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metropolis; the affair being got up by the then noto- in some parts of the country, but keenly played in
bladder, tightly covered with dressed leather, and
sewed up in a strong and secure way, so as to retain
its full elasticity. This ball is thrown aloft in the air
in a similar manner; two or more
of quoits at the other [the quoit
being delivered from the hand by
shoes used to be employed as quoits; and in some parts
of Scotland the quoits consist of round flat stones, Foot-ball is an old Euglish sport, now little known games with which are called the “penny-stanes.'
Chess Men and Board. It has been justly observed, that among all the in-door There are two sets of pieces, of different colours; the amusements invented by man for the employment of one usually white, and the other red. A set consists of the idle or the relief of the studious, chess stands pre- sixteen pieces, so that the entire number with which eminent. It is the most refined and ingenious of all the game is played is thirty-two pieces. A set includes games, and possesses a charm which has rendered it one king, one queen, two bishops, two knights, two a favourite of the greatest characters, whether kings, rooks or castles, and eight pawns. Two parties play, warriors, or philosophers. As an amusement, it pos- each having a set of a different colour. sesses an advantage as great as it is singular; being highly interesting in itself, and played with leisure, it requires no inducement of gain, and in consequence is 1
10 E 12
16 writers have ascribed its invention to the Greeks, some to the Hindoos, others to the Chinese, and a fourth class
32 doostan and adjacent regions for at least two thousand years. From the Persians it was introduced by the
33 Arabs or Moors into Spain; thence it found its way to
KO France; and was made known in England during the reign of William the Conqueror, since which period it
48 has been constantly played.
The name of the game, and also the names of the pieces with which it is played, have undergone many
62 KM semblance of the original Eastern appellations may be
64 seen. In Hindoostan, it possesses the Sanscrit name of Chaturanga, which imports the four members of an army-elephants, horses, chariots, and foot-soldiers; The game is played on a square board, divided into the game being a scene of mimic warfare, in which sixty-four squares, chequered black and white, as rethese elements respectively act a peculiar part. The presented in the preceding figure. The numbers which Persians corrupted the Sanscrit word into chatrang, are here shown on the squares do not exist on the which the Arabians softened into shatranj; from that chess - board ; we have only marked them thus in appellation it passed into scacchi, échecs, and finally order to illustrate the subjoined explanations of the chess. By the French it is called échecs, and a chess- method of playing the game. board they term échiquier.
In beginning to play the game, the first thing is to According to the modern European arrangement, the set the board. This is done by placing it before you, idea of elephants, horses, chariots, and foot-soldiers has with a white square in the right-hand corner. As the been abandoned, and there have been substituted a players sit opposite each other at a table on which the king, queen, bishops, knights, castles or rooks, and board is placed, each has a white square on his right. pawns, forming six distinct classes of pieces. The term Next place the men in their appointed places. Let bishop is only English, being a substitution for elephant. us suppose it is the white set of men. On the white The knights represent the horse-soldiers. The term corner square marked 64 place a rook or castle, and rook is from the Eastern word rokh, a hero, and repre- on the black corner, 57, place the other rook; on the sents an armed chariot or fortification; the English give black square, 63, place a knight, and on the white the piece the form of a castle. The pawns are the foot- square, 58, place the other knight; on the white square, soldiers, the name being from peon, an attendant. 62, place a bishop, and on the black square, 59, place
The chess pieces made in India or China for sale to the other bishop; on the black square, 61, place the wealthy Europeans, are sometimes made of solid ivory, king, and on the white square, 60, place the queen. five or six inches high, and are exceedingly beautiful, This completes the first row, in which the king and no degree of labour being spared in the carving. The queen stand supported on each side by their officers. king and queen are seated on elephants, under a canopy; The second row, marked 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, the bishops are camels, with archers as their riders ; is filled entirely with the eight pawns, which thus form the knights are on horseback; the castles are elephants, a front guard to the pieces behind. with castles on their backs filled with warriors; and the The red or dark set of pieces are placed in precisely pawns are soldiers, one a sergeant, another a druminer, the same order—a castle on 1 and 8, a knight on 2 and another a fifer, and the rest are the ordinary fighting 7, a bishop on 3 and 6, the queen on 4, and the king men. In England the pieces are usually made of bone on 5. It is a rule of the game that the queen must or boxwood, with more or less taste, and from a low to be placed at first on a square of her own colour—the a high price. The following is their common form :- white queen on a white square, and the dark queen on
a dark square. The pieces and pawns on the side and front of each king and queen take their names from them; as king's bishop, king's knight; queen's bishop, queen's knight; king's pawn, &c.
