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drinking cups frequently occur. Many of these are the province of the archæologist; but they demand a
formed so as not to admit of their being set down un- much larger space for their consideration than a popu-
less when empty, and have been thought to furnish a lar sketch of the science can possibly include. (See
curious illustration of the habits of our Saxon fore- Nos. 28 and 58.) One class of antiquities, though not
fathers, among whom the vice of hard drinking is known the most pleasing, may be selected from these, as pecu-
to have been so common. Pottery, arms, and imple- liarly illustrative of the manners and the degree of
ments of various descriptions, are all frequently found civilisation of the period--that is, the
among the contents of the Anglo-Saxon barrows; but
perhaps the most interesting class of relics belonging to

Engines of Torture, &c.
this period is the personal ornaments, which include The use of torture as a means of obtaining judicial
enamelled and jewelled fibulæ, rings, necklaces, crosses, evidence cannot be regarded as a creation of the Middle
&c. The most characteristic ornament of this period Ages, seeing that it was in use both among the Greeks
is the Runic Knot, a species of interlaced ornament, and Romans. Torture was used, according to the
which continued in use, with slight variations, till the Athenian laws, in eliciting evidence from slaves, and is
twelfth century, and is frequently found among the affirmed by Cicero to have been legally applicable to
decorations on the earliest ecclesiastical edifices be- Athenian citizens. It is doubtful if it was used by the
longing to what are commonly styled the Saxon and Romans during the period of the Republic, but it had
Norman, or Byzantine, Periods of Architecture. come fully into use in the time of the early emperors,

The introduction of the cross among the personal and was subjected to scarcely any other restraint than ornaments of the Saxons points to the remarkable the will of the despotic rulers of Rome during the later change effected by the introduction of Christianity. era of the Empire. Among the northern nations, howThe Roman missionary and the Roman monk succeeded ever, whose manners and early civilisation have been to the conquests of the Roman legions, and triumph- traced through the remote eras to which archæologists antly planted the cross where the imperial eagle had give the names of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Periods, only gained a temporary and disputed possession. the use of torture in judicial proceedings appears to Thenceforth the influence of the creed and of the eccle- have been unknown. This cannot be ascribed to any siastical polity of the Christian missionaries manifested superiority of the northern races in refinement or huitself in every phase of social life, and revolutionised manity when compared with the polished Greeks and the arts no less than the morals and manners of the Romans, The barbarous cruelties of the Sea-Kings Anglo-Saxons. One counteracting influence, however, especially are only to be equalled by the proceedings long continued to hold them in check. The Danish of the savages of Polynesia or North America. But and Norse rovers, who won to themselves the name of among the whole northern races, the Teutonic and feuthe Sea - Kings by the daring hardihood with which dal appeal to ordeal or battle, appear to have existed they steered across the ocean, and enriched themselves under some modified form, from the earliest times, as with spoils gathered along the whole northern and judicial tests, which were rendered infallible by their western coasts of Europe, made frequent descents on supernatural character. So long as this judicia Dei, or the eastern shores of England and Ireland. Many judgment of God, as it was termed, continued in use, relics of these barbarous invaders have been met with we have no evidence of torture being resorted to; and from time to time, contrasting with the more familiar among the Germans more especially, where the Teuproductions of native art and skill. Several long and tonic customs and influences were most strongly rooted, straight swords, with hilts altogether differing in form judicial torture appears to have been unknown till the and ornaments from those usually ascribed to the An. close of the fourteenth century. glo-Saxons or native Irish, are preserved in the Museum The engines employed in the infliction of torture of the Royal Irish Academy, and are regarded by most have been as various as the inventive ingenuity of man intelligent antiquaries as relics of these Norse invaders. is fertile in device. The monks, under the influence of

a misdirected zeal for the attainment of a holy life, Ancient Chessmen.

