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GYMNASTICS-OUT-OF-DOOR RECREATIONS.

A Desire for indulging in active sports and exercises caution is necessary on this subject. The best guide has evidently been given to youth for the admirable we can have, observes Dr Andrew Combe, in his work purpose of promoting bodily health and strength, at a on Physiology, 'is to follow the footsteps of nature, period of life when mental occupation or sedentary whether it is in harmony with the mode of action asemployment would not only have been unfitting, but signed by the Creator to the parts which are to perpositively injurious. Instead, therefore, of railing at form it. If it be so, we may proceed with perfect conthe boisterous pastimes of boyhood, ridiculous as they fidence that it will not only improve the health, but may sometimes appear, we ought to view them, so long add to the freedom, elegance, precision, and strength as kept within the bounds of moderation, as consistent of our movements; whereas, if it be opposed to tlie with a great providential design in creation, and worthy obvious intention of the Creator, we may rest assured of our warmest approval and encouragement. Im- that no good can accrue from it. If, for example, we pressed with these considerations of the value of youth. examine the various attitudes and motions of the body ful recreations, particularly those carried on in the open which occur in fencing, dancing, swimming, shuttleair, we should by all means afford reasonable scope for cock playing, and some of the better class of gymnastic all the usual and harmless sports in which young per- exercises, we find that they are not less graceful and sons are pleased to indulge; we should say to parents, beneficial to the young who engage in them, than pleaslet the boy have his marbles, ball, nine-pins, and bat; ing to those by whom they are witnessed—just because and the girl her doll, skipping-rope, and hoop, besides they are in perfect harmony with nature, or, in other any other toys which would call their respective facul- words, with the structure and mode of action of the ties into harmonious exercise. But an indulgence in joints, ligaments, and muscles by which they are exephysical recreations and general amusements is not to cuted. But it is far otherwise with some of the anoterminate with the period of youth. In advanced and malous exercises which were at one time so fashionable, middle life, it is of the greatest importance to health and which are not yet extinct in schools and gymnasia, to relieve the tasked brain, to soothe and compensate and which seem to have for their chief object the conthe drudgery of our current labours, and to bring into version of future men and women into foresters, fireexercise those parts of our muscular frame and intel- men, or savages, rather than into beings who are to conlect which professional duty has left unoccupied. To tinue to have the use of stairs, ladders, carriages, steamyoung men, especially, whose frame requires regular boats, and the other conveniences of civilised life. It and bracing exercise, those out-of-door recreations is no doubt a good thing for a boy to be able to climb which afford a certain degree of amusement are indis- up a perpendicular pole or a slippery rope, when no pensable; and to them the contents of the present sheet other means present themselves of attaining an imare more particularly submitted. Our endeavour will portant object at its upper end; and it is an equally be to point out what sports may with propriety be in- good thing for a young lady to be able to sustain her dulged in, suitable to the different seasons of the own weight hanging by one or both hands, when there year, and how they may be pursued with advantage is no possibility of resting her feet on terra firma ; and to health and other circumstances.

where boys and girls are strong enough to take pleasure in such amusements, there is no great reason to

hinder them, provided they are impelled to them, not GYMNASTIC EXERCISES.

by emulation or any secondary motive which may lead Gymnastics are those exercises of the body and limbs to over-exertion, but by the pure love of the exercise which tend to invigorate and develop their powers.* itself. In all ordinary circumstances, those only who In an ordinary course of living, without due regard to are vigorously constituted will attempt them, and if rules for promoting bodily strength, the frame becomes left to themselves, will be sure to desist before any relaxed, the muscles are soft, the circulation of the harm can be done. But the case is entirely altered blood languid, the bones and joints debilitated, and the when such extraordinary evolutions are not only enstomach weakened and dainty. To avert, as far as pos- couraged, but taught to all indiscriminately, whether sible, these imperfections, gymnastics ought to form a they are strong or weak, resolute or timid. We have part of education in youth, when the joints and muscles only to reflect for a moment on the structure of the are flexible, and time is perunitted for the various kinds shoulder joint, and on the sphere of action of the of exercises. “To be largely useful to the wellbeing of muscles surrounding it, to perceive at once that the the economy,' says Dr Robertson, the exercise must not position of the one and the strain upon the other, caused be confined to any set or series of muscular movements; by the exercises alluded to, are so forced and unnabut, as far as possible, should bring into play all the tural as to exclude the possibility of the Creator having moving powers of the body. It may be said, in general intended either to be practised except upon occasions terms, that the greater the number of muscles con- of urgent necessity, and to discover how preposterous cerned in the exercise, and the more completely it it is therefore to make them a subject of general ininvolves the full contraction of each muscle, the more struction. Nay, the very violence of the effort required influential will the exercise be.'

