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treble C. Sereral higher notes may be added. It thus ciates) into four classes, according to their relations to
appears that the viola bears to the violin the same rela- the four voices. We may, in the first place, briefly
tion which the tenor voice bears to the treble or soprano. notice the wind instruments made of wood :-
This valuable instrument is too much neglected; for Among the treble instruments of this class, the cla.
there are no other instruments which can adequately rionet may perhaps claim the first notice; for though
supply its place in sustaining the tenor part. Though its crude tone, when not subdued by the performer's
in choruses, and sacred music generally, it seldom de- taste and skill, is very unpleasant, yet when duly
mands brilliant execution, the due management of its governed, the same vibrating reed may produce tones
strings requires judgment and taste, as it is apt to which blend well with the human voice. The cla-
produce nasal tones. To avoid these, the upper strings rionet is composed of a straight wooden tube, with
should be played stopped, or in other words, the notes holes or ventages, to be stopped by the fingers, and also
D and A should seldoin be given on the open strings. thirteen keys. Its register is extensive, reaching from

Another noble instrument of the violin class is the the low tenor E to C in altissimo; thus comprising nearly violoncello, or bass-viol, of which the register extends four octaves, with all their semitones. When well commonly from double C to D in alt. of the bass managed, it gives a firm and strong support to treble Several higher notes may be added. As the violin is voices, and may even take the place of the violin; but the rival of the soprano voice, the violoncello may be when in the hands of a vulgar performer, it produces regarded as capable of making the nearest approach to the well-known effects so often heard with pain by the powers of a fine bass voice.

musical ears in the village churches of England. The contra-basso, or double-bass-viol, is the largest The hautboy, or oboe, is another reed instrument of instrument of the violin class, and is employed to pro- the treble class, the sounds of which are produced by a duce a bass part an octave below the violoncello, reed differing in form from the reed used in the claFor this purpose the instrument is provided with the rionet. Its register extends from the middle C to C in thickest strings employed in music, which are tuned in alt. Handel had such an appreciation of the hautboy, fourths. The lowest string is tuned to A, the second that he not only employed it generally to aid the treble to D, and the highest to G,

voices in his choruses, but also wrote concertos to exThe above-mentioned instruments are the only truly hibit its powers, pliable, and, indeed, perfect instruments which have The fute is a wind-instrument without a reed, and been invented. As the stopping of their strings, in its tones are produced, like those of the pan-pipes, by order to produce the various tones, is not regulated by the lips of the performer injecting air, with various any mechanical contrivance, but depends purely on the degrees of force, through the embouchure. The vibramind of the performer, the ideas of tones (which are tions are regulated by six ventages, stopped by the formed in the mind of a musician with far greater fingers, and eight keys. The flute gamut contains more purity and precision than can be expressed by any than 2 octaves, extending from the middle C to A in mechanical process) can be at once interpreted on the altissimo, and its chief merit as an orchestral instrument pliant strings of the violin and its fellow-instruments. consists in the tiuency and brilliancy of its higher notes, To explain this important advantage more clearly, it The lower notes of its register, from middle Cto G in alt., must be observed that, though the ordinary musical have a pleasing quality of tone, blend well with female scale, as represented by the key-board of the organ or or soprano voices, and are employed with good effect pianoforte, contains only tones and semitones, the mind in solo execution and duets with the pianoforte; but in can think of quarter-tones, and even demands their the orchestra these lower flute-notes are of little use, use, in order to realise pure ideas both in melody and as their power is much inferior to that of the violin harmony. But these quarter-tones can be produced or clarionet. It should be observed that two fiutes truly only upon stringed instruments of the violin taking the part in alt. are sufficient to accompany class. This distinction of tones must not be regarded a very powerful orchestra, as too finely-drawn; for it is one which, by the use of a The octave-flute, the fife, and the piccolo, are instru. little arguinent, might be made plain to every one ments like the concert-tlute, but of a smaller calibre, possessing the faculty styled an ' ear for music.' and are used chiefly in dance-music and military bands.