and securing a claim to heaven by their own good Another and very characteristic class of relics of the works, devised penances, mortifications, and austerities, Sea-Kings, is the dice and draughtsmen frequently which were directed only against themselves. In the found along with more warlike remains, and serving to thirteenth century we find the first traces of the use illustrate the love of gambling for which these wild of torture for inquisition of heresy introduced into Norsemen were notorious. They are exceedingly com- ecclesiastical law. While the Church exercised so benemon in Denmark, and have been frequently found in | ficial an influence in softening the barbarism of the Ireland, generally consisting of a conical-shaped bone, northern races, and ameliorating the condition of the with a hole in the bottom, designed, as is presumed, for people under the lawless tyranny of the feudal system, use on shipboard, to beguile the tedium of their long she appears as the introducer of this barbarous prac. sea-voyages, the hole being intended to fit on to a pin, tice at a period when civil institutions and equal laws so as to keep them from slipping with the motion of were rapidly displacing the ruder customs of feudal the vessel. Of the same class, though belonging to a supremacy. In the great struggle between the Pope~ later period, are the ancient chessmen, wrought of the Clement V.—and the Templars in 1310, inquisitors teeth of the walrus. Large sets of these have occa- were appointed to examine the knights charged with sionally been discovered, possessing great value from heresy. The Archbishop of York, one of the inquisitors

, the illustrations they afford of ancient costuine. The hesitated to make use of torture in the investigation; frequent occurrence of the bishop among these latter and in consequence of his doubts, Edward II. refused figures, fixes them as belonging to a period subsequent to permit its application to the accused. On learning to the introduction of Christianity. In the year 1831 of this interference, Clement wrote a letter of remona number of these ancient chessmen, beautifully carved strance to the king; and after considerable hesitation with a rich variety of ornaments, were discovered in he submitted, by advice of his council, and a precept the island of Lewis, buried fifteen feet under a bank of was issued to the sheriffs of London, who had the sand. They were purchased by the trustees of the accused in charge, to suffer the inquisitors to examine British Museum, and now form a part of that valuable them by torture.' From this it is obvious that until national collection. In the · Guide to Northern Ar- the fourteenth century torture was unknown in Eng, chæology,' published by the Society of Northern Anti- land, either as a royal prerogative or an instrument of quaries of Copenhagen, woodcuts are given of specimens judicial inquiry. Edward II., the wretched king who of sets of ancient chessmen found in Denmark; exactly thus first sanctioned the use of this terrible engine of similar in character to those so recently discovered in inquisition in England, himself perished by torture in the islands of Scotland.

1327, by the hands of two ruffians to whom his own The arts, the arms and implements, and the archi- queen, Isabella, the She-Wolf of France, had contecture of the mediæyal Christian era, all come within signed him for that purpose.


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The iron cage was an instrument of torture in fre- nal instrument of capital punishment, by which many quent use by the cruel and superstitious Louis XI. of of the most eminent men in Scotland were beheaded, France. In this the wretched captive could neither is still preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antistand up nor lie down at full length, and yet some of quaries of Scotland, at Edinburgh. It consists of two the victims of the tyrant survived for years in this upright beams, with a groove in each, between which horrid durance. Somewhat analogous to this were the an iron axe, loaded with lead, is moved up and down irons frequently used by ecclesiastical inquisitors, and by means of a rope passing over a pulley at the top; which formed part of the missionary furniture of the a third beam projects behind, to which an iron trigger Spanish Armada, by means of which the sufferer was is attached. On this the rope was secured by a loop, bound with his neck, arms, and knees drawn together. and the executioner released it by a stroke of a mallet, It is a curious fact that this same dreadful posture of and let it fall by its own weight on the neck of the enforced constraint was resorted to by the pilgrim fathers criminal. Halifax in Yorkshire was the only place of New England as the readiest mode of judicial punish- in England where a similar instrument was ever used ; ment. The award to the earliest culprits of that set though the scenes of butchery frequently enacted on tlement is to be bound neck and heels together, and | Tower Hill and elsewhere, through the tremor or into be left in that state without any food for twenty-four efficiency of the executioner, prove that the guillotine hours. The culprits had been convicted of fighting a was a merciful improvement on the axe of the headsduel, and the verdict was put in force; but their suffer- man. In France, the improved instrument of its inings were so great, that they were released after having genious physician still remains in use for the execution borne only a portion of their appointed punishment. of criminals. It would be an excessive refinement of

The rack was the commonest engine of torture criticism to pronounce it a more barbarous engine of throughout Europe, both in ecclesiastical and civil in- death than the gallows and the halter, though its tervestigations. It is said to have been introduced into rible associations with the victims of the Reign of Terror the Tower of London by the Duke of Exeter in the might furnish a very sufficient reason for its disuse in reign of Henry VI., and thence obtained the name of the most polished nation of modern Europe. the Duke of Exeter's daughter. This device was improved upon for its horrible purpose in the reign of

