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are made use of to signify the connection that the word and some termination that modifies its meaning;
mind gives to ideas or propositions one with another. as, schoolman, scholar.
The mind, in communicating its thought to others, The bulk of the English language is Anglo-Saxon,
does not only need signs of the ideas it has then before and so are the forms of its grammar. A considerable
it, but others also, to show or intimate some particular number of its words, however, are from the Latin, and
action of its own, at that time, relating to those ideas. not a few from the Greek, both as entire words, and
This it does several ways; as is and is not are the as parts of words or prefixes. [For further information
general marks of the mind affirming or denying. But on this point, the reader is referred to the article Lan.
besides affirmation or negation, without which there is GUAGE, No. 52.] The following is a list of these Pre.
in words no truth or falsehood, the mind does, in de- fixes, together with examples of the manner in which
claring its sentiments to others, connect not only the they enter into combination with other words :-
parts of propositions, but whole sentences, one to
another, with their several relations and dependencies,
to make a coherent discourse.

A, ab, or abs, from; as, avert, to turn from; absolve, to looso
Though prepositions and conjunctions are names from; abstract, to draw from; abnormal, from the rule.
well known in grammar, and the particles contained

Ad, to; as, adhere, to stick to.

Am, round about; as, ambition, literally, a going round about, under them carefully ranked into their distinct subdivi

Ante, before; as, antecedent. sions, yet he who would show the right use of particles,

Circum, round; as, circumnavigate. and what significancy and force they have, must take a Con, col, cor, together; as, conjoin, convoke, collect, correct-the little more pains, enter into his own thoughts, and ob- n being changed into l and r respectively for the sake of euphony. serve nicely the several postures of his mind in dis

Contra, against; as, contradict. coursing.'

De, down; as, destroy, demolish.
Whoever wishes really to understand the nature and Di or dis, asunder; as, divert, dissolve.
use of words, should study carefully the third book of E or ex, out of; as, evolve, extract.
Locke's invaluable essay.

Extra, beyond; as, extraordinary.
In, in or into; as, inject.

Inter, between; as, intervene. Derivation is that part of Etymology which traces Intro, within; as, introduce, words to their original form and signification.

Juxta, nigh to; as, juxtaposition, The ideas attached to words are purely arbitrary and

Ob, op, in the way of; as, obstruct, oppose. conventional; there being no reason, for instance, why

Per, through; as, perforate,

Post, after; as, postpone. the sound represented by the combination of letters

Pre, before; as, prefix. fire should suggest the idea of heat, while that of

Pro, instead of; as, pronoun. ice should give the notion of cold. From this prin

Preter, beyond; as, preternatural. ciple it follows, that the real import of any word can

Re, back; as, replace. be ascertained only by inductionthat is, by observing

Retro, backward (implying motion); as, retrograde. the common idea which it suggests in every different

Se, aside; as, secede. position that it may occupy. Some, indeed, have

Sub, under ; as, sublunary. affirmed, that in order to ascertain with precision the

Super, above; as, superinduce, superfluous. philosophical import of a word, it is necessary to trace its

Trans, across; as, transport, transatlantic, transgross. progress historically, through all the successive meanings it has been employed to convey, from the moment

GREEK PREFIXES. that it was first introduced into the language ; and A, without; as, anomalous, amorphous. others, not content with this, prosecute their etymolo- Amphi, both; as, amphibious. gical research till they arrive at the literal and primi- Ana, up, through; as, anatomy. tive sense of the root from which it springs. But it Anti, against; as, Antichrist. may well be doubted if such a course of procedure is

Apo, from, away; as, apostate. followed by any substantial benefit at all proportionate

Cata, down; as, catastrophe. to the labour which it imposes on the student; and one

Dia, through; as, diagonal, thing is certain, that an appeal to etymology from use

Epi, upon; as, epilogue, epidemic.