These observations may suggest the remark, that the The flageolet, which produces shrill sounds like a whistle, multiplication of imperfect instruments has not aided is also used in light secular music. All these small inthe progress of pure music; and we may venture to add, struments of the flute order may be regarded as rather that if all the array of wooden and brass tubes, and decorative than essential in the orchestra, though in even the key - board instruments, the stately organ waltzes, quadrilles, and some parts of symphonies, they and the convenient pianoforte, were swept away, leav- produce good and lively contrasts with the tones of ing behind only the five true stringed instruments lower instruments. already described, then, though we should be deprived The same wind-instruments formed of wood, when of many particular effects and varieties of quality in taking a second-treble or contralto part, are termed tone, though we should (happily) lose all the grand respectively second - flute, second-clarionet, or secondeffects of noise, so often presented to the public as sub- hauiboy. It may perhaps be regarded as a defect stitutes for music, still no essential part of melody or in the modern orchestra that (excepting the bassoon) harmony would be lost. Every chord and passage of we have hardly one tenor instrument in wood to acharmony might be produced by the four distinct voices company the tones of the clarionet. The tenoroon, a and their corresponding stringed instruments. Before wood instrument played with a reed, is seldom emwe notice other instruments, we must remark that the ployed. The bassoon, a larger reed-instrument, has s first care of every Choral or Harmonic Society, next to very extensive register, descending to double B flat in that of procuring treble, contralto, tenor, and bass the bass clef, and rising into the contralto scale. It voices, should be to find able performers on violins, may therefore be employed to accompany and assist violas, and violoncellos. Other instruments should be either tenor or bass voices, with which its tones blend regarded as subsidiary.

remarkably well. As it possesses correctness of intonaThe sound of the violin is produced, as we have seen, tion and versatility in execution, it may justly be hy the vibration of a string, aided by a shell or sound-esteemed as one of the most useful instruments in the ing-board. The most important among other means of orchestra. producing musical tones, are the vibrations of air in The most powerful wind-instruments, including the tubes, excited either by a peculiar action of the lips, hugle, the cornopean or cornet-à-piston, the trumpet, as in performance on the flute; or by a reed, as in the the Sax-horn, the French-horn, the trombone, the bassmouthpiece of the clarionet; or by the trumpet mouth- horn, and the ophicleide, are made of brass, and are piece, used for all brass instruments. All the wind chiefly used in military bands. In the orchestra these instruments, consisting of tubes formed of wood or instruments must be employed with refined taste and metal, may be divided (like the violin and its asso- | discretion, as, when coarsely played, they overpower

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the sounds of the more delicate instruments to which one of the most effective instruments in a military they should give assistance in forte passages. The band; but in the orchestra, or when employed in sacred bugle, like all the instruments of this class, produces music, it must be used with discretion and reserve. its sounds by means of a trumpet mouthpiece, through The ophicleide is another very powerful bass instruwhich a current of air is thrown into a metal tube, ment, but possesses a fine mellowness of tone, and may increasing in diameter until it opens at the end in the be played with a pleasing softness of expression, so as shape of a bell. The bugle has a treble scale, and to blend well with both wind and string instruments. produces, especially in the open air, clear, shrill, and The variety of its tones is produced by the use of keys; lively tones. But lately, it has been in a great measure its register is extensive; and when made in a smaller superseded by the use of another brass instrument, in size than that used for the bass, it produces firm and some respects superior-the cornopeun, or cornet-à- mellow tones in the tenor scale. The old instrument piston, which combines the qualities of the bugle and called a serpent has been in a great measure superseded the trumpet. Its tones are regulated by the use of by the ophicleide; but still there is something in the three valves; and its scale, including the semitones, tone of the serpent which is suitable to sustain a firm extends from the tenor F sharp to C in alt., including bass, or double bass part in slow and solemn music. about two and a half octaves. Music for the corno- The instruments which have thus been briefly depean is generally written in the key of C, or F, or scribed constitute the principal parts of a modern G; and transposition into the other keys is easily orchestra, and by blending or employing in contrast effected by the use of several crooks, or additional and harmony their various tones in various proportions, joints, which alter the depth of tone. Thus music the composer produces the effects which are analogous written in C, when played with the F crook, is in the to the powers of colour in painting. But all the inkey of F. When employing its lower tones, the corno- struments named are by no means necessary in forming pean may take a contralto part, and is then styled the a little band to accompany the performances of a choral second cornet or cornopean,