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. Henry VIII., by Sir William Skevington, lieutenant of The antiquities of the New World occupy a place in the Tower; and it is by a popular corruption of his the investigations of the archæologist altogether apart name that the most dreadful engine of this kind ever from every other branch of his studies, though the very used in England obtained its familiar title of the Scaven- recent date of the discovery of the great continents of ger's Daughter. It was discovered by a committee of North and South America only renders more interestthe House of Commons, who had been appointed in ing whatever is calculated to throw light on their prethe year 1604 to investigate some parts of the Tower, vious history. America has its Stone Period as well as and especially the ancient dungeon of torture called Europe and Asia. Tumuli, the burial mounds of ancient • Little Ease. Besides the rack, a variety of instru- races, are found in many parts of North America, conments of torture were used in England, such as the taining spear-heads and adzes of flint and stone, and gag, thumbscrews, pincers, manacles, fetters, &c.; urns of rudely - baked clay, not greatly dissimilar to to which list may be added the mutilations and the those found in the barrows of Wiltshire or in Denpillory of the Star Chamber and High Commission mark and Brittany. This, however, can hardly be reCourt of the Stuarts.

garded as furnishing conclusive evidence of early inBoth in English and Scottish history many examples tercourse or a common origin, since it only exhibits occur of the use of torture, as a barbarous means of re- the relics of that primitive stage of society through venge either on a captive enemy or a great criminal; which the most civilised nations of antiquity appear to and some relics of this are still found in the punish- have passed. The Society of Northern Antiquaries of ment which the English law awards to the crime of high Copenhagen published in 1837 a work of great learning treason. In 1438 the murderers of James I. of Scot- and research, entitled 'Antiquitates Americanæ, deland were put to death at the Cross of Edinburgh with signed to furnish evidence of the discovery of the Amethe cruellest tortures that the ingenuity of a barbarous rican continent by the Norsemen several centuries before age could devise. The Earl of Athol, after having his the voyages of Columbus. In one of the communications flesh lacerated with pincers, and torn with heated irons, furnished to the antiquaries of Copenhagen by the was elevated on a high pillar in sight of the people, secretary of the Rhode Island Historical Society, it is and crowned in derision as the king of traitors with a remarked:- In the western parts of our country may red-hot iron crown. The use of torture in judicial still be seen numerous and extensive mounds, similar investigations was continued in Scotland long after it to the tumuli met with in Scandinavia, Tartary, and had been abandoned in England; and James II. ac- Russia; also the remains of fortifications that must quired peculiar infamy for the use he made of this have required for their construction a degree of industry, dreadful means of oppression against the Scottish Pres- labour, and skill, as well as an advancement in the byterians during his government of Scotland under arts, that never characterised any of the Indian tribes. Charles II. The instruments chiefly employed for this Various articles of pottery are found in them, with the purpose were the 'boots?—which consisted of an iron case method of manufacturing which they were entirely drawn over the leg, between which and the flesh wedges unacquainted. But, above all, many rocks inscribed were driven in with a hammer--and the thumbkins, with unknown characters, apparently of very ancient which were applied to the thumbs, and tightened by origin, have been discovered, scattered through diffescrews, sometimes till the bones were crushed under rent parts of the country, such as it was impossible so the merciless infliction.

to engrave without the aid of iron or other hard meAlong with the relics of a barbarous age just described, tallic instruments.' Of several of these rocks engravings the instruments anciently in use for capital punishment are given; and while some are in rude and unknown may be classed. The guillotine, which has acquired characters and hieroglyphics, others are unquestionably for its improver-Joseph Ignace Guillotin, a physician engraved in Runic characters, corresponding to the of France-an unenviable celebrity, was in use long be- ancient monuments of Northern Europe. fore, under other names, in Germany, Bohemia, Italy, It is in the southern parts of the North American England, and Scotland. In Germany it bore the cha- continent, however, that the most interesting evidences racteristic name of Falbiel, or the Falling Hatchet; in of ancient manners and the arts of civilisation are to Scotland it was known by the singular title of the be found. Allusion has already been made to the Maiden. Tradition assigns the introduction of this pyramids of Mexico ; but besides these, ruins of great instrument into Scotland to the Regent Morton, who extent and considerable variety of design still attest was one of its early victims; but it is proved to have the magnificence of the ancient kingdom of Montezuma. been in use some time before his regency. The origi- | Many of the older and more important monuments re



