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SINGULAR

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. Phenomena

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Men

Years is a noun, being the name of a portion of time.

When a noun ending in y is to be formed into the May is a verb, asserting something (power) of the noun man. plural, s is added if the y is preceded by a vowel; but Be is a verb, asserting or denoting existence.

if a consonant goes before the y, then the y is changed OH is an adjective, qualifying the noun man understood.

into ies; thus, in boy, there is a vowel before the y, we In is a preposition, as above.

therefore add s, boys; but in duty there is a consonant Hours is a noun, being the name of a division of time.

before the y, the plural therefore is duties. It is a conjunction, connecting the clause, . A man that is

Nouns ending in f or fe, generally form the plural by young in years may be old in hours,' to the following clause, - he has lost no time. As if in such cases points out the condi- changing the for fe into ves; thus, loaf, loaves; knife,

knives; wife, wives. tion on which the assertion going before it is to be received, it is called by many grammarians a conditional conjunction.

Hoof, hoofs; proof, proofs; roof, roofs; and a few He is a personal pronoun, standing instead of the noun man.

others, are exceptions. Has is a verb, asserting something (possession).

Nouns derived from dead or foreign tongues for the Lost is a verb indicating an act. On the nature of this part of most part retain their original plurals; thus— the verb we shall have more to say afterwards.

From the Latin we have

From the Greek comeNo is an adjective, qualifying the noun time. But is a conjunction. It connects the two clauses, and at the

Emuvium Effluvia

Phenomenon same time indicates, or, to adopt the apt expression of which

Radius Radii

Crisis

Crises
Mr Mill frequently makes use, connoles that the clause coming

Larva
Larve

Hypothesis Hypotheses after it is in opposition to the one going before, and therefore Vortex Vortices

Criterion

Criteria it is called a disjunctive conjunction.

Axis
Axes

Automaton Automata That is a demonstrative adjective, qualifying the noun thing Genus Genera

Thesis

Theses understood.

Magus Magi

Elipsis

Elipses

Medium Media Happeneth is a verb, asserting something of its subject, that

Metamorphosis Metamorphoses

Nebula Nebula thing.'

Analysis Analyses.

Stratum Strata.
Rarely is an adverb of time, modifying the verb happeneth.
As an additional exercise in parsing, we shall tran-

The Hebrew words cherub and seraph form their plu. scribe a stanza from Campbell's beautiful ode, Fare. rals cherubim and seraphim; and the French beau and well to Love,' containing, according to our view, ten of monsieur form their plurals beaux and messieurs, which each of the three classes, nouns, adjectives, and verbs; last is contracted into messrs. five of the two, pronouns and prepositions; two con

A few nouns, in very common use, form their plurals junctions, and three adverbs. The student is requested quite anomalously; thusto make a careful analysis for himself, and see how far

Man our enumeration be consistent with his own :

Foot

Feet * Hail! welcome tide of life, when no tumultuous billows roll;

Tooth

Teeth How wondrous to myself appears this halcyon calm of soul !

Mouse

Mico

Goose The wearied bird blown o'er the deep would sooner quit its

Geese. shore,

GENDER.-Gender is that accident of a noun which Than I would cross the gulf aguin that time has brought me points out the sex or the absence of sex. Every existo'er."

ence is either male or female, or neither the one nor To the subject of parsing we shall return before we the other. The Masculine Gender includes all males; quit Etymology; but for the present we wish to direct the Feminine, all females; and the Neuter, all things the attention of the reader to the various modifications destitute of sex, or animals when the sex is not reput on words to express a difference of meaning. garded.

Adam Smith remarks, that in many languages II. INFLECTION,

the qualities both of sex and of the want of sex are Any change made upon the termination of a word is expressed by different terminations in the nouns subcalled its accident or inflection ; thus, the words, boy's, stantive which denote objects so qualified.' After harder, its, loved, and sooner, are said to be inflected showing that, in Latin, certain terminations were apforms, or simply inflections of the words boy, hard, it, propriated to expressing certain genders, he adds—The lore, and soon. Of the eight parts of speech, five only, quality (of sex] appears in nature as a modification of the noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, and adverb---are the substance; and as it is thus expressed in landeclinable-that is, capable of being inflected; while guage by a modification of the noun substantive which the remaining three-preposition, conjunction, and in- denotes that substance, the quality and the subject are terjection-are indeclinable—that is, cannot be varied in in this case blended together, if I may say so, in the such a way as to express any modification in meaning. expression, in the same manner as they appear to be

in the object and in the idea. Hence the origin of the Inflection of Nouns.

masculine, feminine, and neuter genders, in all the The noun is varied in three ways—by Number, Gen- ancient languages.' der, and Case.