society of moderate power. Two violins, or a clarionet The tones of the trumpet are well known, as they are judiciously played, may guide and assist the treble very powerful. Its powers of melody are now extended voices; second violins, or (if these cannot be obtained) by the use of crooks, keys, and valves; but originally a second clarionet, may help the second treble or conit was an instrument of the most simple kind, consist tralto voices, and we may also observe that the upper ing of a tube of metal (or even a cow's horn) furnished strings of the viola may be used for the same purpose ; with a mouthpiece for the compression of the blast of but this important instrument is chiefly useful in susair. In the modern orchestra, the improved trumpet taining a steady tenor part. Violoncellos, and a double is very effectively used to accompany songs of a bold bass (or violono), will give the best support to bass or martial character, and in the loud and triumphal | voices. If wind instruments are added to the band, a parts of grand symphonies.

flute may give relief and brilliancy by taking the part To sustain that important middle part, the tenor, no in alt. in choruses and full passages; a bassoon may brass or wind instrument is so effective and pleasing support either the tenor or the bass, or play a mixture as the French-horn, or corno, It is the most mellow of both these parts suited to the capacity of the inof all brass tubes, and is especially useful in the quality strument; and if more instrumental power is required, of its long-drawn and well-sustained tones.

In com

the cornet, the corno, and the ophicleide (or, in loud pass it descends an octave below that of the trumpet. passages, the trombones) may be employed. As its modulations are chiefly produced and governed The above instruments (excepting the violin class) by the lip, guided by the ear of the performer, no do not severally produce chords. Each plays only one amateur can hope to excel on this instrument unless part. We may now give some brief account of instruhe possesses a very correct appreciation of musical in ments of harmony, upon which chords or full scores tervals; or, in common language, “ a good ear for music.' may be played. Among these the organ justly claims In its construction the corno consists of a long tube of the first place. Though it has been styled 'the king of brass, coiled in a circular form, and gradually increas- instruments, it is more properly described as a full ing in diameter from the mouthpiece to the end of the orchestra of wind instruments, all supplied with wind tube, which opens widely like a bell. The key or pitch from a pair of bellows, and placed under the control of of the horn may be changed by the use of five crooks, one performer. This vast machine of music has no or additional pieces of brass tube, fitting in the smaller necessary restriction of scale. Its compass may extend end of the instrument. Its tones are also modulated from the lowest to the highest musical note appreciable in flats and sharps by the insertion of the performer's by the human ear. The deepest tones produced by hand into the bell or opening of the tube. Music for the pedal-pipes have been compared to harmonious French-horns is generally written in the natural scale of thunder,' while the highest notes of the smallest me. C, without signatures of Hats and sharps; and its tones tallic stops have the shrillness of a canary's whistling. are adjusted, by the use of crooks, to the keys in which The organ at Haarlem contains, it is said, 5000 pipes; other instrumental parts are written. The corno does that in the new church in Amsterdam has 62 whole not excel in rapid execution, though it has been some- stops. The immense powers of the organ in York times successfully used as a solo instrument. We may Minster, and that in the Town-Hall of Birmingbam, here mention some improved brass instruments called are generally known. The mechanical means by which Sar-horns, made in various sizes, and possessing various such an extensive instrument is brought under the registers of notes; these have been used in harmony command of the hands and feet of one performer are very effectively, especially by the Distin Family.' rather complicated, but consist of the following prin