When properly placed, four rows of squares are left unoccupied in the middle of the board, and this space
forms the field or ground on which the early evolutions Pawn. Rook. Knight. Bishop., Queen. King.
of the men take place. No. 92,
of safety, the game is at an end. The adversary has
in the course of a game: it consists in moving the king
one of the pieces does not guard the other; 2. By inter-
manner by his own or his adversary's pieces, that he
by lot, or concession, which shall have the first move.
laws in reference to playing :The queen is the best piece on the board.
1. If you touch your man you must play it, except it would
2. As long as you retain a hold of your man, you aro at liberty
your taking it if you can; and when you cannot, then you must
5. If you make a false move, by accident or otherwise, your
6. If your adversary challenge you with a check, while in reality
* In a battle between the French and English, in the year
1117, an English knight seizing the bridle of Louis le Gros, and
crying to his comrades, The king is taken!' the prince struck
aux échecs on ne prend pas le roi ?:-(Dost thou not know that
Lawg of Chess.
man in consequence, you may retract it if you discover the error 17. Endeavour to have a move in ambuscade ; that is, place before he has made his next move.
the queen, bishop, or rook behind pawn or a piece in such a 7. You are not to give check to your adversary's king, when, by manner as that, upon playing that pawn or piece, you discover a doing so, you would expose your own king to check.
check upon your adversary's king, and consequently may often 8. If your adversary give check, but without giving the usual get a piece or some other advantage by it. Suppose the black warning of check,' you are not obliged to notice it till ho does; king on 6, a white bishop on 41, and a pawn on 34, by moving but if he discover that he should have done so on his next move, the pawn to 26, a check by the white bishop is discovered upon and then warn you, each must retract his move, and the king bo the black king. removed out of check or protected.
18. Never guard an inferior piece or pawn with a better if you 9. After your king or rook has moved, you cannot castle. can do it with a pawn, because that better piece may in such a
10. In each fresh game the players have the first move alter- case be, as it were, out of play. nately; but if a player give the advantage of a piece that is, 19. A pawn pushed on and well supported often costs the agrees to start with one piece less than his antagonist-he who adversary a piece; but one separated from the others is seldom gives the advantage has the first move.
of any value. And whenever you have gained a pawn or other
advantage, and are not in danger of losing the move thereby, Hoyle's Rules for Chess.*
make as frequent exchanges as you can. 1. Move your pawns before your pieces, and afterwards bring 20. If each player have threo pawns upon the board, and no out the pieces to support them; therefore the king's, queen's, and piece, and you have a pawn on one side of the honrd, and the bishop's pawns should be the first played, in order to open the other two on the other side, and your adversary's three are oppogame well.
site to your two, march with your king to take his pawns; and 2. Do not therefore play out any of your pieces early in the if ho move to support them, go on to queen with your single game, because you thereby lose moves, in case your adversary pawn; and if he attempt to hinder it, take his pawns, and push can, by playing a pawn, make them retire, and he also opens his yours to queen; that is, to move a pawn into the adversary's game at the same time; especially avoid playing your queen out, back row, in order to make a queen. till your game is tolerably well opened.
