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SPECULATION.

wish to run the risk of changing the trump, you say, When all the cards are played out, they will mako 'I give you one, and you allow him to score one to- but five tricks; and all the counters in the pool are wards his game. If your own hand be bad, you then divided between the holders of these tricks, every deal out three more cards to each, and turn up another other person being looed, and obliged to pay five trump, which supersedes the former. The adversary counters to the pool for next deal. may propose to take the chance of dealing three more cards to each, but this can be refused by the dealer,

DANCING. without any forfeiture.

The cards are then played, the elder hand leading, Dancing, as one of the most healthful and elegant and the party taking up the tricks which he wins. You in-door amusements, cannot be too highly recommended. must either follow suite or trump, if you can.

Among a rude or dissolute people, it may degenerate Ten points make the game, and they are produced by into something worthy of condemnation ; but all the high, which is the highest trump dealt ; low, or the blessings of Providence are similarly liable to abuse, lowest trump dealt; jack, or knave of trumps ; and and it would be most unjust to condemn a cheerful game, the number of pips on the counting cards. The domestic amusement, merely because it has at times counting cards are as follows :-ace, four; king, three; been degraded to immoral purposes. By all physiqueen, two; knave, one; and the ten, which reckons cians, dancing, when pursued in moderation, is recomten. This counting applies to all suites. If the jack mended as highly conducive to health; and it may be be in your hand, secure it as quickly as possible; as, truly said that, allied with music, nothing is more cal. for instance, do not lose an opportunity of trumping culated to purge the mind of melancholy, and put the with it; for if it fall into the adversary's hand, he whole temper into good-humour. reckons it to his game.

Dancing is the poetry of motion. It must be perShould the card turned up be a knave, the dealer formed with ease and grace, and always with a perfect scores one point to his game. Knave of trumps in hand regard for propriety of movement. As an art, it is does not reckon, unless you make a trick with it; for taught by professed masters; and one of the leading if your adversary takes it with the ace, king, or queen, rules given to the learner is to raise and lower himself he scores it.

gracefully on the elastic part of his feet—that is, the toes; never to leap or come down on the whole sole or

heels; also to keep exact time to the music. Dancing This is a round game at cards, the term round mean is therefore a simple and elegant gliding on the toes, ing that it can be played by a large party round a table. these bending more or less to accommodate the steps, The number most suitable is from seven to thirteen. and to prevent everything like harshness of motion.

The principle of the game is this : A pool is formed The body should not be held stiffly, and the hands by the dealer putting two counters, and every other ought to hang down easily by the sides. player putting one counter, into a dish or treasury in Dancing takes the form of several distinct kinds or the middle of the table; and this store is paid to the series of movements, some quick and some slow, and person who holds the highest trump. Thus it is the some more complex than others. The most popular of object of every person to get the highest trump, and the old-established dances are termed the effort to do so is the speculation. After being duly shuffled and cut, and the dealer

Country Dances. determined, he deals three cards to each person, one at This class of dances takes its name from the French a time. These cards must be placed before each per- word contre (against), from being danced by two parties son, and no one is allowed to look at them until after standing in a row opposite or against each other. The the trump is turned. Having finished the deal, the general principle is for each couple in succession to go next card determines the trump; this card may be sold down the middle of the rows and up again, with some either before or after being seen. When this specula- other movements, till all have danced down and into tion is concluded, by some person purchasing it with their original places. It is a rule for the top couple to counters, or the dealer retaining it, if he thinks proper, dance down twice, thus leaving the couple that was the the eldest hand turns his uppermost card, and if this second to be at the top. This finishes the dance. If the be a superior trump to the one turned, he may also party wish to dance another dance, the second couple, speculate. Each player does the same, till all the cards now at the top, begins, and so on. Thus each couple in have been exposed, when the pool is given to the pos- the party has the opportunity of choosing any partisessor of the highest trump.

cular dance or tune they may wish. The choice is left to the lady. In general, a party in a country dance do

not remain up for more than two dances, when the Loo is a game played by five or six people; and a pool partners are changed, and new dances begin. is made by the dealer putting in five counters. He then A country dance should not consist of more than deals five cards to each person, and turns up a trump. twelve or fourteen couples, as it is fatiguing to dance Whatever suite the trump may be, the knave of clubs, with a greater number. In standing up, the lady called pam, forms the chief. Those who are dissatisfied should always be on the gentleman's right hand, if with their hands can throw up their cards, and demand they turn their faces to the top of the room.