The trombone, or the sackbut of ancient times, is a cipal parts :--1. A series of stops ; 2. A wind-chest; very powerful instrument, and may be described as a 3. Bellows; 4. Valves and levers to open or close the trumpet, the tones of which are regulated by a tube of pipes; and 5. The key-board. Each stop consists of a brass sliding within another, so as to shorten or lengthen row of pipes answering to the whole gamut or register the column of air. An instrument made on this prin- of the organ, so that a composition may be performed ciple was discovered among the remains of Pompeii

. It upon one complete stop. But to produce the sound of is now made in three sizes, and is termed respectively many instruments, several stops are employed simulan alto, a tenor, or a bass trombone. The last-mentioned, taneously. Of these the most important are the open having the longest tube and the most extensive slide, diapason, the stopt diapason, the principal, and the fifhas a register of notes extending from double C to the teenth. When these stops are drawn, the melody and hartenor G, including all the semitones. The scale of the mony produced are distributed through three octaves. tenor trombone extends from double F sharp to the Other stops are named respectively the sesquialter, treble C, while that of the alto trombone reaches from the cornet, the trumpet, the bassoon, the flute, the crethe tenor F to the treble F. The trombone, possessing mona; indeed the number of stops, like that of instruthe quality of the trumpet, but in a lower register, is I ments in an orchestra, may be increased at pleasure.

Left hand


When a slide is withdrawn, so as to open any stop to 1 of the dampers is defective, and consequently the music the gust of air from the wind-chest, that stop is said to produced is confused. The great imperfection of all be drawn. It may be closed at any moment by the pianofortes is their incapability of sustaining unbroken hand or the foot of the player; indeed, the foot can, sounds beyond a few seconds. with a touch on a pedal, bring into action, or reduce to In slow and sacred music the pianoforte fails; and as silence, in a moment several rows of pipes equal in it requires a constant percussion of its wires to sustain power to a large orchestra. The key-board of a first- its full tones, its powers are most advantageously disclass organ is divided into three compartments. Of played in rapid and brilliant compositions, such as these the lowest commands a series of stops, having waltzes, quadrilles, variations of melodies, and sonatas

. generally a soft quality of tone, and collectively styled Beethoven and Mendelssohn produced some of the most the choir organ; the middle range of keys commands beautiful and classical music for this instrument. the most powerful stops in the great organ; while the other players and composers have displayed its powers third part of the key-board commands the swell organ in a style which has been termed . wonder-playing, (a series of stops enclosed, as in a box or cupboard, with and which may be compared with 'trick-playing on sides opening or closing at the will of the performer, so the violin. Playing elaborate and rapid passages in as to increase or diminish

Right hand.

octaves, and distributing chords, in the arpeggio style, gradually the volume of

orer the full extent of the key-board (which contains sound). The most capa

6.4 octaves), are two of the most brilliant manæuvres of cious pipes in the organ

the modern school. In concert with the flute, the violin, are commanded by the pe

and the violoncello, the pianoforte is exceedingly efferdals played by the feet.

tive and pleasing, as its chords and brilliant arpeggios To show the extent of the

make a good contrast with the sustained tones of the sounds commanded by the

other instruments. hands and feet of an or

The harmonium, another instrument with a key. ganist, we may give the

board, capable of producing full harmonies, yields its following chord :

Pedal doppio.

tones by the pressure of wind upon tongues made of To find the number of distinct instruments or pipes metal in various sizes. It is the nearest approach to which are speaking when this chord is played, we have solving the problem how to produce organ-tones from a simply to multiply the number of the notes in the small and portable instrument; but the quality of its chord by the number of drawn stops. Thus if thirty tones cannot be compared, for mellowness and variety