21. At the latter end of the game, each party having only 3. Avoid giving useless checks, and never give any unless to three or four pawns on different sides of the board, the kings are gain some advantage, because you may lose the move if the to endeavour to gain the movo, in order to win the game; for adversary can either take or drive your piece away.
example, the white king placed on 54, and the black king on 4. Never crowd your game by having too many pieces together, 37, white would gain the move by playing to 53, or black to 38, so as to prevent your men advancing or retreating, as occasion and in both cases tho adverso king would be prevented from may require.
advancing. 5. If your game should be crowded, endeavour to free it by 22. When the adversary has no more than his king and one exchanges of pieces or pawns, and castle your king as soon as pawn on the board, and you a king only, you can never lose that convenient; afterwards bring out your picces, and attack the game if you bring and keep your king opposite to your adveradversary where weakest.
sary's, when he is immediately either before or on one side of 6. When the adversary plays out his pieces before his pawns, his pawn, and only one square between tho kings. This must, attack them as soon as you can with your pawns, by which you then, be a stale-mate or drawn game. may crowd his game, and make him lose moves.
23. Never cover a check with a piece that a pawn pushed upon 7. Never attack the adversary's king without a sufficient force; it may take, for fear of only getting that pawn for it; put a black and if he attack yours, and you cannot retaliate, offer exchanges; rook on 7, and a pawn on 40; tho white king on 63, and a knight and should he retire when you present a piece to exchange, he on 61: the white king being on a check to the rook, if the check may lose a move. It may also be sometimes expedient to act in be covered by moving the white knight to 56, the black pawn this manner, in case of other attacks.
could then be moved to 48, and take the knight. 8. Play your men in guard of one another, so that if any be 24. Do not crowd your adversary's king with your pieces, lest taken, the enemy may also be captured by that which guarded you inadvertently give a stale-mate, which is a drawn game. yours, and endeavour to have as many guards to your piece as 25. Do not be too much afruid of losing a rook for an inferior your adversary advances others upon; and, if possible, let them piece ; though a rook is better than any other except the qucen, bo of less value than thoso he assails with. When you cannot yet it seldom comes into play fo as to operate until the end of well support your piece, see if, by attacking one of his that is the game; and it is generally better to have a worse piece in play better, or as good, you may not thereby save yours.
than a superior out. 9. Never attack but when well prepared, for thereby you open 26. When you have moved a piece which your adversary drives your adversary's game, and prepare bim to pour in a strong away with a pawn, that is a bad move, your enemy gaining a attack upon you, as soon as your weaker one is over.
double advantage. At this nice game no move can be indifferent. 10. Never play till you have examined whether you are free Though the first move may not be much between equally good from danger by your adversary's last move; nor offer to attack players, yet the loss of one or two more, after the first, makes the till you have considered what harm ho would be able to do you game almost irretrievable; but if you can recover the move or by his next moves, in consequence of yours.
the attack (for they both go together), you are in a fair way of 11. When your attack is in a prosperous way, never be diverted winning. from it by taking any piece, or other seeming advantage your 27. If ever your game be such that you have scarce anything adversary may purposely throw in your way, with the intent to play, you have either brought out your piece wrong, or, what that, by your taking the bait, he might gain a move which is worse, not at all; for if you have brought them out right, you would make your design miscarry.
must have variety enough. 12. When, in pursuing a well-laid attack, you find it necessary 28. Do not be much afraid of doubling a pawn; two in a direct to force your adversary's defence with the loss of some pieces, line are not disadvantageous when surrounded by three or four if, upon counting as many moves forward as you can, you find a others; three together are strong as three white pawns on 28, prospect of success, sacrifice a piece or two to gain your end : 35, and 37); but four (as 44 in addition) that make a square with these bold attempts make the finest games.