Admitting the truth as well as the ingenuity of this Number shows whether one or more than one thing speculation, as far as regards ancient languages, it does is meant by the noun.

not appear to be the genius of the English language to There are two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural. assign any particular termination (as we find in the The singular expresses one of a class; as river, horse. Latin) to the different genders; there are, however, The plural denotes more than one; as rivers, horses. some cases in which gender may be recognised from The plural is generally formed from the singular, by the mere termination of the noun, as will appear from adding the letter s; thus, table, tables; book, books. the following table :

Nouns ending in any of the five following terminations, s, sh, ch (when pronounced soft), x, and o (impure—that is, preceded by a consonant), form their

Heir

Heiress plural by adding es to the singular; thus, brush, brushes;

Lion

Lioness church, churches; box, boxes; hero, heroes.

Master

Mistress. When ch is pronounced hard, and when o is preceded by a vowel , the plural is formed by adding 8; thus, totally different word, and the gender cannot be known

In some cases difference of sex is expressed by a monarch, monarchs; folio, folios.

but by knowing the exact idea attached to the word. wards become more easily recognisable. In the following sen- Of this sort are the following :tence it is at once perceived what relation the first in expresses, but much more difficult to get the distinct idea meant to be con

Boy veyed by the second : -Diogenes sat in a tub, but he was gene

Father

Mother rally in good-humour.'

MASCULINE.
Actor
Governor

FEMININE,
Actress
Governess

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NASCULINE.

FEMININE.

Girl

Brother

Sister.

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SINGULAR.
Nominative. Brother

Brother's

PLURAL.
Brothers
Brothers'

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Men
Men's

Man's
Man

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Sometimes the same word is applied to males and The Nominative and Objective of nouns are alike in females indiscriminately; and when we wish to distin- form; and it is only by observing how the noun stands guish the sex, we prefix another word. Thus the word related to other words, that we can say when it is in the servant signifies either a male or a female ; but if we one and when in the other. To decide on the case of a desire to notify which, we can use the compound words noun, we must look before and after.' The Possesman-servant or maid-servant. Of the same kind are sive, however, may be recognised by its form, as well he-goat and she-goat, cock-sparrow and hen - sparrow, as by its function, as it for the most part ends with 's and many others.

in the singular, and ' after the s in the plural. CASE.—Case is that accident of a noun which points A noun is thus declined : out the relation which it bears to other parts of the sentence. Nouns have three cases — Nominative, Possessive,

Possessive. and Objective.

Objective. Brother Brothers. The noun is said to be in the Nominative when it is When the plural does not end in s, the Possessive is the subject of discourse, and represents the person or formed in the same way as the singular; thus thing of whom or which some assertion is made. Thus in the sentence, ‘John reads,' the proper noun John is said to be in the Nominative, because it names the

Nominative. Man

Possessive. person of whom the assertion reads is made.

Objective.

Men. The Possessive represents a vast variety of relations, but the principal one is that of ownership or possession.

Inflection of Adjectives. Thus, .John's book is lost,' where John's is in the pos- In many languages the Adjective is changed in ter. sessive, because it names the owner of the book.* mination, to correspond with the noun which it qua

The inflection of the Possessive Case (the only case lifies; but in the English tongue there is no such in English that has an inflection) corresponds exactly modification; and here, as in many other respects, our in import to the preposition of. In the line,

language seems superior in metaphysical propriety to • An angel's virtues and a woman's love,'

most others, because the accident of gender cannot prowe could easily dispense with the possessive, and intro- perly belong to a quality which is itself but an accident duce the preposition, where the whole meaning would and no self-existing thing. "Gender,' it is observed by be preserved; thus,

Adam Smith, 'cannot properly belong to a noun adjec

tive, the signification of which is always precisely the The virtues of an angel and the love of a woman.