, full stops are drawn, the number of speaking-pipes will with the blended tones of organ-pipes. The concertina be 270, or equal to this number of distinct instruments. and the accordion are sinall instruments producing The distinguishing merit of the organ is its power to tones by the vibrations of metallic tongues, like these form and prolong the fullest and most artificial har-employed in the harmonium, monies. Yet its grandeur and vast compass of tones The harp is an ancient stringed instrument, and in inust not lead us to neglect its defects. It is not a its modern form is sometimes effectively displayed perfect instrument : it cannot accommodate itself to solo performance, though its capabilities are greatly every style of music; but, like all other imperfect in inferior to those of the pianoforte. Its strings are kept struinents, requires music to be purposely adapted to in vibration by the fingers of the performer, without its construction. As it cannot impart to melody the the use of a key-board, and each string produces only variety and delicacy of expression found in the human one distinct note. The guitar-which, in its simplest voice and the violin, it depends for interest on the bold form, is also an ancient instrument-has a neck with ness and precision of its modulations in harmony. A several stops or frets which produce several notes from good composer for the organ must therefore have an one string. It has now six strings, and commands a extensive command over the resources of modulation, range of three octaves; but though it is a pleasing acand especially in the fugue style. The concertos and companiment to a solo treble voice, it is a very feeble fugues of Handel, some pieces by Mendelssohn, but, instrument, as its tones are transient, and it can be above all, the fugues of Sebastian Bach, are the finest played well only in a few keys. The ancient lyre and specimens of organ music. The last may indeed be the lute were in some respects like the guitar. The regarded as the most elaborate modulations of har- psaltery and the dulcimer were comparatively rude inmony, which musical genius has produced, and the struments, producing tones from wires, like those in a organist who can fairly execute them may justly claim pianoforte, but having no dampers, and consequently the highest rank in his profession.

blending tones in a confused style, very offensive to a The pianoforte is another instrument of harmony, cultivated musical ear. having an extensive compass, and serving as a very Bells, cymbals, triangles, and even rattling bones, are convenient substitute for a small orchestra. It may used to mark the time, and add to the effect of soune be regarded as the most characteristic instrument of light varieties of music. The gong and the drum are modern times, and its peculiarities have modified the employed for the same purposes, chiefly in military style of many musical compositions. Like the harpsi- music. The tom-tom, a large, rudely-constructed drun, chord, it produces tones by the vibrations of wires; but is still a favourite instrument of music (or rather of in the harpsichord the wires were vibrated by a quill: noise) among savage tribes. Church bells are still in the pianoforte the wires are struck by a hainmer favourite instruments among many rustic amateurs with a surface of leather or felt; and as the force of the possessing primitive musical taste; but they may be blow can be moderated by the touch of the finger on commended rather for the strong physical exercise the key-board, the performer has a command over which they afford to the ringers, than for any truly various degrees of force or delicacy of expression. In musical pleasures which they give to hearers. this respect the pianoforte (a German invention in 1766) In conclusion, we may again observe that only a fer is far superior to the old-fashioned harpsichord, which of the instruments noticed in this article are really is now very seldom seen. The same lever which im- necessary for the production of good instrumental, er pels the hammer against the string, raiges at the same the accompaniment of choral music. The sensuous moment a damper from the upper surface of the wire, effect of music depends partly on fulness and quality so as to allow free vibration; and immediately when of tone; while music, in its more intellectual sense, the finger is lifted from a key, the damper falls upon depends upon the relations of various intervals in the string commanded by that key, and stops its vibra- sounds arranged in melody and harmony. With four tion, so that its sound does not mingle with that of the or five well-trained voices, especially when they are next note struck, which would often produce confusion supported by the three principal stringed instruments instead of harmony. It is important to observe that, the violin, the viola, and the violoncello-we are able in a great number of instruments (especially those of to produce, not the loudest, but the most beautiful and the upright kind, called cottage pianofortes), the action classical music of the best composers.


Under this head we propose to offer a few advices con- | like, are admissible only into suitable apartments; and nected with llousekeeping in general—referring to the the vulgar-rich will often be disappointed to find that choice, furnishing, and management of dwellings; the a few well-chosen and properly-arranged articles procleaning of furniture and apparel; the destruction of duce a much more elegant effect than all their lavish, vermin; precautions as to fire and water; the prepara- because tasteless and inharmonious display. tion of small domestic manufactures; and lastly, to Respecting the material of carpetting, matting, the duties of the dressing-room and toilet.

floorcloths, and the like, the best your means can

afford will ultimately be found to be the cheapest. CHOICE AND FURNISHIXG.