the help of other pieces, well managed, form an invincible 13. Never let your queen stand so beforo the king as that your strength, and probably may produce you a qucen; on the conadversary, by bringing forward a rook or a bishop, might check trary, two pawns, with an interval between (as on 35 and 37), are your king if she were not there; for you could hardly save her, no better than one; and if you should have three over each other or perhaps at best must sacrifice her for an inferior piece; as, for in a line (as 26, 34, and 42), your game cannot be in a worse example, place the white king on 61, the queen on 53 ; the black situation. king on 4, and the rook on 16; which last, if moved to 13, must 29. When a piece is so attacked that it is difficult to save it, be taken by the white queen, who, in return, would be taken by give it up, and endeavour to annoy your enemy in another place; the black king, because the white queen could not otherwise be for it often happens, that whilst your adversary is pursuing a moved without putting the king on check to the black rook. piece, you either get a pawn or two, or such a situation as ends
14. Let not your adversary's knight fork your king and queen, in his destruction. or king and rook, or queen and rook, or your two rooks, at the 30. Supposing your queen and another piece are attacked at the same time; for in the two first cases, the king being forced to go same time, and by removing your qucen you must lose the piece, out of check, the queen or the rook must be lost; and in the two if you can get two pieces in exchange for her, rather do that than last, a rook must be lost, at best, for a worse piece. Place the retire, for the difference is more than the worth of a queen; bewhite queen on 5, the rook on 7, and a black knight on 37. The sides, you preserve your situation, which is often better than a latter piece, if moved to 22, will fork both the queen and rook, piece; when the attack and defence are thoroughly formed, if he and consequently one of them must be lost for the knight. who plays first be obliged to retire by the person who defends,
15. Tako care that no guarded pawn of your adversary's fork that generally ends in the loss of the gamo on the side of him two of your pieces; knights and rooks are particularly liable to who attacks. this mode of attack; also guard against either a check by disco- 31. Do not aim at exchanges without reason; a good player will very or a stale-mate.
take advantage of it to spoil your situation and mend his own; 16. When the kings have castled on different sides of the board, but when you are strongest, especially by a piece, and have not attack with the pawn you have on that side where the adversary an immediate check-mate in view, then every time you exchango has castled, advancing the pieces, especially the queen and rooks, your advantage increases. Again, when you have played a piece, to support them; and if the adversary's king have three pawns and your adversary opposes one to you, exchange directly, for he on a line in front, he should not stir them till forced to it. wants to remove you : prevent him, and do not lose the move. * Hoyle is a very old author, and his works on chess and other
32. Every now and then exainine your game, and then take
your measures accordingly. games are well known; they are now found in all forms, abridged 33. At the laiter end of the game, especially when both queens or altered to suit modern players.
are off the board, the kings are capital pieces; do not let your
king be idlo; it is by his moans generally you must get the movo , ened by it, 80 as to become habits, ready on all occaand the victory.
34. As the queen, rooks, and bishops operato at a distance, it sions; for life is a kind of chess, in which we have is not always necessary in your attack to have them near your often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to adversary's king; they do better at a distancc, as they cannot be contend with, and in which there is a rast variety of
good and ill events that are in some degree the effects 35. When there is a piece you can take, and that cannot escape, of prudence or the want of it. do not hurry; see where you can make a good move elsewhere, and take the piece at leisure.
By playing at chess, then, we may learn36. It is not always right to take your adversary's pawn with
1. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and your king, for very often it happens to be a safeguard and pro- considers the consequences that may attend an action; tection to him. Place a black rook on 5, with a pawn on 45, and for it is continually occurring to the player, “ If I move the white king on 53, and he will bo sheltered by the black pawn this piece, what will be the advantage or disadvantage from the attack of the rook,
of my new situation ?
What use can my adversary Recommendations as to some of the Forcgoing Rules. make of it to annoy me? What other moves can 1 1. Whether you play the open or close game, bring out all your make to support it, and to defend myself from his pieces into play before you begin the attack; for if you do not, attacks?' and your adversary should, you will always attack or be attacked at a great disadvantage; this is 50 essential, that you had better
2. Circumspection, which surreys the whole chessforego an advantage than deviate from it; and no person can ever board, or scene of action; the relation the sereral play well who does not strictly practise this. In order to bring pieces, and their situations; the dangers they are reout your pieces properly, push on your pawns first, and support spectively and repeatedly exposed to; the several posthem with your pieces, by which your game will not be crowded; sibilities of their aiding each other; the probabilities and all your pieces will be at liberty to play and assist each other, and so co-operate towards attaining your en 1; and either that the adversary may make this or that move, and in your attack or defenco, bring them out so as not to be driven attack this or the other piece; and what different back again.