same, to whatever species of substantives it is applied. Adam Smith asserts that inflections would probably When we say “a great man,” “ a great woman,” the be made before prepositions were invented ; observing word great has precisely the same meaning in both very justly, that it requires much less abstraction to cases, and the difference of the sex in the subjects to express the nature of the relation that subsists between which it may be applied makes no sort of difference in two objects by a change on the name denoting one of them, its signification. Magnus, magna, magnum, in the same than to call into use a class of words expressing rela- manner, are words which express precisely the same tion and nothing else. To express relation by a varia- quality, and the change of the termination is accomtion in the name of the correlative object, requiring panied with no sort of variation in the meaning. Sex neither abstraction nor generalisation, nor comparison and gender are qualities that belong to substances, but of any kind, would at first be much more natural and cannot belong to the qualities of substances.' easy than to express it by those general words called But while the nature of the thing which the adjecprepositions, of which the first invention must have tive is employed to express cannot be varied, yet it demanded some degree of all these operations.' may exist in different proportions; and hence the ad

This speculation is exceedingly ingenious; but whether jective is varied to express different degrees of the it be true in general is, to say the least, doubtful; and quality indicated by it, and these variations are called as far as the possessive of the English noun goes, it Degrees of Comparison. must be allowed, we think, to be wide of the truth. When the simple quality is denoted, the adjective

The noun is in the Objective Case-Ist, when it names is said to be in the Positive Degree. When a higher the object on which the action expressed by a transi- degree is signified, the adjective is in the Comparative; tive verb operates; and 2d, when it names the thing and when the highest degree is expressed, it is said to shown to be related to something else by a preposition. be in the Superlative. Logically considered, indeed, In the sentence, 'John destroyed his book, book is the positive involves the idea of comparison as much expressing the object on which the verbal action ope- as the comparative: thus, when we affirm of a moun. rates; it is therefore said to be in the objective case. tain that it is lofty, we must have a tacit reference to Again, in the sentence, “ The cloud rises over the hill,' other mountains; when we affirm of any particular hill is in the objective, because it is the word shown to river that it is rapid, we (unconsciously, perhaps, but be related to cloud by the preposition over.

yet actually) make a comparison between it and some

other rivers. We consider it, therefore, impossible to * Concerning the origin of the possessive case English gram- state any essential difference between the degrees of marians and critics are not agreed. Some maintain that it is comparison ; but in addition to what we have already what we may call indigenous to the language, corresponding, said, we may mention that the comparative degree dethey affirm, to an inflection of the Saxon noun; but we rather notes that the quality expressed by it belongs to one incline to the opinion of Addison, who thinks that the possessive of two objects in a greater degree than to the other ; termination is only a contraction for the pronoun his. Had the and the superlative, that it belongs to one of several possessive case been native to our tongue, it is hardly conceivable in a greater degree than to any of the rest.

For exthat the translators of the Bible would have used such an expres- ample, when we say that the line A is longer sion as · Asa his heart was perfect. It has been ingeniously than the line B—, the meaning is, that both lines objected to Addison's explanation, that while it is very easy to have a certain quality--length, but that A has more see how the king his crown’ might have been contracted or of it than B. When the comparison is drawn between corrupted into the king's crown,' it is impossible to imagine more things than two, we use the superlative. Thus, that the queen her crown,' or 'the children their bread,' could have been subjected to the same contraction. But surely

we say of the lines A, B- -, C

Dthis objection is not unanswerable; for when the convenience of that C is the longest. In the same way, speaking of the contraction was seen in the case of singular nouns masculine, stone and wood, we might say, “Stone is the harder it might very easily be transferred to nouns feminine and plural body of the two;' but if we are discoursing of iron, We would not be understood, however, to speak confidently on stone, and wood, we must use the superlative, and say, the point; and in whatever way the possessive was introduced, Iron is the hardest body of the three.' it is now impossiblo, supposing it were desirable, to displace it. The whole class of Numeral Adjectives, from their

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COMPARATIVE.

Good

SUPERLATIVE.