This is a fresh ones from the pack.

simple rule to determine on which side the ladies and When the ace of trumps is played, it is usual to say, gentlemen should respectively take their places. • Pam, be civil;' the holder of pam is then expected to The principal figures in country dances are, let the ace pass.

1. Hands across; that is, the top lady takes the When any person holds a flush of trumps with pam, second gentleman by the right hand, and the top genthis individual can sweep the pool before playing. Then tleman, at the same time, takes the second lady by the there is a new deal.

right hand, and all go a half-circle round; then all The next best hand to the above is trumps only, and change hands and back again. this sweeps the pool, if there be not a pam flush; and 2. Hands four round ; the two top couples join hands, there is also a new deal.

forming a circle; dance half round and back again. The next best hand is that of a flush of other suites, 3. Right and Lefl.-In this the top lady gives her which sweeps the pool; and there is also a new deal. right hand to her partner, changing places with him;

When any of these fushes occur, each person, ex- then her left hand to the person below her, changing cepting those who hold inferior flushes or pain, is looed, places; her partner performs a similar movement, and and has to pay five counters into the pool.

both return to their places. When none of these flushes occur, and those who 4. Set and change Šides.-The lady takes hold of both wished have changed their cards, the game goes on as hands of the lady below her, and sets that is, dances at whist, the highest card taking the trick.

for a short time without changing her situation; then

LOO.

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both ladies pays to the gentlemen's side, while the gen- | the dance begins, the plan is for each person to perform tlemen pass at their backs to the ladies' side; all again the figure of eight by winding round the others, and set, and return to their places.

setting to partners alternately. The music of course 5. Pousette. This signifies that the two top couples guides the time for the setting and the moving. respectively join hands, each couple dancing round the Highlanders dance reels with great agility, and are other.

fond of introducing the steps ordinarily called the 6. Down the Middle. The top couple go down hand Highland Fling, which is of the character of dancing on in hand and return, stopping one couple lower than each foot alternately, and flinging the other in front and they commenced.

behind the leg which is dancing. 7. Casting off' is the lady going down behind the ladies, and the gentleman behind the gentlemen, and

Quadrilles. returning to their places.

These are modern dances of French origin, comparaThere are English, Irish, and Scotch country dances; tively tranquil in character, and very suitable for small but we know of no distinction among them except the domestic parties. They are danced by four couples, tunes. All vary less or more in their figures. In each, or eight persons, a couple standing on each side of a however, as already observed, the plan is followed of square. The lady is always on the gentleman's right. the first or top couple dancing with each following There are many sets of quadrilles, the figures in each couple in succession to the bottom of the room; and varying from the others; but in by far the greater as soon as a sufficient number of couples are disengaged number of instances one set is adhered to, which is at top, another couple commences, and so on through termed Payne's first set. This set, of which we present the whole party. The following is an outline of the an outline, consists of four figures, and a finale. The figures in a few of the more popular country dances. couples at top and bottom first perform a figure; then It will be understood that we always refer to what each it is performed by the others; and so on. couple does in succession :

La Pantalon.-First right and left, set and turn Voulez vous Dancer, Mademoiselle.-Set and change partners; ladies' chain, which is performed by the two sides, down the middle, up again, and pousette. ladies giving their right hands to each other, and

John of Paris.—Right and left, down the middle, up changing places; then their left hands to the gentleagain, and pousette.

men, and turn round; and the same back again to Captain Fleming.--Hands across, down the middle, places. Now promenade (each couple holding hands up again, and hands four round.

crossed) to the opposite side; then half right and left The Honeymoon.-Hands three round on the ladies' back to places. side, then on the gentlemen's side, down the middle, up L'Ete. The first lady and opposite gentleman adagain, pousette, right and left.

vance and retire, dance to the right, then to the left, The Triumph.--Down the middle and up again; cross over, lady and gentleman changing places. Dance then the lady down with the next gentleman; her to the right and lett, cross again to their own places, partner follows: the two gentlemen now lead the lady and turn their partners. The second lady and first up between them, taking hold of her hands by one gentleman do the same. hand, and joining their other hands over her head; La Poule.—The first lady and opposite gentleman pousette.