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maining in Mexico are regarded as the work of a still It is worthy of notice, that among the sites of the earlier race than that which gave way before the fierce ancient temples and ruined cities of Mexico and Yusoldiers of Cortez-probably of the Toltecans—but the catan, tumuli occur of the same character as those inquiry is still involved in considerable obscurity, and which in other places of the world indicate to us the would require to be discussed at considerable length primitive habits of the human race, ere the arts of civi. with any hope of further elucidation,

lisation have modified this character into the manifold Much new interest has been conferred on the subject peculiarities of distinct nationalities. During the visit of Mexican antiquities by the publication of Stephens's of Mr Stephens and his companions to the village of • Incidents of Travel in Yucatan.' This enterprising Chemax, while travelling through Yucatan, the cura traveller, after exploring many new regions of Central informed them that at some leagues distant, nearer the America, had his attention drawn to Yucatan by ac- coast, were several mounds or tumuli

. The Indians counts he received of ancient ruins of great extent had been employed shortly before in digging and excawhich lay buried in the vast forests with which nearly vating in the neighbourhood of them for stones for the whole of that country is covered. On exploring building; and on chancing to dig into one of the tumuli, these his highest cxpectations were gratified. In the they uncovered three skeletons, all in a state of extreme narrative of his travels he gives an account of visits decay, which, according to the cura, were those of a man, made to forty-four ruined cities, many of them con- woman, and child. At the heads of the skeletons were taining extensive remains of temples and palaces still two large vases of terra cotta, with covers of the same covered with sculptures, and frequently adorned both material. In one of these was a large collection of with paintings and hieroglyphics. Mr Stephens's work Indian ornaments—beads, stones, and two carved shells

. possesses a further value from being adorned with The other vase was filled to the top with arrow-heads, numerous engravings of these gigantic memorials of an made of obsidian, most probably the work of the ancient race--engravings from which we reduce the ancient Mexicans, in whose country volcanic regions annexed illustration exhibiting the front and back of a abound. Besides these, Mr Stephens was struck by

being shown a penknife found in the same tumulus,
and which he regarded with peculiar interest as a
memorial of the European discoverers of Yucatan,
and an evidence of the probable date of the tumulus.

Speculation and ingenuity,' says he, 'may assign
other causes ; but in my opinion the inference is
reasonable, if not irresistible, that at the time of the
conquest, and afterwards, the Indians were actually
living in and occupying those very cities on whose great
ruins we now gaze with wonder. A penknife-one of
the petty presents distributed by the Spaniards,
reached the hands of a cacique, who, far removed from
the capital, died in his native town, and was buried
with the rites and ceremonies transmitted by his fathers.'
The accounts of the Spanish conquerors describe the
Indians as opposing them with wooden swords, and the
like imperfect and primitive weapons of war. Among
them, therefore, the spear and arrow-heads of flint and
obsidian are likely to have been in use; but such in-
struments would be utterly inefficient as tools for
sculpturing the temples and palaces of Yucatan; and
we must therefore either regard the latter, like those
of Mexico, as the works of an older and superior race,
or question the inference which derives from the dis-

covery of the knife--evidence of the tumulus being w

contemporaneous with the era of the Spanish invasion.