There is always a great deal of showy but trashy maChoice of a House. There are certain important terial in the market, which, from its cheapness, is apt points on which you should obtain satisfactory informa- to allure the inexperienced; a few months' wear, howtion in making choice of a house. First, take care ever, destroys not only its appearance, but renders it that it is not damp. Dampness may arise from several next to useless. Cotton mattings, carpetings, and the causes, but imperfect drainage, and a too close contact like, can never compete with a genuine woollen fabric; of the floors with the ground, are the principal. Wher and the closer and heavier a woollen fabric, the more a house is damp in any part, no matter from what likely is it to give satisfaction. In purchasing oil. cause, it is advisable by all means to avoid it, for it cloth, see that the colours are of a durable kind, and may produce the most pernicious effects on the health that they are laid on stout, close canvas. Genuine of your family. Second, see that the house has a free coir and manilla are strong, durable materials for open exposure for fresh air, and, if all other circum- inatting, well adapted for stone lobbies and passages, stances suit, prefer that which has an exposure to the Dressed skins-plain or dyed-make a very elegant south, and possesses the beneficial influence of the sun's and comfortable mat, but they require to be kept dry; rays. A house with a pleasant southern exposure en- and if not thoroughly prepared, the grease which joys a climate several degrees warmer than a house exudes from them will irremediably destroy the carpet which is not so favourably situated. In general, too on which they are laid. little attention is paid to this circumstance, though it Tables, Chairs, fc.-When you are bargaining for has been proved in the clearest manner that mere sun- tables, chairs, and other wooden articles of a fine light, without reference to heat or air, exercises a most quality, take care to specify that they must be of a solid powerful influence on the health and energy of the fabric, and not veneered. Veneering is only tolerable human frame. Third, ascertain if there be a plentiful in a few articles which are not to be subjected to much supply of good water in the premises, and if there be tear and wear; nevertheless, a practice has begun of proper means at hand for drying and bleaching clothes. veneering articles in daily use, such as chairs and Fourth, learn whether the vents go well, and do not tables, and consequently they are soon destroyed. This smoke. The inquiries you may make in reference to practice, we are sorry to say, is done in cases where the freedom from vermin, exposure to public nuisances, highest price is paid for solid articles, and we menrespectability of neighbourhood, and other particulars, tion the circumstance to put you on your guard. Exaare left to your own judgment.

mine closely the back and seat-frames of every mahoFurnishing.–When you design to furnish a house, gany chair, and reject it if it be veneered. In the case take care to set out on a right principle in the selection of veneered articles, as cabinets, chests of drawers, of articles. It is essential, for the sake of neatness, and wardrobes, sideboards, and the like, see that the veneers for a pleasing effect to the eye, that there should be a be laid on a substantial well-scasoned ground; if not, harmony of colours, and also a similarity of style in the the veneering is sure to warp and blister after a few main articles of furniture. Therefore, if you do not months' exposure to the ordinary heat of a dwellingexercise a little taste and judgment in your first selec- house. In ordering sofas, chairs, and mattresses, you tions, you may find that you have committed a blunder should also take care to bargain for genuine hair stufwhich will cost you much subsequent annoyance. For fing, for in many instances the stuffing is composed of example, let the tints of the carpet, of the paper or what is technically called pob, or a composition of tow, paint of the walls, and of the window-curtains, be all wool, and other kinds of rubbish. Likewise the hair in harmony in each room--that is, either possess a should be well baked and prepared. We have seen a general resemblance of colour, or various colours in hair sofa, for which the highest price was paid, swarmpleasing contrast and harmony with each other. If the ing with a species of louse, shortly after being sent colour of your curtains be scarlet, and the colour of home from the upholsterer’s, in consequence of the your walls or carpet blue, a most inharmonious and animal substance about the hair not having been prounpleasing effect will be produced; but brown and perly dried by baking. In every case you will be safer green, or green and gold, will be in harmony, and may to pay a fair price to a respectable tradesman, than to therefore be placed together. Carpets being the most purchase from the self-styled ' cheap warehouses; for expensive articles, it is safest to buy them first, and though the articles may be of elegant enough designs, then to let their colour lead the tone and style of cur- and look as brilliant as French polish can make them, tains, paper-hangings, chair-covers, hearth-rugs, and yet in a few years they will becoine warped, disjointed, all other articles. It is also a good economical plan to and rickctty. buy carpets of the same pattern for several rooms, be- Fire Grates.- In choosing fire-grates or stoves for cause, in the event of removal to a house with different- your rooms, do not buy those which have burnished sized apartments, a piece of one carpet may be taken steel fronts, as they require a considerable degree of to eke out another. It is also of prime importance to care in cleaning, and are very liable to rust during have the patterns in keeping with the size and style of the sumnier when not in use.