means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its con2. When you have brought out all your pieces, which you will have done well if you have your choice on which side to castle,
sequences against him. then consider thoroughly your own and adversary's game, and
3. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. not only resolve where to castle, but likewise to attack where you This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the appear strongest and your enemy weakest. By this it is possible laws of the game, such as, “If you touch a piece, you you will be ablo to break through your adversary's game, in must move it somewhere;'* if you set it down, you must which some pieces must be exchangel. Now pause again, and let it stand.' And it is therefore best that these rules survey both games attentively, and do not let your impetuosity hurry you on too fır; at this critical juncture (especially if you should be observed, as the game thereby becomes more still find your adversary very strong) rally your men, and put the image of human life, and particularly of war; in them in good order for a second or third attack, still keeping which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad them close and connected, so as to be of use to cach other. For and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's is often snatched out of a player's hands, and a total overthrow leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more
securely, but you must abide all the consequences of 3. At the last period of the gamo, observe where your pawns are your rashness. strongest, best connected, and nearest to queen; likewise mind
And lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being how your adversary's pawns are disposed, and compare these things together; and if you can get to queen before hin, procred discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of without hesitation; if not, hurry on with your king to prevent our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, him. I speak now as supposing all the higher pieces are gone; and that of persevering in the search of resources. The if not, they are to attend your pawns, and likewise to prevent game is so full of events, there is such a variety of your adversary from going to queen.--See Hoyle, Joncs, fc.
turns in it, the fortune of it is so liable to sudden vicisTo these rules and recommendations we add the fol- situdes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, lowing advice :--Conduct your game with coolness, take discovers the means of extricating one's self from a time to consider the chances for and against in moving, supposed insurmountable difficulty, that we are encou. and do not give up the contest till all hope is gone of a raged to continue the contest to the last, in hopes of retrieral. An anecdote has been told of two gentlemen victory from our own skill, or at least of giving a staleplaying at chess, one of whom found his game so hope- mate, by the negligence of our adversary; and whio. less that he declared himself beat; when an onlooker ever considers—what in chess he often sees instances of more skill said he would undertake to win the game of-that success is apt to produce presumption and its for him by three moves, without the possibility of being consequent inattention, by which more is afterwards counteracted. The offer was accepted, and the game lost than was gained by the preceding advantage, while at once retrieved and won. As this is a particularly misfortunes produce more care and attention, by which instructive incident, we shall state the positions of the the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too pieces on the board in reference to the numbers of the much discouraged by any present success of his adversquares on the diagram :
sary, nor to despair of final good fortune upon every The black rook was at I, the black knight at 18, little check he receives in the pursuit of it. the black bishop at 20, the black king at 22, the black That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently rook at 40, black pawns at 25, 20, 30, 35, and 36, to choose this beneficial amusement in preference to and the black queen at 42. The white king was at 7, others which are not attended with the same advanthe white ruoks at 61 and 63; the white knight at 47, tages, every circumstance which may increase the and a white pawn at 38. The white has the move. The pleasure of it should be regarded; and every action or white knight at 47 gires check at 32; the black rook word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way at 40 takes it. The white rook at 63 gives check at 23; may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the black king takes it. The white rook at 61 gives the imniediate intention of all parties, which is to pass checkmate at 21. Thus the white, by a few dexterous the time agreeably. moves, completely paralyses the adversary, and wins Therefore, 1. If it is agreed to play according to the the game.
strict rules, then those rules are to be exactly observed By writing an account of mores, it is possible for by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one adversaries to carry on games at chess though at a side while deviated from by the other; for this is not great distance from each other. Thus chess clubs in equitable. London are known to carry on matches with clubs in 2. If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, Edinburgh or Paris, or even with a club in India. but one party demands indulgences, he should then be Games of this kind sometimes last for years.
as willing to allow them to the other.
3. No false move should ever be made to extricate The Morals of Chess, by Dr Franklin.
yourself out of a difficulty or to gain an advantage; The game of chess is not merely an idle amusement; for there can be no pleasure in playing with a person several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in once detected in such unfair practices. the course of human life, are to be acquired or strength- 4. If your adversary is long in playing, you ought