Royal Academy.

Acquisitiveness, in Phrenology, 342. R. E., Royal Engineers.

Acrocorinthus, the citadel rock of Corinth, an eminence R, M., Royal Marines.

of great height and strength. R.N., Royal Navy.

Actæon, a Baotian huntsman, who, having accidentally S. T. P. (Sanctæ Theologiæ Professor), Doctor of Divinity. beheld Diana bathing, was changed by the chaste Viz. (videlicet), namely.

goddess into a stag, and torn to pieces by his own Aberdeen, description and account of, 239.

dogs. The fate of Actæon’ is a phrase expressive Abridgment, in literature, a compendious arrangement of the ruin of a man by his own friends, or from un.

of the matter contained in a larger work; differing wittingly becoming cognisant of dangerous secrets. from an abstract, which gives a mere analysis or Activities, of the Human Mind, 334. general view of the leading particulars. The French Adagio (Ital. leisurely), in music, the slowest of musiword précis is sometimes used as synonymous with | cal tone, grave only excepted. No. 100.


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