to sustain the body when hanging by the hands, is far Precaution.-It has not been unusual of late years beyond that moderate exertion which adds to nutrition to conduct the gymnastics of schools on an improper and to strength; and in delicate subjects it may even scale, by impelling young persons of comparatively induce relaxation and stretching of the ligaments and feeble frames to undertako feats and exercises which blood-vessels, and thus, as in the case of the young men have been at variance with the bodily organisation, or at Cambridge, lay the foundation for future and fatal at least highly dangerous, and of no practical value.' A disease. The same remarks apply to a common prac

tice of making the pupils slide down an inclined plane * The terin gymnastic is from a Greek word signifying naked, resting on the hands alone, by which unnatural effort the athletæ or young persons who practised bodily exercises in the shoulders are pushed half way up the neck, and the public arena or gymnasium of ancient Greece, being, for the wrists, arins, and chest severely tried. But in these freedom of motion, nearly in a stato of nudity. The more gentle and other sijuilar evolutions, it requires only to look kind of gymnastics for females are termed calisthenics, from at the dragging and distortion which they produce, and words signifying elegant or graceful exercises.

which forin such a painful contrast to the ease and No. 91.

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Positions and Motions.

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grace of all natural motions and attitudes, to perceive / gradually; the great object is to exercise the muscles
that they are out of the order of nature, and that bit by bit, and perfection is not desirable at first.
neither health nor elegance can result from them. In | Then follow other motions-- as throwing the arms
the selection of exercises for the young, then, we horizontally out in opposite directions, swinging the
should not be misled by a vain desire of surmounting arms, stretching them to the full extent forward,
difficulties and performing feats at the serious risk of while the palms are in contact, doubling the arms
inducing aneurism or rupture, but rather endeavour up so as to make the tips of the fingers rest on the
to strengthen the body by active amusements, which shoulders, making the palms come fully in contact
shall call the social and moral feelings and intellect while the arms are thrown behind back, &c. In these,
into play at the same time, and by the practice of such it is of importance to exercise the left hand and arm
gymnastic evolutions only as tend to improve and give fully more than the right, in order to make them
tone to the natural action of the moving powers. And equally active and strong.
in endeavouring to attain this object, we should be
always careful to avoid great fatigue, and to modify

Indian Club Exercises.
the kind, degree, and duration of the exercise, so as to The pupil having advanced in simple personal exer-
produce the desired results of increased nutrition and cises, is supposed to be somewhat strengthened; and to
strength; and to remember that the point at which further the operation, he proceeds to the Indian club
these results are to be obtained, is not the same in any exercise. The main object is to expand the chest, and
two individuals, and can be discovered only by expe- increase the power of the arms. For this end some
rience and careful observation. With the precautions sedentary persons regularly exercise themselves with
suggested by these observations, the following gymnas- dumb-bells; that is, heavy pieces of metal, one being
tic exercises may be pursued :-

held in each hand. The club exercise is an improve.

ment on that of the dumbbells. The club bears a General Directions.

resemblance to the bat for cricket, and varies in weight
The exercises are best performed in an open court or from two to twelve pounds. One is used in each hand.
piece of ground, firm below, but without any stones to The following, according to Torrens, are the regula-
injure the feet or person; a grass plot is the most suit- tion-exercises now adopted in the army :-
able. The fittings are a climbing stand, vaulting bar, . The recruit being placed in the position of atten.
leaping poles, &c. The dress of the gymnast is to con- tion, with a club in each hand pointing downwards, as
sist of easy-fitting trousers, and encircled with a belt in fig. 4, must be exercised as follows :-
or girth. The belt should pass round the loins, and First Part.--1. At the word one, the
not be too tight. The performances should be in the club in the right hand is slowly carried
forenoon, or at least before any heavy meal.