In the course of the preceding sketch, the reader can stone idol found at Copan. In their mode of structure hardly fail to be struck with the uniform characteristics or the details of their decoration, there is nothing which which are found to belong to the human race in the suggests any resemblance to the ancient monuments of primitive stages of society. In Egypt, on the banks of any people of the old world. They appear to have been the Euxine, along the shores of the Mediterranean, and the unaided creations of national genius among the an- throughout the whole northern regions of Europe, we cient Indian races; and Mr Stephens considers—notwith- discover evidences of a primitive state of society, through standing the degradation to which the Indian natives which the races occupying these different localities have of Yucatan have been reduced under the domination of passed to higher states of civilisation. In the new world their Spanish conquerors and priests—there is no reason the same tokens of this rudimentary stage of social life to doubt that they are the descendants of the builders meet us, alike in the forest regions of the Red Indian of Uxmal and Kabah, though no tradition has survived savage, and in the southern parts of the same great to connect them with so honourable an ancestry. A continent, where the Spaniards found cities and temples very large portion of the country lying between the that gave evidence of high civilisation and considerable Bay of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico still remains progress in the useful and ornamental arts. Modern unexplored. Considerable parts of Central America, voyagers have found the natives of the South Sea and a great proportion of the southern continent, are Islands living in the state of society to which these equally unknown. Beyond the intricate forests that memorials of extinct races point. By such comparibound the known regions of Yucatan, or even within sons, therefore, archæological studies open up to us a their recesses, vaster and far more interesting ruins most interesting and instructive chapter in the history may lie buried, nor is it at all impossible that Indian of man. They disclose to us an era hitherto almost cities may still remain in the possession of their native unknown to the historian; and, enabling us to start occupants, and temples exist there where the ancient from a well-defined stage of life in the infancy of the idols of Mexico and Yucatan are still worshipped by social state, they lead us, by a satisfactory chain of races who only know of the existence of the white man evidence, to the period when complete and trustworthy by some vague and uncertain tradition, borne to them historic records render the investigations of the antiby a stray wanderer from the regions conquered by the quary and the inductions of the archæologist no longer early adventurers of Spain.

necessary for the discovery of truth.

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RHETORIC is a branch of knowledge and practice having | matter; but we can nevertheless consider, in general,
reference to spoken and written compositions, and to what things are requisite to bring out the quality.
the means of employing language so as to produce its Simplicity is twofold-simplicity of terms, and sim-
greatest possible effect on the minds of men. While plicity of structure.
the rules of grammar are intended to secure correct- Terms are simple, in opposition to abstruse, on vari-
ness and uniformity in inflecting words, and in joining ous grounds :-
together the parts of speech in sentences, according to 1. They may be the names of common and familiar
the established usages of each separate language, Rhe objects and actions, instead of such as are rare or re-
toric considers the meaning and forin of the composi- mote. 'He that doeth these sayings is like to a man
tion, and the total effect upon the persons addressed. that buildeth his house upon a rock;' in this sentence

Belles Lettres, or Polite Literature, expresses a class every one of the terms has the simplicity that attaches
of literary productions whose subjects are the principal to meanings common and familiar. Objects of a tech-
matters of human interest occurring in the world, and nical description, or such as come under the notice
which are adorned with the utmost elegance and polish of only limited classes of people, cannot enter into
of style and treatment. They correspond to what is simple composition.
universally interesting--the conversation of the most 2. The terms may relate to things that are in their
cultivated classes of society. The chief works con- nature palpable and conceivable, rather than obscure
tained under this branch of composition are the pro- or invisible. The world is partly made up of objects
ductions of the poetic art, together with prose nar- of a kind to act upon all our senses, such as the solid
rations, expositions, and criticisms, in reference to masses that support and surround us; and partly of
nature and human life; including histories, annals, subtle and impalpable agents, like electricity, or the
and biographies ; discussions of the doctrines bearing mysterious attractions and repulsions that keep up the
on human welfare; criticisms and judgments of the activity of the sensible masses. Now, all references to
characters, works, and ways of men, calling forth the the one class of things is universally intelligible, while
attendant emotions of reverence, admiration, esteem, allusions to the others are understood only by such
love or hatred, sympathy or antipathy. The greater as have received the artificial training necessary to
portion of our periodical literature comes under this grasp them. The common objects of the landscape are
head. Such productions are contrasted with works of simple in this sense: the discussions about gaseous
science; for these are supposed to inform us, once for bodies, gravity, elasticity, vitality, and the like, are
all, on some branch of nature; whereas works of lite- necessarily abstruse.
rature are intended to supply an undying appetite for 3. What are called concrete terms are, in general,
intellectual and emotional excitement,

more intelligible than the names of abstractions. А

concrete object is a thing as it exists in nature, with all The following may be regarded as the leading varie- its parts and peculiarities such as a mountain, a river, a ties of address that come within the province of Rhe- metal; while an abstraction is some property of these artoric, as above defined :

tificially conceived apart from the rest--such as height, 1. The simple forms of establishing a common under- | density, velocity, liquidity, lustre, specific gravity. Now standing between man and man; the word of com- the gross object is usually more conceivable by the mind mand, the phraseology of direction, intreaty, question, than its separate properties; hence although this abstract answer, acquiescence, refusal, co-operation, resistance, mode of viewing things is essential to the thorough concurrence, opposition, and the like.

comprehension of the world, yet for popular composi2. The communication of thought, information, ideas, tion the terms of the other class are more suitable. and sentiments, or of the more permanent products of There is, however, the greatest possible difference in intellect which are comprehended under the terms the intelligibility of abstractions : while some are within knowledge and science.

the reach of the least cultivated minds, others, such as 3. Persuasion, or the means of inducing men to act the subtlest ideas of mathematics, chemistry, and phyas we wish, not by external compulsion, but through siology, presuppose a long course of laborious studies. their own dispositions and impulses.