cross over, giving their right hands; back again, giving Petronella.–First couple move to the right into the their left and then right to their partners, and set, middle, and set; to the right again, and set at the forming a line ; promenade to opposite places. The side; to the right again, and set in the middle; to the two who began advance and retire; advance a second right again to places; down the middle, up again, and time; the lady curtsies and the gentleman bows, and pousette.

return The two couples advance and retire; half Caper Fey.—Top couple go down backs and up again; right and left to their original places. down the middle and up again; set, and turn corners, La Trenise.-Ladies' chain; set and turn partners; and reel on the sides.

first couple advance and retire; advance again ; the The Legacy.-Hands three round on the ladies' side; gentleman returns, leaving the lady on the left of the then on the gentlemen's side; down the middle and up opposite gentleman; the two ladies pass or cross to the again; set in the middle, and turn with both hands. opposite side, changing to opposite corners, during which

Sir Roger de Coverley, or the Haymakers.—Top lady the gentleman passes between them, and sets. The and the bottom gentleman advance to the centre of the ladies cross over again, and pass to opposite corners, dance, turn with both hands, and back to their places; while the gentleman returns to his place, and sets. The the first gentleman and bottom lady do the same; the first couple set and turn. During these performances, top lady and bottom gentleman again advance, turn the gentleman at the bottom of the dance stands still

. with the right hand, and back to places; then the top The movement being finished, a similar figure is pergentleman and bottom lady do the same; top lady and formed by himself and partner. bottom gentleman advance and turn with left hand, and La Finale.--All eight dance or chassé across, changback to places; the top gentleman and bottom lady do ing places with their partners, and set at the corners; the same. The top lady and bottom gentleman advance, back again to places, and set. After this, L'Ete is the gentleman bows and the lady curtsies; the top gentle- danced, concluding with chassé across. man and bottom lady do the same. The top lady and This finale is danced in another way. All eight bottom gentleman advance, and pass back to back; top promenade round the room to their own places. The gentleman and bottom lady do the same. The top couple first and second couple advance and retire; advance turn, the lady to the right and the gentleman to the left; again, the gentlemen taking the opposite ladies, or exall the ladies following the lady, and all the gentlemen changing partners. Ladies chain; advance and retire; following the gentleman to the bottom of the room, advance again, reclaiming partners, and promenade. where they meet their partners and lead up the centre. This is called the gallopade finale. of the room. The top couple then half pousette with The preceding embraces nearly all dances usually each couple, till they reach the bottom of the dance. performed in private parties and balls of an ordinary

kind. In the higher class of assemblies, various foreign Scotch Reels.

dances are introduced, such as waltzes, mazourkas, pas These are rapid and rather fatiguing, but not un seuls, minuets, and gallopades; but of these it is ungraceful dances. They are danced by three, four, five, necessary to offer any description, as they require careor six persons ; but four is best, and most common ful training under a master. Latterly, a new dance, The foursome reel is danced very much according to called the Polka, has been introduced; it appears to be fancy; the two couples commencing by placing them- a combination of a waltz and an Irish jig, and we selves opposite each other, or in a line, with the two should think will never become popular, however ladies in the middle, back to back. In whichever way fashionable it may be considered.

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ARCHEOLOGY.

The term Archeology, though sufficiently definite from the narrow views which induced them to investiand comprehensive in its original meaning, was con- gate with untiring zeal the natural history of a mamfined, until a comparatively recent period, to the study moth or a plesiosaurus, and yet allowed them to despise of Greek and Roman art. The word, however, literally the equally accessible evidence from whence we may signifies the description of ancient things, and it has recover the history of our own race. While, however, now been universally adopted in its largest sense to the rude burial mounds, or the chance revelations of give name to the science which deduces history from the later alluvial deposits, disclose to us traces of unthe relics of the past.

civilised tribes to whom we must assign a very remote The recent adoption of this term to characterise the date, the speculations of the archæologist, as well as pursuits of the antiquary marks a new era in the study the earliest investigations of the historian, into the of antiquities, in which it has been reduced to an in- records of nations, find their first unquestionable data telligible and comprehensive system based on philoso- among the monuments of Egyptian civilisation. phic induction. By this it has been at the same time elevated to its proper rank as a science, and rendered

EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES. generally acceptable as a popular branch of study. The ancient monuments of Egypt arrest attention Archæology, however, is no newly-discovered science. It and impress the mind no less by their intrinsic excelhas its origin in the natural cravings of the human mind lence as the creations of human genius, than by the to master the secrets of the inysterious past, no less remote antiquity with which they are associated. We than of the mysterious future: it forms an essential dwell with interest on British monuments of the twelfth branch of the historian's studies : it enters largely and thirteenth centuries, and look beyond that date as into the inquiries of the ethnologist, or investigator of into a remote and comparatively unknown era, the the various races of the human family; and into those memorials of which are mostly crumbled into dust. of the philologist, or analyser of their numerous lan- But on turning to the pyramids, temples, and tombs of guages. We accordingly find evident traces of an Egypt, we look upon the monuments of a people whose archæological spirit in the literature of every civilised civilisation is anterior to the eldest-written records, and nation; and generally it exhibits the strongest symp- whose edifices preserve to us memorials contemporary toms of development during periods most marked by with the patriarchal age, when the fathers of the Herapid progress in the arts of civilisation. It manifested brew monarchy dwelt in tents, or groaned under the itself at the revival of letters in the sixteenth century, hard bondage of Egyptian taskmasters. by a return to classic inodels. Its present tendency It may naturally excite surprise that the remotest throughout Europe seems to be, if not to a total aban- evidences of civilisation should be discovered on the donment of these models, at least to a preference for African continent. All writers, however, who have ininediæval art, and a desire to carry out its ideas to a vestigated the subject, agree in assigning an Asiatic more perfect development.

origin to the ancient Egyptians. Their features, their The history of archæology bears a very near resem- language, and many of their peculiarities, clearly point blance to that of its elder sister-science, geology, to to this. The formation of the skulls of mummies found which, indeed, it has in many respects a close analogy in the catacombs no less distinctly exhibit the characThey are like two successive series of links in the same teristics of the Caucasian variety, which so remarkably chain of reasoning, the earliest data of the archæologist contrasts with all the cranial developments of the true being found exactly where those of the geologist end- African race. We are left to conjecture in assigning in the debateable land of the later alluvial formations. that remote period during the infancy of nations, when An intelligent geologist, in describing a recent visit to the first Asiatic colony settled on the banks of the the Newcastle Museum, thus clearly recognises the Nile. It suffices, however, for our present purpose to labours of the archæologist as applying to the human know that, from the ascertained dates of its early era the same inductive speculations which his own history, there can be no doubt Egypt was one of the science treats of in relation to a still earlier state of first countries brought under a fixed social and political things:-* As I passed in the geological apartment from system, and where an associated community successthe older Silurian to the newer Tertiary, and then on fully pursued the arts of civilisation. from the newer Tertiary to the votive tablets, sacrificial The date assigued as the epoch of Menes, or Men, altars, and sepulchral memorials of the Anglo-Roman the earliest Egyptian ruler of whom any trustworthy gallery, I could not help regarding them as all belong- notice has descended to modern times, is about 2000 ing to one department. The antiquities piece on in years B.C.; an era nearly corresponding with the time natural sequence to the geology; and it seems but fixed by Biblical chronologists for the foundation of rational to indulge in the same sort of reasonings re- the kingdom of Assyria by Nimrod, and with the comgarding them. They are the fossils of an extinct order monly-received commencement of the historic chronoof things newer than the Tertiary: of an extinct race-logy of the Chinese empire. With the solitary excepof an extinct religion-of a state of society and a class tion of the very slight notices recorded in the first of enterprises which the world saw once, but which it eleven chapters of the book of Genesis, all attempts to will never see again. And with but little assistance retrace the records of our race beyond this period have from the direct testimony of history, one has to grope hitherto been based on mere conjecture, unsupported one's way along this comparatively modern formation, by evidence, although, according to the received chronoguided chiefly, as in the more ancient deposits, by the logy of Biblical critics, a period of fully 2000 years inclue of circunıstantial evidence.'

tervenes between the era of Menes, the founder of the Such is the rank among the inductive sciences which Egyptian monarchy, and the origin of the human race. is at length being justly conceded to the pursuits of Between these two important dates, however, we learn the archæologist. Like the geologist, he deals with re- from the Sacred Writings of the destruction of the cords of a period prior to written annals, and traces out ancient world by the Deluge, and the recommencement the history of ages heretofore believed to be irrecover of the human race from one family, according to the able. He deals, it is true, with a recent period, when accepted chronology, 2348 years B.C.; and about a cencontrasted with geological eras: but from this he de- tury later, of the dispersion of the builders of Babel on rives the strongest claim to general interest in his pur- the plain of Shinar, and the subdivision of the human suits. Intelligent thinkers are shaking themselves free family into distinct and rival communities. Within No. 93.