Best
Worst

Worse

Most

More
Later

Late
Near

Tery nature, cannot be in any other degree than the

Inflection of Verbs. positive; and with respect to Attributive Adjectives, it is to be observed that those only which express a

The Verb is varied in four ways-namely, by Numquality which may exist in greater or less proportions ber, Person, Mood, and Tense. can be compared : for instance, if the exact ideus re- There are two Numbers--singular and plural—as in presented by the words circular, square, triangular, and the case of the noun; and three Persons, as in the proalso such words as chief, extreme, universal, true, and nouns. eternal, be apprehended by the mind, by the very act

The Moods are generally reckoned five in number of apprehension it will be seen that it would be contra- the Indicative, the Subjunctive, the Potential, the Imdictory to their nature to admit of any increase. Let perative, and the Infinitive. But it may well be ques. the student reflect on this, and then he will be able tioned if there is any real ground for such distinction, to dispense with rules about the use of chief, perpen- as far at least as the Subjunctive and Potential are condicular, &c. because he will see at once, from the cerned. The Subjunctive, as it is called, is inerely an nature of the idea suggested by the word, whether it elliptical mode of expression, and the Potential is made admits of increase or diminution.

up of two or more verbs, and therefore it can with no The Comparative is formed by adding er to the Posi- propriety be called an inflection of any one of them. tive, if it end with a consonant, and r simply, if it end

This leaves us the Indicative, by which simple asserin the vowel e; thus, hard, harder ; large, larger. tions are made; the Imperative, by which commands

Adjectives compared in this manner are said to be are issued; and the Infinitive, which is neither more Regular; but some adjectives follow no fixed rule in nor less than the name of the verb, and in use correforming their degrees of comparison, and these are sponds exactly to a noun. called Irregular. The following are those most com

The Tenses are two in number—the Present and monly in use :

the Past : the Future is not expressed by any inflection

of the verb in English, as it is in Latin, French, and POSITIVE

other languages, but by the help of another verb; and Better

it is surely absurd to force a distinction upon the EngBad

lish verb merely because it exists in Latin.*
Little
Less
Least

The Participles of the verb are likewise two in numMuch or many

ber--the Perfect and the Imperfect. They are often Latest or last

called the Present and Past, but in themselves they Nearer Nearest or next.

have no reference to time, and merely indicate the Sometimes the same idea is conveyed by prefixing completion or non-completion of an action. an adverb to the adjective in its simple state: thus According to this view of the verb--the only coninstead of saying juster, we might say more just; sistent one-it has no such thing as a passive voice. but it is not therefore to be inferred that more just what is called the passive voice is not formed by any is the comparison of just. Were this principle ad- variety of termination, and so cannot be acknowledged mitted, we should soon have inextricable confusion. as an inflection, without opening a door to all manner In such cases, more is an adverb in the compara- of confusion. tive, qualifying the adjective just, and the two words • The English verb,' says Crombie in his " Treatise on should be parsed separately. The prefixing of an ad- the Etymology and Syntax of the English Language,' verb cannot, with any justice, be called a variation of 'has only one voice-namely, the active. Dr Lowth, the adjective.

and most other grammarians, have assigned it two A few adjectives have a plural form, particularly voices--active and passive. Lowth has in this instance the demonstrative, this and that ; in the plural, these not only violated the simplicity of our language, but and those : one, other, and another, are also sometimes has also advanced an opinion inconsistent with his own varied by number or case.

principles. For if he has justly excluded from the

number of cases in nouns, and moods in verbs, those Inflection of Pronouns.

which are not formed by inflection, but by the addition The Pronoun, like the Noun, is varied by Gender, of prepositions and auxiliary verbs, there is equal reaNumber, Person, and Case.

son for rejecting a passive voice, if it be not formed by The Personal Pronouns are thus declined :

variety of termination. Were I to ask him why he SINGULAR NUMBER.

denies from a king to be an ablative case, or I may love

to be the potential mood, he would answer, and very NOMINATIVE.

truly, that those only can be justly regarded as cases Isl Person, I

or moods which, by a different form of the noun or Thine Theo

verb, express a different relation or a different mode of He, she, it His, hers, its Him, her, it.

existence. If this answer be satisfactory, there can be PLURAL NUMBER.

no good reason for assigning to our language a passive voice, when that voice is formed not by inflection, but

by an auxiliary verb. Doceor [being an inflection of Ist Person, We

Ours
You

the word doceo) is truly a passive voice; but I am taught 3d

Theirs
Them.

cannot, without impropriety, be considered as such."