The best and neatest, as apartments; for nothing looks so patchwork and out of well as the cheapest grates, are those which are made place as large and showy patterns in small old-fashioned of cast-iron, and of an ornamental pattern. Let the rooms--nothing so mean as paltry fabrics in large mo- grates which you select be small or of moderate size in dern apartments. This remark is alike applicable to the fireplace. Wide, open grates, by admitting cold every. article of furnishing, and demands, on the part air into the chimney, are exceedingly liable to smoke. of the housekeeper, the strictest attention. Brilliant Kinnaird and Register-grates, with fire-brick or castgaseliers, inirrors, panellings, paper-hangings, and the iron backs, and with fronts of cast-iron ground smooth, No. 99.


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are now most generally sought after; and when neatly trouble, or even find it impossible, to restore them.
constructed, are fit for all ordinary purposes. The Thus a peculiar set of earthenware or china, howerer
brilliant grate-fronts exhibited in the windows of the beautiful and cheap, may ultimately prove a source of
ironmongers are fit only for the houses of the wealthy, vexation and considerable expense.
who have plenty of servants to keep them in order. Glass and Crystal.- Articles of this kind are now
Avoid the grates with low - placed bars and open fabricated in the most elegant shapes and designs, and
fenders, unless your house is specially constructed for at extremely moderate prices. There are two sorts in
them, as they are apt to cause accidents by fire. In the market-cut-glass, and glass moulded, so as to re-
purchasing fire-irons, choose those of solid - wrought semble cut patterns (see No. 21). The latter is cheap,
iron or steel; have nothing to do with any combination but by no means so elegant or durable as the former,
of brass and steel, as they are sure to become loose as it is only sound material which will stand the
and ricketty after a few months' use.

polisher's wheel. Observe, in purchasing glass, that it Hardware--Cutlery.-Be particular in your choice be well annealed, as otherwise, on the first exposure to of hardware and cutlery, as there is now no branch hot water, it will fly in pieces. In this respect cutof British manufactures in which there is greater glass is always preferable to that cast or moulded. deception and knavery practised. There are hundreds Baths and Foot - Warmers.-Few houses possess the of workshops in which these articles are made only for convenience of baths (see No. 30), but every one may ' cheap sales,' and sales by auction;' and in such command the use of small movable bathing Fessels for cases only the most worthless materials are made use the feet, or for infants. The best foot and leg baths of. Prefer articles which are cast or hammered to those are those made of wood, or of well-tinned sheet iron; that are struck up; and see that your cutlery has a those of earthenware are exceedingly liable to break, full, sound ring, and is sufficiently elastic to resist all and, besides, are very expensive. There are various ordinary pressure, Aroid the purchase of fantastic kinds of close vessels for holding warm water, which shapes and patterns, not only from the difficulty of are used for producing warmth in bed. One of the matching any article in the event of loss or breakage, best articles of this nature which we have seen is a but from motives of good taste.