round the head, until the hand arrives in
a perpendicular line above the shoulder,

with the large end of the club pointing in
The body must be drilled in the art of a diagonal direction to the rear; 2. The
standing and throwing out the limbs. In club in the left hand is raised in a similar
standing properly, the person should be manner, and carried over that in the right
erect, the head held up, and the face look- hand till it reaches a corresponding posi-
ing straightforward; the shoulders are tion ; 3. The hands are carried slowly to
to be square, with the chest fully exposed, the right and left, until they become in a
so as slightly to curve the back; the legs true horizontal line with the shoulders,
closed; the heels in a line, and closed; the the large ends of the clubs still remaining
toes turned out; the arms hanging straight to the rear; 4. The hands are brought
down; the elbows held in to the body; the slowly to the first position. Care must be taken that
hands open to the front; the little finger the recruit does not stand with a hollow back during
touching the legs; and the thumb flat to the this and the succeeding practice.

forefinger. When perfected in the art of Second Part-1. Raise both hands to the front, ap. Fig. 1.

standing in this position, which is called at- proaching them close together, in horizontal line with tention, as shown in fig. 1., the next thing is to be the shoulders, the clubs being held perpendicular, with

taught to march or walk, as in the case the large ends upwards; 2. With the body well poised
of a soldier on drill, the feet being alter- forward, separate the hands, and carry them to the
nately thrown out, and both brought to right and left line with the shoulders,
gether into position, at the order to halt. the large ends of the clubs remaining

The pupil next learns to bend the body upwards; 3. With the head well kept
and extend the arms. The first exercise up, let the clubs turn over till they
of this kind is to carry the hands to the point in a diagonal direction to the
front, the fingers lightly touching at the rear, the hands still remaining out in
points ; now raise the arms, the hands a line with the shoulders; 4. With the
still together, till they are held over the arins extended, drop them slowly to
head, as in fig. 2.

the first position.
The second motion is to learn to hold Third Part.--1. The club in the
the arms out in front, the tips of the fingers right hand is circled round upon the

touching, and returning to the position of right of the body for a few revolutions Fig. 2.

fig. l: this is to be done repeatedly. The of the circle, or until the word halt third is to extend the hands separately, and raise is given; 2. The one in the left hand is them over the respective shoulders, the used in the same manner on the left of

Fig. 5.
fingers pointing upwards. The fourth the body, until the word halt is given,
motion is to keep the arms and legs when the recruit will remain perfectly steady in the
straight, and to bend the body for- first position ; 3. With the body rather leaning for-
ward, with the head down, and the ward, circle both clubs at the same time, on the right
tips of the fingers towards the ground. and left of the body, until ordered to halt.'
This somewhat difficult motion is re-
presented in fig. 3.

Leaping-Vaulting.
A fifth motion is to resume the The simplest kind of leaping is that of jumping on
position of attention, allowing the arms level ground from one point to another, with or without

to fall freely to their place, but still a run. The run accumulates power in the person, or Fig. 3.

without bending the legs. These mo momentum, and enables a person to leap considerably, tions are trying to the pupil, and should be done farther than without such an aid. "In all kinds of

Fig. 4.

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leaping,' observes Walker in his “Manly Exercises,' | balls of the toes, or fore-part of the feet. If the fall

it is of great importance to draw in and retain the be upon the heels, the whole body is almost certain to
breath at the moment of the greatest effort, as it gives be jarred, and the legs stove. Keep the body compact
the chest more solidity to support the rest of the mem- in the descent, with the hands well forward, so that,
bers, impels the blood into the muscular parts, and in- when alighting, the person may spring lightly up from
creases their strength. The hands, also, should be a crooked or bent posture.
shut, and the arms pendent. The extent of the leap Vaulting is that kind of leaping in which the body is
in height, or horizontally, is proportioned to the power helped forward by a momentary leaning on an object
employed and the practice acquired. As it is per- by the hands. The art of vaulting may prove useful
formed with facility only in proportion to the strength in many circumstances in life, as, for instance, in getting
exerted, and the elasticity and suppleness of the arti- quickly over a pal-
culations and muscles of the lower extremities, much ing, fence, or gate, to
exercise is necessary to attain that degree of perfection elude danger. Exer-
which lessens all obstacles, and supplies the means of cises are performed
clearing them without danger. Lightness and firmness with vaulting bars,
are the qualities necessary for leaping; everything of which an illustra-
should be done to acquire these two qualifications, tion is given in fig.