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less than two centuries and a half after this latter historian was informed that its founder was interred in
event the history of Egypt commences, as a community a vault beneath the bottom of the pyramid. Some in-
possessed of political institutions and social arts. telligible idea of this vast structure will be conveyou

The researches of modern archæologists have done by describing its base as occupying an area almost
much to free the early history of Egypt from the fables exactly corresponding to that of Lincoln's-Inn Fields,
and inconsistent traditions derived chiefly from the London, measured to the houses and to the wall of
narrations of the priests, and preserved in the writings Lincoln's-Inn Garden, while its summit towers to an
of Herodotus, Manetho, and others. These placed the altitude of 119 feet above the Cross of St Paul's. “The
era of Menes several thousand years farther back, and oldest monuments of Egypt,' says Wilkinson, and
furnished a list of intervening kings and dynasties probably of the world, are the pyramids to the north
whose history bears the usual mythic characteristics of of Memphis; but the absence of hieroglyphics and of
the traditions of infant nations. Modern research has every trace of sculpture, precludes the possibility of
corrected rather than rejected these historic traditions. ascertaining the exact period of their erection, or the
It is now thought probable that several, if not the names of their founders. From all that can be col.
whole, of Manetho's dynasties, which seemed to give lected on this head, it appears that Suphis and his
countenance to the remote era assigned by the priests brother Sensuphis erected them about the year 2120
to the reign of Menes, were not successive, but contem- B.C.' The probable uses for which these vast structures
poraneous, the Valley of the Nile having then been were designed have been the subject of much discus-
divided into various independent kingdoms. By the sion, and repeated attempts have been made to prove
labours of Champollion, Wilkinson, and other modern their construction for astronomical purposes. The fact,
students of Egyptian archæology, aided by recent for- however, of their being found only to contain sarco-
tunate discoveries, hereafter referred to, something like phagi and their mouldering contents, with the collec-
a satisfactory chronological series of the kings of Egypt tion alongside of the largest pyramids, of many of
from the time of Menes has been made out. The small dimensions, and the whole grouping along with
study, however, is still in its infancy. It dates its catacombs, notoriously constructed as places of sepul-
commencement within the present century; and its ture, seem to point them out as the tombs of royal
progress has not been accelerated by the excessive zeal founders. This is still further confirmed by the great
of M. Champollion, the professor of Egyptian anti- care with which the passages to the sepulchral cham-
quities in the College of France, who, either from a bers have invariably been found closed up and con-
too sanguine fancy, or from even less creditable causes, cealed, so that even now the majority of them appear
announced the discovery of more than any one else has never to have been entered. (See vignette to No. 56.)
been able to substantiate from the data on which his There are numerous pyramids of various sizes in
disclosures are founded. (See No. 55.)

Nubia. The Temple of Belus (the Birs Nimroud of
The characteristics of the great Valley of the Nile at the Arabs) and the Mujelibè at Babylon, were both
once account for its early occupation by the human pyramidal buildings of large dimensions, chiefly con-
race, and its becoming the seat of one of the first structed of brick, and of which there are still very
kingdoms which grew out of the natural tendency of extensive remains. India, in like manner, furnishes
man towards social union. The Valley of the Nile in- examples of pyramidal buildings still standing in the
cludes, along with the Delta, an area of about 17,000 neighbourhood of Benares. But next to the Great
square miles of cultivable land. The climate during Pyramid of Jizeh, those of Mexico are most calculated
the greater part of the year is salubrious. The annual to excite attention. Like those of Babylon, the Mexi-
overflowing of the Nile reduces agricultural operations can pyramids are chiefly constructed of bricks. The
to little more than the sowing of the seed in spring, Great Pyramid of Cholula in Mexico covers an area
and the reaping of the abundant harvest which it yields more than three times the base of the Great Pyramid
in an early autumn. While the country is so isolated of Jizeh; but it is built in the usual form of the Mexi-
as to be protected by natural barriers from the ready can pyramids, consisting of four receding platforms,
encroachments of hostile armies, it is most advan- each of which is subdivided into a number of small
tageously situated for commercial intercourse with steps, and the top is left as a large open platform, so
other nations. Hence it is that, after repeated con- that the height of the whole is small when compared
quests, and under the most tyrannical and oppressive with the base. These were designed by the ancient
forms of government, Egypt has never become extinct Mexicans as pedestals for the statues of their gods.
like the great empires of Asia. With some slight | When Cortez first beheld them, a colossal stone statue
amelioration of the suicidal exactions of despotic occupied the summit of each, covered with plates of
rulers, it has again and again given evidence of re- gold; but the Spaniards stripped them of their costly
newed vitality; and holding as it does the real key to coverings, and broke them in pieces. Since then, the
the commerce of the East, the indirect and partial lofty terrace of the Great Pyramid of Cholula has been
command of which was the source of all the greatness chosen as the site of a church, dedicated to the Lady
of Venice and the Italian republics of the fourteenth de los Remedios, in which mass is daily celebrated by
century, it can hardly be doubted that Egypt only a priest of the Indian race, whose ancestors practised
needs the advantages of social civilisation and free there the rites of their idolatrous worship, and sacri-
institutions, to resumo her ancient place among the ficed human victims on the altars of their gods.
empires of the world.