Hyper, overmuch; as, hypercritical. is altogether nugatory, and displays an utter ignorance

Hypo, under; as, hypocrite. of the nature and function of words. The derivation

Meta, change; as, metamorphosis. or pedigree of a word will by no means universally lead

Para, near to; as, paraphrase. to its real meaning. Horne Tooke and his followers

Peri, round about; as, perimeter. have employed themselves in tracing words to their

Syn, together; as, synod, synagogue. sources, and with wonderful success ; but their speculations, however interesting in some respects, are almost

Affixes. useless, as far as the grammar of our language is con- It is not so easy to trace the Affixes to their original cerned ; and certainly, though that school of philolo- meaning, as they now seldom retain any signification gists should succeed to their utmost desire in chasing when taken by themselves, but are used merely to every word now in use up to some Icelandic or Gothic modify other words. We shall present a few of them, origin, it would in no way interfere with the present with examples, but we are far from thinking that the structure of the English tongue. It may be very in- list is complete: teresting to trace our language from the period when it was only the rude jargon of wandering hordes of

AFFIXES FORMING NOUNS. savages, down to the present time, when it is capable an

Tragedian, historian. of expressing with precision the minutest distinctions

Claimani, combatant

Scholar, liar. of the metaphysician or the most glowing conceptions aru of the poet; but it belongs rather to the philologist to ary

denoting the

Drunkard, dotard. agent,

Adversary, actuary. enter on such investigations than the grammarian. cer

or doer of a

Engineer, auctioner, Still, some ground is common to both, and it is neces

thing; as,

Adherent, correspondent.

Accuser, believer. sary to say a few words on the subject.

Apologist, Chartist.

Actor, Creator. Words are usually divided into two classes--Primi- ster

Punster, spinster tive and Derivative.

A Primitive word is one not derived from any other word in the language; as, man, school.

Harden, strengthen.

denoting to A Derivative word is either compounded of two sig- ) ise or íze

make or

Purify, clarify.

Civilise, equalize. nificant words in the language, or of one significant | ale

ca 180; as,

Alienate, assassinate.


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idea of more than one, and so the verb must be plural ful

Artful, beautiful.

-read, not reads, as it would have been had only one Bounteous, plenteous.

name been mentioned. In this sentence, “John or ly

denoting full of, Fatherly, homely.
or abounding Troublesome, toilsome.

James intends to accompany me,' it is obvious, from the
in; as,
Wealthy, mighty.

very nature of the conjunction or, that intention is preDemocratical, methodical. dicated or asserted only of one of the persons, and thereExpensive, instructive.

fore the verb is in the singular, intends.

As collective nouns, though singular in form, may ment

Amusement, abatement. yet suggest the idea of plurality, they are joined either
Goodness, hardness.

to a singular or a plural verb, according as the idea

Convulsion, expansion. suggested is that of unity or plurality. Thus when we tion denoting Production, vindication.

say, * The army is on its march,' we seem to lose sight ty state of, Piety, probity.

of the individuals composing the idea represented by hood

considered Childhood, manhood. ship abstractedly Friendship, courtship.

the word army, and speak of it as one mass; but if we

Christendom, kingdom. say, ' The peasantry go barefooted, this mode of exric


pression seems to give us an idea of a number of people tude

Lassitude, fortitude.

existing separately, and we therefore put the verb in All words must originally have had only one mean the plural. With respect to the collective noun, the ing, but subsequently they come to have various only thing further to be observed is, that if in one part secondary significations. These are attached to them of the sentence it is made to stand as singular, it ought according to fixed laws of the association of ideas; but not in another to be used as plural. in the case of each individual word, the signification A noun is sometimes put in the nominative, even must be inferred from the relation which it bears to when it is not the subject of the sentence, but merely the other words with which it stands connected. stands connected with a participle; thus in these lines

A very large and important class of words, whose of Cowperprimary signification refers to the operation of sensible

• Thou, as a gallant bark from Albion's coast things, are applied secondarily to modes of thinking;

(The storms all weathered, and the ocean crossed) as, imagine, apprehend, comprehend, adhere, conceive,

Shoots into port,' &c. instil, disgust, disturbance, tranquillity, abstraction, sincere, foresight, penetration, acuteness, inclination, the words storms and ocean, joined to the participles aversion, deliberation, sagacity, attention, &c. But the weathered and crossed, are neither the nominatives to prosecution of this subject falls more within the pro- any verb, nor are they the object affected by a transivince of the logician than the grammarian, and here tive verb or a preposition. Still, they are in the nomiwe may draw our observations on derivation to a close. native; and this construction is known among gram

marians as the nominative absolute. Some grammarians, indeed, contend, and not without reason, that there

is an absolute case, quite distinct from the nominative; SYNTAX

and that to speak of the nominative absolute' involves SYNTAX—from two Greek words, syn, together, and a contradiction of ideas. It must at once be conceded, taxis, a putting or placing—is that part of grammar that the noun conveys very different ideas in the two which shows how words are connected and arranged. cases referred to, and we cannot well deny that they