By conjugating a verb is meant mentioning the preBy inspecting the two following lines, the student sent and past tenses and the perfect participle. will understand what we meant by saying, that the The past tense and perfect participle are formed Possessive Pronouns, or, as we prefer calling them, from the present tense by adding ed if it end in a conPronominal Adjectives, were derived from, and cor- sonant, as rain, rained; and simply d if it end in a responded with, the personal pronouns :

vowel, as change, changed. I

If these parts are formed in any other way, the verb they

you his hers its

yours theirs.

* A little reflection may, I think, suffice to convince any The Relative and Interrogative Pronouns, who and person that we have no more business with a future tense in our which, are alike in both numbers, and are thus de- language than we have with the whole system of Latin moods clined :

and tenses; because we have no modification of our verbs to Who. Which.

correspond to it; and if we had never heard of a future tense in Nominative. Who

some other language, we should no more have given a particular Possessive. Whose Whose

name to the combination of the verb with the auxiliary shall or Objective. Whom Which.

will, than to those that are made with the auxiliaries do, have,

can, must, or any other.--PRIESTLEY's Rudiments of English That and as are indeclinable.

Grammar.

583

POSSESSIVE.

OBJECTIVE.

Me

Mine

2d

Thou

3d

NOMINATIVE.

POSSESSIVE.

OBJECTIVE.

Us

2d

Yours

Ye or you
They

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Wear

is called Irregular; and if it wants any of them, it is The Irregular Verbs, Be, Do, Have, and the Defecsaid to be Defective.

tive Verbs, Shall, Will, May, Can, from their frequent We subjoin a few of the Irregular Verbs in most fre- occurrence, ought to be carefully examined. Tables of quent use, or in which mistakes are apt to arise :- them are here presented:-PRESENT.

PAST.
PERFECT PARTICIPLE.

To Be
Am
was
been

Present Tense. Past Tense. Ariso arisen

Perfect Participle. arose

Am.
Was.

Been.
Awake
awoke pesme

awaked Bear (to carry) bore born

PRESENT TENSE. Bear (to bring forth) bare

born Bereavo bereft 7 bereft SINGULAR

PLURAL. Beseech begonght besought 1. I am

1. We are Bid bado bid 2. Thou art

2. Ye or you are Bite bit bitten 3. He is.

3. They are. Build builtr

built Catch caught caught

PAST TENSE. Choose chose chosen SINGULAR.

PLURAL
Cleave (to split) cleft, clore

cleft, cloven
1. I was

1. We were Cleave (to cling to) clave

cleaved
2. Thou wast

2. Ye or you wero Clotho clothed clothed, clad 3. He was.

3. They were. Crow crew crowed

Imperative, Be. Infinitive, To be. Dare to venture) durst

dared Dare (to challenge) dared dared

PARTICIPLES. Deal dealt dealt

Imperfect, Being. Perfect, Been. Drink drank

drunk, drunken Eat ate eaten

The verb To Be has a peculiar inflection, to express Fly flew flown

contingency or conditionality, which we here subjoin. Freeze froze

frozen Hang hung hung, hanged

It may be called the Conditional or Subjunctive Mood. Hide hid hidden, hid

In the case of other verbs, this form is elliptical. Lay (to deposit) laid

laid Lie (as on a bed) lay

lain

CONDITIONAL TENSE OF THE VERB TO BE. Ring rang, rung rung SINGULAR.

PLURAL. Rive rived riven 1. I were

1. We were Run ran run 2. Thou wert

2. Ye were Shako shook shaken 3. He were.

3. They were. Shoe shod

shod Shrink shrunk shrunk

To Do. Slink slunk

slunk Spit spit spit

Present Tense. Past Tense. Perfect Participle. Swiin

Do.

Did.
swam, swum
Swum

Done.
Take
took
taken

PRESENT TENSE, Tare tore

torn Tread trod trodden SINGULAR.

PLURAL. Wax waxed, waxen waxed

1. I do

1. We do
wore
worn
2. Thou doest or dost

2. Ye do
Win
won
won
3. He does or doeth.

3. They do. Worked wrought wrought r.

PAST TENSE. The Regular Verb is thus inflected :-

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
To Love

1. I did

1. We did Present Tense. Past Tense.

2. Thou didst Perfect Participle.

2. Ye did

3. He did.
Love.
Loved.
Loved

3. They did.

Imperative, Do. Infinitive, To do.
PRESENT TENSE.
SINGULAR.
PLURAL.