for without them leaping is 7; they are of various
neither graceful nor safe.' heights, and some are
Pupils. begin by leaping shaped like a horse iphone
short distances and no great with a saddle.
height, and as they become Vaulting is

Fig. 7.

per-
expert, the feat is increased. formed with or without a run. The spring, as usual, is
To regulate the exercise, a from the toes; and resting the hands on the bar, the
leaping-stand is employed; legs are raised, and, by a jerk, pitched over to the other
it consists of two movable side. The pupil is to learn to vault in this manner,
posts, about six feet high, either towards the left or right. When perfect in the
having, above eighteen exercise, he learns to vault straight forward over the
inches from the ground, bar, between his hands, in which feat very great skill
holes bored through them, is necessary in doubling up the body and limbs dur-
at the distance of an inching the spring. The methods of vaulting on and off
from each other; a rope horse-blocks are innumerable.
stretched across from pins, Leaping with a pole is a combination of simple leap-

and held tight by sand-bags, ing and vaulting, and is also a most useful and an ele-
Fig. 6.

is the bar to be leaped over. gant accomplishment. The pole should be smooth, light, In leaping without a run, hold the legs and feet and from seven to ten feet closed, bend the knees well up, hold forward the head, long. Held in the hands, as and throw out the hands, as in fig. 6. Skill in throw- represented in fig. 8, the left ing forward the body with a jerk, thus doubled up, is hand below and the right only acquired by experience. Let great care be taken above, the pole is planted to descend with an inclination forward, and to fall on with its lower point on the the fore - part of the feet, so as to touch the ground ground, and by a spring from lightly, and by the spring or elasticity of the feet and the left foot, the body is imlimbs, to deaden the shock.

pelled through the air to the In leaping with a run, the run preceding the leap desired distance. should never exceed ten paces; the rise into the air to In performing this exertake place at a distance from the cord equal to half the cise, the pupil must learn not height of the cord from the ground. Skill should be to lean too much on the pole, attained in leaping from either foot, or from the spring and not to keep too close

Fig. 8. of both feet. It is considered a good leap when five to it. The knack of pole-leaping is, like all other feet are cleared; a first-rate one is five and a-half; and kinds, dependent on the spring of the feet, and the prean extraordinary one six feet; few, however, ever reach sence of mind in throwing the body forward lightly and more than four feet. For a man to leap his own height gracefully. The best plan is to begin with short leaps —that is, for a man of six feet to leap six feet high, or across ditches, and to increase the distance as experta man of five feet eight inches to leap five feet eightness is acquired. When the method of springing from inches high-is usually considered the perfection or a fixed situation is acquired, proceed to advanced pracultimatum of the high leap. It may be noticed, how- tice by making a run, a rapid plant of the pole, and a ever, that, all things considered, the man of medium spring to a considerable distance, as across a brook of size (about five feet eight inches) is almost always the twelve or fifteen feet in width. most successful at this species of exercise.

The next step is to learn to vault over a high object What is gained in height is lost in distance. To by means of the pole. Two posts and a cross cord, as make a long leap, therefore, it is not necessary to go in fig. 9, are usually employed in high. The measurement of long leaps is by marks on this exercise. The leap is taken level and soft ground, and he who clears the greatest by a run, and upon this ran,' number of marks is the most proficient. As in high observes Walker, ' principally deleaping, the body must be inclined forward, and the pend the facility and success of the spring made from the balls of the toes. To clear leap. As the spring can take place twelve feet without a run is considered a good leap. only with one foot, and as this With a run of ten to fifteen paces, increased in velo- must arrive correctly at the springcity as the runner approaches the springing point, a ing place, it is necessary that the leap may be performed of fourteen or fifteen feet. In order of the steps should be arthis running leap, it is best to spring from the foot in ranged so as to effect this object. which there is most proficiency, and to rise to a mode. The fixing of the pole in the ground rate height from the ground; too low a spring defeats and the spring must take place at the desired end, as must be evident to every one at all the same instant, because by that acquainted with the doctrines of Projectiles.