Etymology, we have seen, treats of the materials of ought to have separate names, in the same manner as language, individual words ; but it is the business of we give different names to the nominative and objective, Syntax to point out by what rules these words are put although they are the same in form. together, so as to form sentences. By a sentence is In every case, the idea represented by the subject meant a number of words so united as to make sense; must be carefully noticed, and then the predicate be that is, to declare or affirm something: thus the words, conformed to it. • The city of Edinburgh, do not form a sentence, be- To each rule we shall subjoin a few examples of cause they declare nothing; but if we say, “ The city erroneous construction, being persuaded, in common of Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland,' a distinct with Crombie, of the truth of Lowth’s remark, that assertion is made, and therefore the words form a sen- a good way of teaching right, is to show what is tence.

wrong.' We must here remind the reader that every sentence must contain at least a subject and a predicate, the

1. This course of lectures were delivered last spring. subject being the thing spoken of, and the predicate 2. In the human species, the influence of reason and instinct the action or state of being affirmed of it.

are generally assisted by the lessons of experience.

3. Was you present at the meeting? When the verb forming the predicate is transitive,

4. There are abundance of treatises on that subject. the word which it affects is called the object: thus in

5. At this time, the House of Commons were of little weight the sentence, “ John learns his lesson, John, being the

6. Every one of these theories are unfounded. subject of discourse, is in the nominative, and lesson,

7. TV as the master and his scholars there?
eing the thing affected by the predicate learns, is in
the objective case.

Rule II.-Possessive Case.
When the relation of ownership is to be pointed out,

the Possessive Case of the noun denoting the owner is Rule I.Nominative and Verb.

used: thus, “This is John's hat.' Here the relation A verb agrees with its nominative in number and of ownership is to be declared as existing between the person; as, I read, he learns.

person John and the thing hat, and consequently the This' rule is of very extensive application, and if name of the possessor is put in the possessive case. understood in its full import, it will render useless If the name of the owner be a compound name, the many others that are commonly set down by gramma- last of the component parts only receives the sign of rians. It may be expressed in more general terms the possessive: thus, the Queen of Great Britain's thus : The number and person of the subject of a sen- prerogative;' also when there are two separate names, tence determine the number and person of the verb. as, · Robertson and Reid's office.' For example, in the sentence, ‘John runs,' John, the subject, is singular, and, like all nouns, of the third 1 This is John Thomson his book. person; we therefore use the third person singular of 2. James is in Walker's and Son's office. the verb, runs. Again, in the sentence, ‘John and 3. Charles is a member of the Mechanic's Institution. James read," the subject, John and James, expresses an 4. Have you read Chamber's Journal ?



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Rulc 111.–Objective Case.

Rule VI.-Apposition.
Active transitive verbs and prepositions take the Ob- Nouns and pronouns added to other nouns and pro-
jective Case after them thus : Do justice, love mercy, nouns to explain them, are put in the same case; thus,
and walk humbly with God.?. In this sentence, justice • Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is celebrated for
and mercy are in the objective, being affected by the its university. Here Edinburgh, being the subject
verbs do and love respectively; and God is also in the of the sentence, is in the nominative; and the noun
objective, being the object of the relation pointed out capital, with its adjunct of Scotland, being added to
by the preposition with.

explain it, is in the nominative also. The two words,
Some active transitive verbs appear to take two in cases of this kind, are said by grammarians to be
objective cases after them; but it is much more con- in apposition.
sistent with the analogy of the language to understand • Brutus killed Cæsar in the Capitol; him who had
a preposition : thus, ' He sent me the book,' where me been his friend.' Here Cæsar is in the objective,
and book are both in the objective. It is quite clear governed by the verb killed ; and as the succeeding
that book is the thing immediately affected by the verb pronoun refers to it, it must be in the objective too. If
sent, it therefore must be in the objective; but as to it were he, there would be no violation of any rule in
me, it seems most natural to understand the preposi- grammar, but a misrepresentation of a historical fact, as
tion to, when the sentence would be, 'He sent the book it would lead us to believe that Brutus befriended Cæsar,
to me.' Ellipses of this sort are quite common, and it whereas it was Cæsar that had befriended Brutus,
is altogether unnecessary to bring in any new gram- There seems to be an exception to this rule in such
matical rule or principle to account for idiomatic ex- expressions as, “I called at Smith's the bookseller,
pressions thus produced.