Architecture.
Pyramids.

Previous to the present century, the Pyramids almost
The Pyramids of Egypt, which have attracted the invariably attracted the greatest share of attention
curious traveller for ages, are already so familiar by from those who treated of Egyptian antiquities. The
numerous descriptions and views, that it is hardly vast and imposing masses of architecture which still
necessary, in an epitome like this, to do more than remain the chief monuments of Egyptian art, can
name them, and refer to their gigantic proportions. hardly be said to have received any notice deserving
The two largest of the pyramids of Jizeh are the most the name of study till the close of last century, when a
stupendous masses of building that human labour has conquering invader from the “far west’ led the Gothic
ever accomplished. According to the information com. races of Europe for the first time to the possession of
municated to Herodotus by the priests of Memphis, the ancient cradle - land of civilisation, and incited
the largest of these was built by Cheops, whom Wilkin- them to victory by the traditional fame of twenty cen-
son conceives to have been the Suphis of Manetho. turies. Since the French invasion, some of the ablest
Like too many of the evidences of human power and scholars of Europe have devoted themselves assiduously
skill, the Great Pyramid remains a monument of to the study of Egyptian antiquities; and architects
tyranny and oppression : 100,000 men were employed have striven to reduce the style of its ancient builders
during twenty years in its construction; and the great to a system. By such means, the genius of this won.

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derful people has only become more fully apparent. | mysteries of the priesthood, which was either purLittle more had been previously known of Egyptian posely concealed, or had already been lost, when the architecture, except what could be learned from imper- Romans established themselves in Egypt. Since then, fect ideas of the dimensions of the Pyramids, and some though ponderous folios had been written on the subgeneral notion of the enormous masses and colossalject, some of them professing to explain the whole grandeur of the temples and monolithic monuments. mystery, nothing was really known of hieroglyphic They were generally esteemed solely as the rude evi- writing till the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon-if we dences of barbaric pomp and power. More careful except the explanation of the Tau, or handled cross, study has not diminished the wonder with which we the symbol of life, the traditional interpretation of regard the gigantic edifices of Thebes or Denderah, and which had strangely survived the oblivion of all else. the vastness and solidity of their materials and mode In digging the foundations of Fort St Julian, near of construction, which seem to bid defiance to time. Rosetta, at one of the mouths of the Nile, the French But in addition to these, Egyptian architecture is now discovered an inscribed block of black basalt, which, known to be characterised by great elegance in the along with the other antiquities secured by the army combinations of its forms; and while in its general of Napoleon in Egypt, was brought home to England, features it betrays the probable suggestive source of and is now familiarly known as the Rosetta Stone. the Doric temples of Greece, it equally claims com- This valuable relic, which forms one of the most inparison with the Gothic styles of mediæval Europe, in teresting features of the Egyptian collection in the the endless variety of its details, and in what may be British Museum, contains an inscription in three styled the systematic lawlessness of its proportions. distinct characters—the Hieroglyphic, or sacred; the The details of Greek and Roman architecture are re- Enchorial, or common Egyptian; and the Greek. From ducible to well-defined relative proportions, and their the terms of the latter, became immediately appastyles admit of variations only by the changing com- rent that the three inscriptions were versions of the binations of a few fixed elements. The architects of same decree, in the several characters; and this was Egypt, on the contrary, like those of Gothic Europe, further confirmed by observing that the hieroglyphic created a style wherein powerful and legitimate archi- inscription ended with the numerals I. II. and III., tectural effects were produced, without its being pos- where the Greek has • The first and the second .... sible to reduce their plastic elements to any kind of the remainder being broken away. A key seemed to system based on the forms or proportions of any class be at length found to the long-hidden mysteries of of features. [For illustrations of Egyptian Architecture, Egyptian hieroglyphics, which had mocked the curious see No. 28, Vol. I.]