means the upper and lower mem

Fig. 9. Leaping from a high to a low situation is another bers operate together; no power is lost, and the swing useful exercise. To acquire proficiency in it, begin is performed with the greatest facility. The leaper with moderate heights, and learn to full softly on the must carefully observe that the spring of the foot, and

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the plant of the pole, are in the direction of in a line is, of keeping them down in an easy, quiet position, with) the preparatory run.'

and without meddling with the person-is one per

necessary in polite behaviour, and should be acquired Carrying Weights.

by all young persons, before bad habits are confirmed. A regular course of gymnastics embraces the art of Running is a rapid leaping kind of walk, the leap lifting and carrying weights; but lessons in these exer- being from each foot alternately, and the motion being cises must be conducted with much caution, and only promoted by throwing forward the weight of the perwhen the body has been otherwise well disciplined. son. The following are Walker's definitions of running,

In lifting a weight, power is best exercised by doub- which we illustrate by fig. ling the body, as if about to sit down; the hands then 10:—"

-“The upper part of grasp the ring of the weight placed between the feet, the body is slightly inclined and the body gradually straightening, the arms rise forward; the head slightly with it, and lift what is in the hands. By this ineans thrown backward, to counterthe whole force of the body is exerted, and no part act the gravity forward ; the inore than another.

breast is freely projected; the Loads of any kind are most advantageously borne shoulders are steady, to give on the back and shoulders, with the body erect. The a fixed point to the auxiliary arrangement of knapsacks on the backs of soldiers is muscles of respiration ; the on this plan, the weight depending from each shoul- upper parts of the arms are der, and not hanging too low. The closer the load is kept near the sides; the el. to the shoulder, the shorter is the lever, and the less bows are bent, and each forms the pull on the point of resistance.

an acute angle; the hands are A man exercises his power of draught with the shut, with the nails turned

Fiz. 10. greatest advantage by pulling a rope over his shoulder, inwards; and the whole arms for in this case he throws forward the weight of his per- move but slightly, in order that the muscles of respirsson, and he acts both by muscular energy and weight. tion on the chest may be as little as possible disturado The least advantageous exercise of his power is to carry and follow only the impulse communicated by oila a load up a ladder; for he has to carry up his own parts. There exists, in fact, during the whole time of weight as well as the load which is on his shoulders. running, a strong and permanent contraction of the

muscles of the shoulder and arın, which, though very Walking-Running.

violent, is less serviceable to the extended morements The art of walking with ease, firmness, and grace, than to keep the chest immovable, toward which the forins a necessary part of gymnastic or drill exercises. arins are brought close, the flexors and adductors of Few persons walk well naturally; the constraint of which are especially contracted. dress, distortion from labour, or bad habits of some At every step the knees are stretched out, the legg kind, generally contributing to give a slounge to the kept as straight as possible, the feet almost graze the figure, and an awkwardness to all the motions.

ground, the tread is neither with the mere balls of the To walk gracefully, the body must be erect, but not toes nor with the whole sole of the foot, and the spring stiff, and the head held up in such a posture that the is made rapidly from one foot to the other, so that the eyes are directed forward. The tendency of untaught pass each other with great velocity. walkers is to look towards the ground near the feet; Speed, and still more duration in running, are in and some persons appear always as if admiring their proportion to the development of the lungs, and consshoe-ties. The eyes should not thus be cast downward, quently the volume of oxygen and blood which they neither should the chest bend forward to throw out the can combine in their parenchyma at each respiratory back, making what are termed 'round shoulders;' on movement. Thus of two men, one having the abdothe contrary, the whole person must hold itself up, as minal members developed, and the other possessing if not afraid to look the world in the face, and the chest good lungs, the former will run with the greatest speel by all means be allowed to expand. At the same time, for a short distance; but if the distance be considerable, everything like strutting or pomposity must be care- he will soon be gained upon by the latter.