where Smith's and bookseller are evidently marks of
Under this rule we may further observe that all the same idea, but yet the one has the sign of the
words denoting measure, whether of time or space, are possessive ('s), which the other has not. As far as the
capable of being put in the objective, a preposition possessive case (so called) is concerned, it is in most
being understood. Thus in the sentences, • The wall is instances awkward to add any explanatory word to it;
seven feet high,' 'I was three days in the country, and the sentence runs much more smoothly if we use
the words feet and days are in the objective, the pre- the preposition of; thus, 'I called at the shop of Smith
position for or during being understood. As, however, the bookseller,' where both words are obviously in the
the nominative and objective of all nouns in English objective.
are alike (suffer no inflexion), this remark must be

1. Your friend, him whom you introduced to me yesterday,
allowed to be of limited utility.

very soon departed. 1. I told ye that I would come,

2. Why do you treat Mary Ann so harshly, she who has always 2. Who should I lorc, if not my fatlıcr ?

been so affectionate ? 3. Do you know who you speak lor

3. The leader was taken, him who defied the law. 4. He that can doubt whether he be anything or not, I speak

4. I am going to see my friends in the country; they whom we not to.-LOCKE.

met at the ferry.
Rule IV.-Pronouns.

Rule VII.-The Verb To Be.
Pronoung agree in gender, number, person, and case The verb To Be has the same case after it as it has
with the nouns for which they stand, and are in all re- before it: thus, • Alfred was a good king.' Here the
spects to be treated as the nouns would have been had word king, coming after the verb was, is in the nomi.
they been used. In the sentence, The master in- native, because it is descriptive of Alfred, the subject
structs his pupils,' the pronoun supplies the place of of the sentence. “She, supposing him to be the gardener,
the possessive case of the noun master, which is of the saith unto him,' Here gardener is to be considered in
singular number, third person, and masculine gender; the objective, because him, going before the verb to be,
we therefore use his, which corresponds to all this is in the objective, governed by the verb supposing.
Again, 'John and James learn their lesson :' here It requires very little penetration to perceire that
their stands for two nouns, and so must be plural. this seventh rule is included in the sixth, for the verb
1. Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of to be does nothing more, in such cases, than mark

that the two nouns between which it is put are diffe-
2. For my name and memory, I leave it to men's charitable rent names for the same thing. On this subject Mr
speeches, and to foreign nations, and to the next agc.--Bacon. Mill, in his Analysis, Vol. 1. p. 117, reasons with his

3. Rebekah took gladly raiment that was in the house, and usual acuteness. In showing how the name of a
put them on Jacob.

class comes to be used for the name of an individual,
4. I saw the whole species delivered from their sorrows.h he says, ' I have the name of the individual, John,

and the name of the class, man; and I can set down 5. Those are the birds whom we call gregarious.

ny two names, John, man, in juxtaposition. But this

is not sufficient to effect the communication I desireRule V.-The Infinitive,

namely, that the word man is a mark of the same idea One verb governs another in the Infinitive: as,' He of which John is a mark, and a mark of other ideas loves to study,' where to study is the object of the along with it; those, to wit, of which James, Thomas, verb loves,

&c. are marks. To complete my contrivance, I invent Before the verb denoting the object of the predicat- a mark which, placed between my marks John and ing verb, the preposition to is generally put; and it is man, fixes the idea I mean to convey, that man is in this case called the sign of the infinitive. But as another

mark to that idea of which John is a mark, we already saw that the infinitive is nothing but a noun, while it is a mark of other ideas, of which James

the utility of this rule inay well be questioned. Thomas, &c. are marks. For this purpose, we use in

The sign to is omitted after the following verbs :- English the mark is. By help of this, my object is
Bid, can, dare, feel, hear, let, make, inay, must, need, immediately attained.'
shall, see, and will. We do not say, “ He bade me to
go," but," He bade me go. The infinitive of a verb will immediately see the virtual identity of our sixth

Those capable of understanding this dissertation
may also come after a noun or an adjective, as well as and seventh rules; but here, as in other cases, we have
after another verb.

been anxious not' to depart from the common doc1. Sylla obliged them submit to such terms as the senale were useful to some, can do harm to none.

trines; and the repetition of the rule, while it may be pleased to impose. (See also Rule I.)