vessel made of sheet tin. It measures twelve inches Plate. Whatever silver articles you require, buy in length and six inches in diameter, being round them of a genuine kind, or of sterling silver plate, like a bottle, with bulged-out rounded ends. At which always keeps its value, however old and worn it one end there is a small brass screw cap, placed may become. Avoid all plated goods, for the plating over an orifice at which the water is admitted. This is not long in wearing off, and then the article is value- cap being well screwed down, and a small leathern less. A tarnished plate, fork, spoou, or salver, has an washer being used to assist in the tightening, not a excessively mean appearance. In fact the only toler- drop of water will ooze out when the vessel is laid in able plating is that of electro-plating on steel, and bed. With this simple apparatus, tied in a flannel even that, substantial as it appears, is far from being bag, the feet or any part of the body will be effectually unobjectionable. If you find it inconvenient to pur- warmed either during illness or in the cold of winter. chase sterling silver plate, your most economical plan, Stoneware vessels, shaped so as to lie closely to the consistent with elegance of appearance, will be to pur- feet, limbs, or chest, are now largely fabricated, and, if chase a few articles of German silver or albata, which well stoppered, have the advantage of retaining the closely resembles sterling silver in texture and colour; it heat longer than vessels made of metal. is not just so white as sterling silver, but the difference is not noticed, unless a close comparison be made. In hardness and durability, it is much superior to sterling Housekeeping.- Erery good housewife is expected to silver, and its price is in some cases only about a tenth keep a regular and continuous account of her income of what genuine plate would cost. German silver is and expenditure. This is indeed perhaps the most now manufactured to a large extent in England, and is essential in the routine of domestic duties, and she made into spoons, forks, ladles, teapots, salvers, dish- must possess an ill-regulated mind, or have had an incovers

, and all other articles for the table. It is not sufficient education, who neglects it. When properly probable that German silver will ever be purchased to set about, and methodically managed, there is little or a large extent in order to supersede the sterling article, no trouble in keeping the household accounts

. Some because it possesses no intrinsic value like bullion, but housewives have one method, and some have another. it forms a great stretch in advance of plated or Britan- Always presuming that we are addressing young housenia metal goods, and is likely to come into extensive wives in the middle ranks of society, with whom fru

The articles in Britannia metal were once of a gality is an object, we beg to suggest the following durable fabric, but they are so no longer; their good simple plan of keeping house accounts:-Procure a character is gone, and they should on no account be small slate-book--that is, a little book composed of purchased by an economical housewife. A teapot, for three slates, bound in a plain cover. This, which you instance, of that metal, for common use, and costing six write upon with a slate pencil, is your day-book; it is or eight shillings, will probably not last twelve months, always at hand for you to scroll down any note of outwhile a teapot of German silver, costing from eighteen lay, and will keep several days' or a week's accounts at to forty shillings, will last for fifty years. The German a time. At any leisure moment, you carry the entries silver article is thus, in the long-run, by far the cheaper of outlay from the slates to a small ruled paper-book, of the two, independent of all considerations as to which is your lodger. One page of this is devoted to elegance of appearance.

money received, and the opposite page to money paid Gilding.Order all the gilding of your picture frames out. By doing this regularly, and comparing the entries and other articles to be done in oil. Oil-gilding is not of sums received with the entries of sums expended, 80 susceptible of Hatting and burnishing like water.gild- as to see that they square with each other, you will ing, but it is infinitely more durable. You may wash find that you possess a complete record of family exan oil-gilt frame without injuring it, whereas one that penses, satisfactory alike to yourself and to your husis water-gilt cannot be cleaned, and is soon tarnished. band, should he make any inquiry into the subject

. We never knew a gilder who would gild in oil unless it The keeping of an account of receipts and disbursewas expressly insisted upon.

ments, in this or any other convenient manner, is calEarthenware and China. - In purchasing sets of culated to have the most salutary and agreeable effects, earthenware articles for the table

, also take care to set the tendency to orer-expenditure, or living beyond out on a right plan. Select that set which, in case of the means, is constantly checked, or at least you are breakage, can at all times, and in all places, be easily not deceived upon the subject, and in all likelihood matched. If you buy a set of table-ware which is pecu- much future distress in circumstances is avoided. liar or rare in its pattern, and afterwards break seve- In referring to housekeeping accounts, we must put ral pieces, you may be put to a very great degree of you on your guard against the very mischievous prac



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