A runner, fully avoided. An easy, firm, and erect posture, is after performing a certain space, is seized with a ditalone desirable. In walking, it is necessary to bear in culty of breathing long before the repetition of the mind that the locomotion is to be performed entirely contractions has produced fatigue in the abdominal by the legs. Awkward persons rock from side to side, members. To excel, therefore, in running, requirts, helping forward each leg alternately by advancing the like walking and dancing, a peculiar exercise. As the haunches. This is not only ungraceful, but fatiguing. muscular contractions depend, for their principle of Let the legs alone advance, bearing up the body. In excitement, on the respiration, the chest should be setting down the feet, let the outer edge of the heel firmly fixed, so as both to facilitate this, and to serve first touch the ground, and the sole of the foot bear as a point of support for the efforts of the lower men and project the weight of the body. The length of step bers. The best runners are those who have the best is of course to be determined by the length of limb. wind, and keep the breast dilated for the longest time. Efforts at taking long steps, out of proportion to the During the whole time of running, long inspirations power of motion, are always ungraceful. Reckoning and slow expirations are of the greatest importances; from heel to heel, or toe to toe, the length of a military and young persons cannot be too early accustomed to step at drill march is thirty inches, which is consider this practice. To facilitate respiration towards the end ably more than the length of ordinary steps in walking of the race, the upper part of the body may be leants The length of step at a moderate pace, of a man five little forward. Running should cease as soon as the seet nine inches high, is usually twenty-four inches ; breath becomes very short, and a strong perspiration and this will be found a convenient length for most takes place.' persons to acquire the habit of using.

Exercises in running should commence with rery The motion of the arms to and fro, in cadence with moderate distances, and for short periods of time; and the movements of the legs, greatly helps the locomo- great or fatiguing feats are only to be attempted after tion, and is advantageous in exercising the muscles of the body and lungs are strengthened by training. the shoulders, and expanding the chest. The motions of the arms, however, should be on a moderate scale, the hands not swinging through a greater space than The method of training in modern times for pede. eight or nine inches before and behind the leg. The trian feats and other laborious undertakings, does 104 practice of working forward the shoulders and swing differ materially from that pursued by the saciert ing the arms at a great rate is inost odious. It may Greeks. The great object is to increase the muscular be added, that the art of comporting the hands--that I strength, and to improve the free action of the lungs

TRAINING.

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or wind of the person subjected to the process. The nel at the top of his speed. Immediately on returning, means adopted to accomplish the end in view is eva- a hot liquor is prescribed, in order to promote the percuation, to cleanse the stomach and intestines; sweat- spiration; and of this he must drink one English pint. ing, to take off the superfluous fat and humours; daily It is termed the sweating liquor, and is composed of one exercise, to strengthen the muscles and system gene- ounce of caraway seed, half an ounce of coriander seed, rally; and a peculiar regimen to invigorate the body. one ounce of root-liquorice, and half an ounce of sugarAnd to this we add the use of the tepid bath, to remove candy, mixed with two bottles of cider, and boiled down impurities and promote a healthy action the skin. to one half. He then put to bed in his flannels, and We present the following graphic account of the pro- being covered with six or eight pair of blankets and a cess of training from Walker's Manly Exercises ::- feather bed, must remain in this state from twenty-five

* The most effectual process for training appears to to thirty minutes, when he is taken out, and rubbed be that practised by Captain Barclay, which has not perfectly dry. Being then well wrapt in his greatcoat, only been sanctioned by professional men, but has met he walks out gently for two miles, and returns to breakwith the unqualified approbation of amateurs. We are fast, which on such occasions should consist of a roasted here, therefore, almost entirely indebted to it for details. fowl. He afterwards proceeds with his usual exercise. According to this method, the pedestrian, who may be These sweats are continued weekly till within a few supposed in tolerable condition, enters upon his training days of the performance of the match; or, in other with a regular course of physic, which consists of three words, he must undergo three or four of these operadoses. Glauber's salts are generally preferred ; and tions. If the stomach of the pedestrian be foul, an from one ounce and a-half to two ounces are taken each emetic or two must be given about a week before the time, with an interval of four days between each dose. conclusion of the training. He is now supposed to be After having gone through the course of physic, he in the highest condition for his feat. commences his regular exercise, which is gradually Besides his usual or regular exercise, a person under increased as he proceeds in the training.