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2. The king caused them feel the weight of his displeasure. 1. You believed it to be he. 3. I desired him call in the evening.

2. It was not me who said so. 4. You need not to trouble yourself on my account.

3. It appeared to be her who carried on the business. 3. God makoth the sun to rise on the evil and on the good. 4. Though I was blamed, it could not have been me.


These we take to be the great leading principles on That this is the genius of our language, admits not of which the Syntax of the English language is founded, reasonable doubt; but there are several exceptions. We and by the thorough understanding of which, the stu- speak of a thing as being of a florid red colour, and of dent will be enabled to see the construction of almost iron as being red hot. We say, “a great many were any sentence. Many grammarians, some of whom---par- present;' the doors were wide open;' Byron speaks ticularly Crombie and M'Culloch-we highly respect, of the . pale blue sky;' in all which cases it is quite have given many more; but we adhere to the decision clear that the first adjective in some degree modifies of Dr Johnson, the dictator of English literature, who the second. Whether this idiom is capable of being says, that our language has so little inflection or metaphysically defended against the reasoning of Smith, variety of terminations, that its construction neither or whether such expressions are to be regarded as, requires nor admits many rules.'

to use the words of Johnson, 'spots impressed so deep A few miscellaneous remarks (we cannot dignify them in the English language, that criticism can never wash with the name of rules) will conclude this part of our them away,' is a question into the discussion of which subject:--

we shall not enter. About the authority of the expres. 1. Every adjective must qualify a noun, either ex- sions there can be no dispute. pressed or understood : thus in the lines

It was already pointed out that certain adjectives,

from their very nature, do not admit of comparison; Auspicious Hope! in thy suet garden grow

and it should now be observed that, for the same reaWreaths for cach toil, a charın fur every wo,'

son, many of them, such as universal, omnipotent, and every adjective is immediately followed by its noun. others, whose signification cannot be increased, ought But in this,

not to be qualitied by any adverb. Fer shall part where many meet,'

5. Tautological expressions ought to be avoided, and

no word should be introduced into a sentence which the noun men is obviously understood.

has not some distinct function to perform. We have already seen that a and an (commonly • From whence came he?' should be, 'Whence called the indetinite article) are identical in meaning; came he?' because, as we already saw, whence, in itself, but there is this difference in their application, that means 'from what place.' Again, in the sentence, 'I a is prefixed to words beginning with the sound of a doubt not but that he will come,' it is obvious, on a little consonant, the long sound of u, and vowels sounding reflection, that the idea intended would be completely like w; and an to words which begin with the sound conveyed by this form of expression- I doubt not of a vowel. Thus we say, a man, but an ox; a house, that he will come,' and the insertion of but serves no but an hospital; a one-horse coach; a unicorn; an useful purpose. By reversing the sentence, this may easterly wind, &c.

be more obvious_He will come, I doubt not that 2. The exact import of the four words, each, every, (thing).' either, and neither, which are known by the name of In this sentence, taken from Goldsmith’s ‘History of Distributive Adjectives, ought to be carefully attended England '—* The New Englanders were determined to to, and, from their very meaning, it will appear that attack the royal forces as soon as ever they should they must always be joined to a noun in the singular. march out of Boston'-the word ever is of no use, and

Each means the one and the other of two: thus consequently should be omitted. Cowper, in his ode, 'The Lily and the Rose,' says pro- Perhaps under the same remark might be included perly

the following, which, however, from its extensive appli• Until a third (flower) surpass you both,

cation, we shall keep separate. Let each be deemed a queen.'

6. Two negatives ought not to be used, unless affir. Erery refers to any number more than two, considered mation is meant. individually: thus Byron, referring to the unfortunate In this respect Bacon, Shakspeare, and Locke, and separation of himself and Lady Byron, says indeed all our early writers, frequently offend. Usage

was in their times divided; but it has now become Both shall live, but every morrow Wake us from a widowed bed.'

fixed, and that on the side of metaphysical propriety.