PARTICIPLES.
1st Person, I love
1st Person, We love

Imperfect, Doing. Perfect, Done. 2d Thou lovest

2d

Ye or you love
3d
He loves.

3d
They love.

To Have
PAST TENSE.

Present Tense. Past Tense. Perfect Participle.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Have.
Had.

Had. 1. I loved

1. We loved 2. Thou lovedst 2. Ye or you loved PRESENT TENSE.

PAST TENSE. 3. He loved.

3. They loved.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Imperative, Love. Infinitive, To love.

1. I have
1. We have 1. I had

1. We had PARTICIPLES.

2. Thou hast 2. Ye have 2. Thou hadst 2. Ye had

3. He has. Imperfect, Loving. Perfect, Loved.

3. They have.

3. He had. 3. They had.

Imperative, Have. Infinitive, To have. The verb To Write is irregular, and is thus conju

PARTICIPLES. gated and declined :

Imperfect, Having. Perfect, Had.
TO WRITE.
Present Tense. Past Tense. Perfect Participle.

SHALL,
Write.
Wrote.
Written.
PRESENT TENSE.

PAST TENSE,
PRESENT TENSE,

SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR

PLURAL, SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

1. I shall 1. We shall 1. I should 1. We should 1. I write

1. We write

2. Thou shalt 2. Ye shall 2. Thou shouldst 2. Ye should 2. Thou writest

2. Ye or you write
3. He shall. 3. They shall. 3. He should.

3. They should 3. He writes. 3. They write.

WILL.
PAST TENSE.

PRESENT TENSE.
SINGULAR.
PLURAL.

PAST TENSE. 1. I wrote

1. We wrote
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 2. Thou wrotest

2. Ye or you wrote
1. I will 1. We will 1. I would

1. We would 3. He wrote.

3. They wrote.

2. Thou wilt 2. Ye will 2. Thou wouldst 2. Ye would

3. He will. Imperative, Write. Infinitive, To write.

3. They will 3. He would. 3. They would. PARTICIPLES

ΜΑΥ.
Imperfect, Writing. Perfect, Written.

PRESENT TENSE.

PAST TENSE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. * The verbs which are conjugated regularly as well as irregu

1. We may

1. I might 1. We might. larly are marked with an r. Thus the past tense of awake is 2. Thou mayst 2. Ye may 2. Thou mightst 2. Ye might either awoke or awaked; of build, builded, or buill.

3. He may.

3. They may. | 3. Lo might. 3. They might. 584

1. I may

POSITIVE.

Soon

COMPARATIVE.

Sooner

SUPERLATIVE.

Soonest

POSITIVE.

COMPARATIVE.

Better

SUPERLATIVE.

Best

Cav.

in the same way as it was aftor will, in the former part of the PRESENT TENSE,

sentence.

PAST TENSE.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR,
TLC'RAL.

A, a numeral adjective, or indefinite article, designating the 1. I can 1. We can 1. I could

1. We could noun pool. 2. Thou canst 2. Ye can 2. Thou couldst 2. Ye could Pool, a roun, singular, neuter, and objective case, being the 3. He can. 3. They can. 3. Ho could. 3. They could.

thing affected by the transitive verb fill. Inflection of Adverbs.

Additional Remarks. -- Before quitting this division Adverbs for the most part admit no modification or of our subject, we must inform the reader that the inflection': a few, however, are compared like adjce- same word is frequently used in different ways, and tives.

consequently belongs to different parts of speech. NoSome are Regular, as

thing can be more certain than that every word must
have been originally significant of only one idea ; but

in the progress of language other ideas attach them-
Often
Oftener
Oftenest

selves to it, and the grammarian must not resist this
Seldon
Seldomer
Seldomest. extension of meaning, but carefully observe it. To

discover, then, what class of words any word belongs Others are Irregular, as

to, we must look before and after;' but a few examples

will illustrate our meaning best.
Well

Come out of the wet.' Here wet is a noun, because
Badly or ill
Worse
Worst

it is a name expressive of a certain state of the ele-
Little
Legs
Least

ments. 'John threw off his wet clothes. Here wet is
Much
More
Most.

an adjective, because it qualifies the noun clothes. A
shower came on and wet the ground.' Here wet is a

verb, because it expresses an action. The shower did The student will now be able to parse a sentence, something-wet the ground.' mentioning not merely what part of speech any word On the following examples let the student exercise is, but what inflection it has undergone, and how it himself, in satisfying himself as to the justness of our stands related to other words. By way of example, assertions with regard to the class of those words which we shall parse one sentence from Bacon :

may belong to one or more :"A single life doth well with churchmen; for charity will 1. The sun is the great source of light (noun). hardly water the ground where it must first fill a pool.'