training ought to employ himself in the intervals in When the object in view is the accomplishment of a every kind of exertion which tends to activity, such as pedestrian match, his regular exercise may be from golf, cricket, bowls, throwing quoits, &c. so that, dur. twenty to twenty-four miles a day. He niust rise at ing the whole day, both body and mind may be confive in the morning, run half a mile at the top of his stantly occupied. Although the chief parts of the sysspeed up-hill, and then walk six miles at a moderate tem depend upon sweating, exercise, and feeding, yet pace, coming in about seven to breakfast, which should the object to be attained by the pedestrian would be consist of beefsteaks or mutton-chops under-done, with defeated, if these were not adjusted each to the other, stale bread and old beer. After breakfast, he must and to his constitution. The trainer, before he proagain walk six miles at a moderate pace, and at twelve ceeds to apply his theory, should make himself aclie down in bed, without his clothes, for half an hour. quainted with the constitution and habits of his patient, On getting up, he must walk four miles, and return by that he may be able to judge how far he can with safety four to dinner, which should also be beefsteaks or carry on the different parts of the process. The nature mutton-chops, with bread and beer, as at breakfast. of the patient's disposition should also be known, that After dinner, he must resume his exercise, by running every cause of irritation may be avoided; for as it half a mile at the top of his speed, and walking six requires great patience and perseverance to undergo miles at a moderate pace. He takes no more exercise training, every expedient to soothe and encourage the for that day, but retires to bed about eight; and next mind should be adopted. morning he proceeds in the same manner.

The skilful trainer will, moreover, constantly study Animal diet, it will be observed, is, according to this the progress of his art, by observing the effect of its system, alone prescribed, and beef and mutton are pre-processes, separately and in combination. If a man referred. All fat and greasy substances are prohibited, tain his health and spirits during the process, improve as they induce bile, and consequently injure the sto- in wind, and increase in strength, it is certain that the mach. The lean of meat contains more nourishment object aimed at will be obtained; but if otherwise, it than the fat; and in every case the most substantial is to be apprehended that some defect exists, through food is preferable to any other kind. Fresh meat is the unskilfulness or mismanagement of the trainer, the most wholesome and nourishing. Salt, spiceries, which ought instantly to be remedied by such alteraand all kinds of seasonings, with the exception of vine- tions as the circumstances of the case may demand. gar, are prohibited. The lean, then, of fat beef cooked It is evident, therefore, that in many instances the in steaks, with very little salt, is the best; and it should trainer must be guided by his judgment, and that no be rather under-done than otherwise. Mutton, being fixed rules of management can, with absolute certainty, reckoned easy of digestion, may be occasionally given, be depended upon for producing an invariable and to vary the diet and gratify the taste. The legs of fowls determinate result. In general, however, it may be are also esteemed.

calculated that the known rules are adequate to the It is preferable to have the meat broiled, as much of purpose, if the pedestrian strictly adhere to them, and its nutritive quality is lost by roasting or boiling.. It the trainer bestow a moderate degree of attention to ought to be dressed so as to remain tender and juicy; his state and condition during the progress of training. for it is by these means that it will be easily digested, It is impossible to fix any precise period for the and afford most nourishment. Biscuit and stale bread completion of the training process, as it depends upon are the only preparations of vegetable matter which are the previous condition of the pedestrian; but from permitted to be given; and everything inducing flatu- two to three months, in most cases, will be sufficient, Iency must be carefully avoided. In general, the quan- especially if he is in tolerable condition at the comtity of aliment is not limited by the trainer, but lest mencement, and possessed of sufficient perseverance entirely to the discretion of the pedestrian, whose ap- and courage to submit cheerfully to the privations and petite should regulate him in this respect.

hardships to which he must unavoidably be subjected. With respect to liquors, they must be always taken The criterion by which it may be known whether a cold; and home-brewed beer, old, but not bottled, is man is in good condition--or, what is the same thing, the best. A little red wine, however, may be given to whether he has been properly trained—is the state of those who are not fond of malt liquor; but never more the skin, which becomes smooth, elastic, and well-cothan half a pint after dinner. It is an established rule loured, or transparent. The flesh is also firm, and the to avoid liquids as much as possible; and no more person trained feels himself light and full of spirits. liquor of any kind is allowed to be taken than is requi- In the progress of the training, his condition may also site to quench the thirst.

be ascertained by the effect of the sweats, which cease After having gone on in this regular course for three to reduce his weight; and by the manner in which he or four weeks, the pedestrian must take a four-mile performs one mile at the top of his speed. It is as sweat, which is produced by running four miles in flan- | difficult to run a mile at the top of one's speed as to

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