Bacon says -- The joys of parents are secret, and Either means the one or the other of two; neither, not 80 are their griefs and fears; they cannot utter the either, not the one nor the other of two. The use of one, nor will they not utter the other.' Shakspeare both words is seen in these lines

Lepidus flatters both,

Be not too tamne neither.'
Of both is flattered; but he neither loves,

And again,
Nor cither cares for him.'-SHAKSPEARE.

* Nor do not saw the air too much.' Milton makes a wrong use of either in these lines- Goldsmith, too, has violated the idiom of the English - She was cheered,

tongue in this respect, although he has offended in good But silently a gentle tear let fall

company : 'Never was a fleet more completely equipped, From cither eye.'

nor never had the nation more sanguine hopes of suc3. In English, as already noticed, the adjective is not cess.' Never should be ever. • He is not unjust' is generally inflected for any purpose except to express right, if we mean to express much the same idea as is degrees of comparison; but to this remark there are conveyed by the words, • He is just.' By some it is two exceptions. These are the Demonstrative Adjec- maintained that this mode of expression strengthens tives this and that, which have corresponding plurals, the affirmation, and certainly it may do so in spoken these and those: thus we say, this man, but these inen; language ; but in writing, it serves only to introduce that map, but those maps.

ambiguity, and so ought to be avoided. 4. It is not the office of an adjective to qualify either 7. Certain conjunctions go in pairs: thus-both, and; a verb or another adjective; this must be done by an either, or; neither, nor; though or although, yet ; adverb. We do not say, “ James reads good, but whether, or; so, that; not only or not merely, but

James reads well.' 'I am myself indifferent honest, also; so, as; as, as; such, as. Most of these words should be, *I am myself indifferently honest.'

are conjunctions, but not all. 'In general, no quality, when considered in concrete, • I will neither come or send' is wrong; because or or as qualifying some particular subject, can itself be is not the correlative of neither : it ought to be, 'I conceived as the subject of any other quality, though, will either come or send,' or, ‘I will neither come nor when considered in abstract, it may. No adjective, send.' therefore, can qualify any other adjective. A great 8. Derivative words generally take the same prerogood man, means a man who is both great and good. sitions after them as their primitires. Both the adjectives qualify the substantive; they do Goldsınith offends again in saying, 'Catiline was in. not qualify one another.:- Adam Smith,

satiable of wealth;' because we do not say to satiate


(the primitive of insatiable) a person of wealth, but

11. I never did repent for doing good, with wealth.

Nor shall not now.-SHAKSPEARE. (Remarks 6 and 9.) 9. Certain prepositions are appropriated to certain

12. The wisest princes need not think it any diminution to their words and phrases.

greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to rely upon counsel. We do not say, “To have faith to a person, but in - Bacon's Essays. (Remark P.)

13. The hostilities which twice interrupted the progress of the a person ;'. • To find difficulty with doing a thing, but in doing it ;" * To differ with a person, but from a community, neither seemed to originate in any imperative claim

of national honour or advantage.--Wade's British History. (Reperson.'

marks 12 and 7.) Such idiomatic expressions are only to be made 14. It was observed to me, that in this country no man who is familiar by an extensive and well-directed course of able to work need go supperless to bed. This far he stated the study; or, as Milton has it, ' by a well-continued and fact.—COMBE's Notes on America. (Rule V. Remark 4.) judicious conversing among pure authors.'

15. When a nation forms a government, it is not wisdom, but 10. After the comparative degree, whether of adjec- power, which they place in the hands of the magistrate.tives or adverbs, and the adjective other, the conjunc- ROBERT HALL. (Rule IV.) tion than is used : thus, 'Better is a little with right

16. The leaders of the feet and the army began mutually to eousness, than great revenues without right;' "This is accuse each other.-GOLDSMITH. (Remark 5.) none other than the house of God. Shakspeare has 17. Royal proclamations continued as omnipotent as in the offended against this idiom

preceding reign.-WADE.

18. There have been three riots in England of late, each of • The sun no sooner shall the mountains touch,

which have been levelled against dissenters.--ROBERT Hall, But we will ship him hence.'