Height, depth, strength, whiteness, virtue, are popular 4. The productions of poetic and literary art. abstractions; polarity, infinitesimal, ellipsoidal, express

5. The giving vent or expression to individual feel notions that can never enter into popular composition. ings, for the relief or gratification of the inward states 4. Of abstractions, some are fictitious and untrue of our being

to the nature of things, being the premature efforts of 6. The modes of cultivated address employed in the men to get at the secrets of nature; while others are refined intercourse of life.

sound and valid generalisations, and are therefore Before touching in detail upon these various heads, likely to coincide better with our experience. In geit may be convenient to discriminate and discuss neral, the ill-formed abstractions will be the most dif

ficult to comprehend. The epicycle orbs of the planets THE ATTRIBUTES OF STYLE IN GENERAL,

were less conceivable than the ellipses which are their The leading attributes of style that are of a Rhetori. accurate path. The imaginary element 'phlogiston' cal kind may be set forth under the following heads; gave a far less clear and simple idea than is now posit being assumed that grammatical and idiomatic pu- sessed of the action of burning. But, on the other rity and correctness have been previously secured by hand, shallow explanations of natural phenomena may the appropriate means :

be more conceivable than the true, Descartes's whir

pools of ether rendered the account of the heavenly Simplicity.

bodies more level to the popular understanding than By Simplicity we are to understand what is easily did Newton's centripetal and centrifugal forces. comprehended, or what is level to the ordinary capacity The progress of accurate thinking necessarily leads to

It is opposed not so much to the complex as a corresponding improvement in the simple and accuto the abstruse; and implies a mode of address that rate composition. does not require severe effort, or a special training for Simplicity of structure means such an arrangement of its comprehension. The possibility of being simple in terms in clauses, and of clauses in sentences, as renders this sense will of course depend much upon the subject the meaning comprehensible without severe attention No. 94.


of men.




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or special study. When the clauses succeed one an- | be surpassed, it is a sustained peculiarity in the writings
other in the exact order in which the ideas can be best of the author of 'Paradise Lost.' English literature
apprehended; when what is necessary to complete a abounds with energetic compositions: the well-known
meaning is not too long delayed, nor interrupted by names of Barrow, Bacon, Dryden, Pope, will present
other distracting meanings; when only a moderate num- themselves to most readers.
ber of particulars is required to make up one complete Liveliness, vivacity, animation, express a mode of
statement; and when no circumstances are present to strength or energy, and depend in the very same man-
produce complexity, distortion, confusion, or overload- ner upon the choice and arrangement of terms.
ing—the structure is likely to be simple. The diffi- The most difficult variety of style under this head
culty of attaining simplicity of structure arises from is what is called soaring or taking a flight, which must
the nature of the subject : the stream of composition be carefully managed, so as to avoid a break, a fall, or,
can consist of only one thread, whereas it may be de- technically-a balhos. Our greatest poets and prosé
sirable to parrate a complex tissue of events, or to writers have furnished successful instances of this qua-
represent a number of things all happening at once, as lity: it is also a frequent accompaniment of the higher
in historical composition. In such cases the skill and kinds of oratory.
art of the writer are shown by his being able to em- The following passage from Dr Chalmers, on the past
body his matter in a series of clauses and sentences eternity, is a good illustration of a lofty flight power-
where the particulars are arranged without perplexity. fully sustained :-
Short sentences are necessarily simple; long sentences One might figure a futurity that never ceases to
may be either simple or not. Some writers, such as Ad-flow, and which has no termination; but who can climb
dison, Bolingbroke, Johnson, Hall, who use long sen- his ascending way among the obscurities of that infinite
tences, construct them nevertheless with great simplicity which is behind him? Who can travel in thought
of arrangement; others, of whom Milton is the most along the track of generations gone by, till he has over.
remarkable example, delight in a highly-involved and taken the eternity which lies in that direction! Who
complex kind of composition.