Feathers are light (adjec.). A, a numeral adjective, qualifying the noun life. It is com

And nightly lights (verb) the waters with her sheen. monly called the indefinite article.

2. Beloved, let us love (verb) one another; for love (noun) is Single, an attributive adjective, designating the noun life. It of God. cannot be compared.

3. Then he arose and rebuked the winds and the sea, and Life, a noun, singular number, neuter gender, and the nomi- there was a great calm (noun). native case, because it is the thing of which something is asserted. The plural of life is lires.

Thy brow is calm (adjec.) and bright, Doth, a verb, because it asserts something of the noun life: it

Wearing no trace of sorrow or of sin. is in the present tense, indicativo mood, and the third person

To still the pang that conscience can impart, singular, to agree with its noun life. Dolh is now almost obso

And calm (verb) the restless pulses of the heart. lete, dors being the word in common use. The verb To Do is

Ilow often have I loitered o'er thy green (noun), conjugated thus: Present Tense, Do; Past, Did; Perfect Parti

Where humble happiness endeared each scene. ciple, Done. Well, an adverb, expressing how a single lifo doth.' Vell is

Yet wandering, I found, on my ruinous walk, in the positive degree, and is compared thus: Positive, Well;

By the dial-stone aged and green (adjec.). Comparative, Better; Superlative, Best.

5. Thy nightly (adjec.) visits to my chamber made. With, a preposition, used in a metaphorical sense, to connect church men with single life.

When the blue wave rolls nightly (adverb). Churchmon, a noun plural, masculine, and the objective; being

On doep Galilee. the object shown to be related to something else by the preposi

6. Yes, there are charms that (rel. pron.) scorn tho spoiler tion arith. The singular is church man. All nouns, it should be

Time! remembered, are of the third person.

Bieseed are those, For, a conjunction, connecting the clause that follows with the one which went before.

Whose blood and judgment are so well commingled, Charily, a noun, being primarily the name of a disposition of That (conjunc.) they are not a pipe for fortune's finger mind, and secondarily of the course of action resulting from

To sound what stop she pleases. Give me that (demon. adjec.) that disposition; singular number, neuter gender, and the nominative to the verb will.

That (rel. pron.) is not passion's slave, and I will wear him Will, a verb, present tense, singular number, and third person, In iny heart's core. to agree with charity.

7. The common still (noun) can only be employed, &c. Hardly is an adverb of degree, qualifying the verb water.

Hope quickens the still (adjec.) parts of life. Water is a verb in the infinitive mood. To, the sign of the in

Is this the Talbot so much feared abroad, finitive, is suppressed after a great number of verbs, and will is one of them. Hill is a defective verb, and is conjugated thus:

That with his name the mothers slill (verb) their babcy? Present Tense, Will; Past Tense, Would.

It hath been anciently reported, and is still (adverb) ro. The, a numeral adjective, or definite article, qualifying the ceived, &c. noun ground.

John has been very foolish, still (conjunc.) I will not dismiss Ground, a noun, singular, neuter, and the objective, being the

hirn, thing which is affected by the verb water.

Where is of the nature of a conjunction, since it unites the Let the student further exercise himself in what two members of the last clause; but it also has in it the force of respects one part of specch resembles another, and an adverb, being equivalent to in the case in which. We may wherein it differs. He will find that the noun and therefore call it a conjunctive adverb. It is a personal pronoun, singular, neuter, and third person, junction, resemble each other in some respects, but

pronoun, adjective and adverb, preposition and consupplying the place of the noun charity. It is the nominative to the verb must.

that they yet are quite distinct. Must is a verb, asserting something of the pronoun it. It is in

We conclude this subject with two brief extracts the present tense, and third person singular.

from Locke's • Essay on the Human Understanding,' First is an adverb of time, qualifying the verb fill.

book ii. chap. 7:- Besides words which are names of Fill is a vorb in the infinitive, to being understood after must, ideas in the mind, there are a great many others that

man

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