(Remark 2.) But ought to be than. Scarcely bad Austria been The student should now be so familiar with the crushed, than it was announced,' &c. -- GOLDSMITH. Rules of Syntax, which are nothing but generalised Than ought to be when.

facts regarding the customary modes of uniting words 11. The Perfect Participle, and not the Past Tense, and sentences together, that he will be able to commit is used after the verbs have and be.

his thoughts to appropriate language; that is, such as This remark requires to be attended to in using irre- shall convey to others the exact meaning he has in his gular verbs, but in verbs that are regular, no mistake own mind. To do this, however, not merely with accucan arise, as both parts are the same. In nothing, we racy, but also taste, besides attending to the rules of venture to remark, does defective scholarship sooner syntax, he must take care, first, that all the words he betray itself than in a wrong conjugation of the irre- uses belong to the English tongue; and secondly, that gular verbs.

they be employed in their usual and recognised accep" They had from the beginning began to embrace tation. opposite systems.'~GOLDSMITH. Began ought to be A word not English is termed a barbarism, and begun.

when used in a sense different from its established one, . You must not think

an impropriety; both should be equally avoided, either That we are made of stuff so flat and dull,

in writing or speaking.
That we can let our beard be shook with danger."

Shook should be shaken.

Punctuation, or the insertion of points in written 12. Adverbs ought to be placed so as to leave no language, is usually considered a part of grammar, and doubt wbat word is affected by them.

a knowledge of its principles is desirable for correct * The negroes are to appear at church only in boots.' ) literary composition. The introduction of points is By this position of only, it appears that the negroes were said to be useful to mark places at which a pause of a not to come to church unless in boots,' or with nothing lesser or greater length should be made in reading. else but boots; but the meaning intended was, that they This definition is not altogether wrong, but punctuashould appear at church, and nowhere else, in boots. tion has much higher objects in view. Points are The sentence should therefore have stood thus : The necessary for marking the parts or sections into which negroes are to appear only at church in boots. "Pom- sentences and paragraphs are divided, so that the exact pey played a despicable part enough betwixt them.' meaning or sense may be apprehended, and perfect Enough ought to be immediately after despicable. regularity preserved. The real use of points, there"Cæsar so turned the fate of the day, that the barba-fore, is to cut off and separate single words, or groups rians were almost cut off to a man.' It ought to be, of words, from each other. Sometimes the separation were cut off almost to a man.'

need only be slight, and for this the point called the comma (,) is sufficient. For instance, Providence has,

I think, displayed a tenderness for mankind.' Here To all these remarks we shall subjoin a few miscel. there is a comma before and after “I think,' because laneous examples, on which the student may exercise these two words express something thrust into the himself. We shall refer to the Rule or Remark vio- sentence, which should be kept in some measure lated as we go on.

distinct. The semicolon (;) is used to mark a more per1. Are either of us to blame? (Rule I. Remark 2.)

fect separation of words. In general, it cuts a sentence 2. Those kind of things give most satisfaction. (Rule I. Re-into two or more parts, one of which has a reference mark 3.)

to the other. Thus, “Economy is no disgrace; for it 3. I acted in compliance to his request. "(Remarks 8 and 9.) is better to live on a little than to outlive a great

4. Let such teach others who themselves excel.-Pope. (Re- | deal.' Here the sentence is in two sections, the semimark 7.)


marking the boundary of separation. The colon (:) 5. These new divines offered salvation upon easier terms, by signifies a still wider separation in the words of a sensubstituting practice to belief, and a man's own efforts to vica- tence; but its qualifications are so indistinct, and 50 rious satisfaction.-AIKEN's Letters. (Remark 9.) 6. There is nothing more pleases us as to have our performances almost entirely disused, and the period or full stop (*)

liable to misconception, that in practice it is now praised. (Remark 10.)

is employed in its stead, 7. Antony led the way direct to Italy. (Remark 4.)

The other marks used in written language are as 8. Neither of them appealed to impotent laws which could afford them no protection.—Robertson. (Rule IV. Remark 2) follows:- The mark of interrogation (1), which is put

9. It is wonderful how preposterous the affairs of this world are after words asking a question; the mark of admiramanaged.-FRANKLIN. (Remark 4.)

tion (!), put after any exclamation of surprise, lamen10. During the rest of his consular year, Bibulus could only tation, or scorn ; the dash (-), which is sometimes escape outrage by not only avoiding all assemblies of the people, employed instead of a semicolon, or for any kindred but every solemn and important meeting of the senate.

History purpose; and the parenthesis (), for enclosing a word of Rome, Cabinet Cyclopadia. (Remark 12.)

or portion of a sentence foreign to the tenor of the


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