gaze of ages with the vain offer of unrevealed secrets. One or two attempts have been made to introduce An accurate fac-simile of the three inscriptions was the Egyptian style of architecture into this country, engraved, and extensively circulated by the Society but they have resulted, as was to be anticipated, in of Antiquaries. The Greek text was translated and utter failures. The vast temples of the Pharaohs, discussed by Porson and Heyne, the most eminent constructed for the worship of ancient Egypt, and among the Greek scholars of Germany and England. adapted to the climate and local peculiarities of the But there explanation paused; and it seemed as if, country of their birth, become ridiculous caricatures after all the high anticipations excited by this diswhen reproduced in brick and plaster in the busy covery, it was to prove altogether fruitless. The causes thoroughfares of London. The introduction, more of this are easily explained. Unfortunately, a conover, of large windows, separate floors, and even shop siderable part of the hieroglyphic inscription was fronts, with the attendant requisites of modern social entirely wanting. The beginning of the enchorial and habits, make sad havoc with the principles of genuine the conclusion of the Greek inscriptions were in like Egyptian architecture, so that any one who derives his manner defaced; so that precise points of coincidence ideas of it from the Egyptian Hall, jammed into the were wanting from whence to set out in deciphering row of brick tenements and smoky chimneys of Pica- the unknown by the known characters. Dr Thomas dilly, will arrive at very unsatisfactory conclusions. Young was the first to master any of the unknown The style has been revived with better success in the hieroglyphics. With great sagacity, he noted the recatacombs of some of our great public cemeteries. But currence of certain words, such as Alexander, Ptolemy, after all, its true use and value is as the record of a &c.; and in corresponding parts both of the enchorial race, a faith, and a state of religion, extinct beyond and hieroglyphic inscriptions, he soon detected correthe possibility of revival ages ago. The most enthu- sponding groups of characters, and established the siastic antiquary can look with little satisfaction on important fact, that these proper names are distinthe imperfect adaptation of the obsolete symbols of a guished by the enclosing oval or royal cartouche, of forgotten creed to give expression to the sublime anti- such frequent occurrence on all Egyptian monuments. cipations of the Christian faith.

This discovery, however, sufficed to prove that the

Greek is not a literal translation of
Hieroglyphics.

the Egyptian. The names do not inBy far the most interesting branch of Egyptian anti-variably recur in corresponding places quities is the hieroglyphics, which a chance discovery of the several inscriptions, synonymes of modern times has done more to elucidate than all or pronouns being substituted for them; the unaided labours of the archæologist could ever so that the Greek cannot be assumed have effected. From the earliest times, these myste- as expressing more than the general rious symbols have excited an interest fully equal to meaning of the other inscriptions. This their value as historic records. The Greeks and Ro- of course greatly detracts from the asmans, partly from national pride, but still more per- sumed value of the Rosetta Stone as a haps from a want of that philological talent peculiar key to the hieroglyphics; and though to modern times, appear to have paid little attention it has now been familiar to the scholars to the languages of the barbarians with whom they of Europe for nearly half a century, were brought in contact. They made up, however, a complete translation of its symbols for their ignorance of Egyptian records by the most still remains a desideratum. comprehensive assertions, on the faith of which it has example of hieroglyphic writing, there been believed, almost to our own day, that Egypt was is here given a representation of an the parent of all the arts and sciences; that the hiero- inscription from the obelisk of Philæ. glyphic inscriptions on the public monuments contain The symbols enclosed within the ellip

EM a summary of the most important mysteries of nature, tical ring or cartouche signify the word and the rudiments of all the knowledge we derive from Cleopatra'—there being a phonetic character correclassic literature. The interpretation of the hierogly, sponding to every letter in the Greek name, together phics formed, it was believed, one of the most sacred with the symbols (a small semicircle and oval) of the

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