can look across the millions of ages which have elapsed,
and from an ulterior post of observation look again to

another and another succession of centuries; and at
This attribute is opposed to indistinctness, faintness each farther extremity in this series of retrospects,
of meaning, vagueness, ambiguity, uncertainty. It stretch backward his regards on an antiquity as remote
implies that the forms and images presented to the and indefinite as ever? Could we by any number of
view shall be sharp, clear, and unmistakeable. It is a successive strides over these mighty intervals, at length
merit that cannot belong to the style, if not first pos- reach the fountain-head of duration, our spirits might
sessed by the thought; but it is possible that the clear be at rest. But to think of duration as having no
thoughts of one man may not be clearly conveyed to fountain-head; to think of time with no beginning; to
another man. As already observed on simplicity, uplift the imagination along the heights of an an-
clearness depends partly on the terms and partly on tiquity which has positively no summit; to soar these
the structure. Not only must terms be used that ex- upward steeps till, dizzied by the altitude, we can
press well-ascertained and certain ideas, but they must keep no longer on the wing ; for the mind to make
be so joined that the result shall indicate only one these repeated flights from one pinnacle to another,
meaning. Since many words have more than one and instead of scaling the mysterious elevation, to lie
sense, it belongs to the composition to join them to. baffled at its foot, or lose itself among the far, the
gether, so that every interpretation shall be excluded long-withdrawing recesses of that primeval distance,
except the one intended. To effect this, in treating which at length merges away into a fathomless un-
difficult subjects, is nearly the hardest task that occurs known; this is an exercise utterly discomfiting to the
in composition. In poetry, Homer and Dante are re- puny faculties of man.'
markable for the surpassing clearness of their images,
In prose exposition, Hobbes is a pre-eminent example.


This term is used here in a restricted sense, to express

the quality of touching the warm feelings, affections,
Strength, vigour, and force are attributes of style, as and tenderness of humanity. It involves the use of
well as of every other form of human activity. phrases to suggest genial and homefelt attachments

This quality must mainly depend upon making choice and associations-family, country, friends, and all the of such terms as by their sounds, or by the images force of sentiment that is wound up in the sociability associated with them, echo the powerful objects and of our nature. There are a certain number of the actions of nature or of human life. The effect of em- relationships of life founded upon natural tenderness, ploying, as illustrations, the mighty agencies of the and the terms expressing them naturally come to erthunder, of the ocean, the cataract, the wild beast, cite a certain glow of this feeling when they are proand the like, is known to every one.

perly used. Child, parent, fatherland, native country, Strength is likewise produced by the use of language are all terms suggesting tender emotion; and there are strongly suggestive of the circumstance and detail of an infinity of occurrences in life that involve this class actions and events, in place of their weak generalities. of phrases; and according as they are employed with Thus, when we speak of killing or taking away life, the skill and keeping, in any kind of composition or adeffect is very feeble; but when the specific act of vio- dress, the style is said to possess feeling. The addresses lence is alluded to, as“ The men whose daggers stabbed of the pulpit usually aim at this peculiarity, which Cæsar!' a far stronger impression is conveyed. serves both to gratify the hearers with warm emotion,

Apart from the choice of terms, the quality of strength and to act as a stimulus to a certain course of conduct. is brought out by peculiarities of structure and arrange- The closing words of the twenty-third Psalm are sin, ment. The placing of the forcible word of a sentence gularly replete with feeling: Surely goodness and in the position of natural emphasis adds to the effect- mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and I as. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. The figure of in- shall dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.' terrogation has also a striking effect— Breathes there

It necessarily happens that the native terms of the a man?' and so forth.

English language, which were formed and fashioned by In general, brevity is a feature of strength; it is the native English heart, are more impressive than the hardly possible, by a diffuse verbosity, to give an ener- phraseology of foreign natures and remote climates, getic impression, whatever other beauties may be em- such as the Latin, Greek, and French portion of our bodied upon that kind of style.

language. But the cultivation of our schools and col. Milton is perhaps the greatest example of the quality leges has made foreign idioms, and the associations and of strength that the English language presents; for history of ancient and distant nations, as full of ten. although Shakspeare produces strokes that could hardlyderness and warmth to the educated classes as any of

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