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be acquainted with the value of labour, and know the 62), which have been recently opened in many of connection between it and property ; that they should our populous cities. It is not as an improvement, have intelligence, skill, and an acquaintance with the which may or may not be adopted, that industrial objects by which they are surrounded; that the higher education is here to be advocated; it is called for as sentiments, the social and moral part of their being, something absolutely necessary, to counteract an inheshould receive a full development. The industrial oc- rent tendency of all asylums for the maintenance and cupation is gardening, pursued in a piece of ground education of children to become monastic'institutions. connected with the school. “It is divided,' says Mr The children are kept apart from external nature, Bache in the Report already quoted, one portion being from human society, and from many or most of the reserved for the use of the school, another being sub-common operations of life. They come out as helpless divided into small gardens for the boys. The pupils nearly as they went in. Industrial education presents work in the first under monitors, and receive a com- itself as almost the only conceivable means of fitting pensation in proportion to the useful results of their such children for entering the world in anything like labour. The second they hire at fixed rates, and dis- | the same condition as other children. It is not essen. pose of the produce as they please, always receiving, tial that any one child be made a proficient in any one however, the market price for it from the school, if they art; the great end is to make them generally acquainted choose to dispose of it there. The younger children with the arts of life, and to prepare them by habits of are not allowed to undertake gardens on their own ac. industry for earning their own bread when they grow count, but work for others, or for the establishment. up. From the attention which the Poor-Law Commis
. Partnerships are sometimes formed among them for sioners are giving to the subject, we have no doubt the inore advantageous cultivation of larger pieces of that in a short time we shall see the whole of the fortyground. An account current with each pupil is kept, five thousand orphan and pauper children of England in which he is charged with the rent of his ground, and educated in this wholesome manner. In the late re. the seeds and plants which he has purchased from the ports of the commissioners there are some excellent stock, and credited with the produce which he has sold hints thrown out. Different arrangements are recom. to the school,
mended for different districts. It is suggested, that in In-door occupations are less desirable in alternation an agricultural district there ought to be a large garden with school instruction than these healthy out-of-door which the children should be taught to cultivate, in labours, but must have the effect of training to steady order to become acquainted with those duties which and persevering habits, not to speak of the actual skill they will probably be called to perform when they are conferred by them. As an example of a school in which sent out into the world. They should also be taught such occupations are pursued, we select that of the to erect sheds or outhouses, to make wheelbarrows and Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea, where 600 children other simple utensils, and to fashion desks and forms of non-commissioned officers are reared. Those above for the school. Thus, as farm-servants, they will be eleven are here taught handicrafts, about four hours able to execute a number of little jobs in carpentry a day of three days of the week being thus devoted. which would otherwise require the interference of the • Rather less than a hundred boys,' we quote the Re- proper tradesman. To enable them to contribute to port of the National School Society,'' work as tailors; their own personal comfort and that of their housefifty each day alternately: about the same number are hold, without an expenditure of their earnings, they employed in a similar manner as shoemakers, cap should be taught to make and mend their own clothes makers, and in covering and repairing their old school and shoes, to plait straw-hats, to make straw mattresses, books; besides which, there are two sets or companies and whitewash walls. In a manufacturing district of knitters and of shirt-makers, and others who are the employments should bear a similar relation to the engaged as porters, gardeners, in kitchen-work, &c. trades of the neighbourhood; and in or near a seaport, Everything is done by those who work at the trades the arts connected with maritime life should be taught. except the cutting-out. This branch, requiring more Such, in brief, are the views of the commissioners experience, is managed by the old regimental shoe- respecting the boys: they recommend that the girls makers, tailors, &c. who, with aged sergeants and cor. should be trained to the household duties of cooking, porals, and their wives, manage the concerns of the cleaning, and washing clothes, sewing and knitting, by institution. The system of monitors and teachers to having to perform those duties as far as required in overlook the other boys at work is generally adopted; the workhouse. It is worthy of remark, that in the while, in addition to the various branches of industry Marylebone charity for girls, this plan has been for mentioned, the school furnishes a company of drum- many years acted upon with excellent results. There mers and fifers, and an excellent band of music; the the girls are accustomed to make their own beds, to players necessarily devoting a considerable part of clean their own knives, forks, and shoes, and to be their time to the practice of their instruments. scrupulously clean in their dress. “Their chief erThough there are some defects, the asylum is allowed ployment' (Journal of Education,' i. 287) ‘ is needle. to be an evidence that a greater degree of progress work; but they are employed in rotation to scour the may be made in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and school-rooms, the play-rooms, and the washing-rooms, in other branches of learning, than is attained in the the tables, forms, and stairs, as well as to prepare and great majority of schools, and yet that the boys may remove the meals of the rest of the scholars, and to be taught music, gymnastic exercises, and various use- wait upon the domestic superintendent and officers.' ful trades; thus improving their health, increasing their The reporter of these circumstances adds, and we means of enjoyment, and promoting their future inte fully concur in his sentiments :--The value of charirests, much more effectually than by the prevailing ties of this description is too obrious to require parti
cular comment. By establishing good habits, they Industrial education is practised with marked suc- doubtless accomplish more than can ever be effected by cess in various institutions for the reform of young mere precept; and they not only tend to make useful criminals, as in Parkhurst Penitentiary, Isle of servants, but provident, neat, and intelligent wives and Wight, and the Warwick County Asylum ; in several mothers. If it were possible to engraft some part of for the refuge of destitute persons, as in that at such a system on the national and other schools, these Hoxton, and the Guernsey Hospital; in various schools advantages would become generally diffused, and the for orphan and pauper children under the New Poor- consequence would be a great increase in the comfort Law Act, of which that at Norwood is a nost inte- of the houses of the poor, and an accompanying con: resting example; and in those charitable institutions tentment, productive of the best results on the characcommonly known as Ragged Schools (see p. 183, No. ter, among young married men of the working-classes,
whom the extravagance or mismanagement of untidy * Some Account of the Royal Military Asylum, Chelsea, Second and ignorant partners often drives to alehouses, and Publication of the Central Sociсty of Edlication. P. 290. other resorts of idleness and dissipation.'
Grammar (from the Greek word gramma, a letter) is, | rather to exhibit a few of the leading principles of our in its broadest sense, that branch of knowledge which language, the complete understanding of which will refers to the component parts of language.
supersede the necessity of minute observations on our The purpose of language is to express our ideas. part, as it will enable the student to make them for Similar classes of ideas necessarily arise in the minds himself. We cannot approve of the exhaustive system of every portion of the human family; for the mind is of teaching Syntax-framing a rule for every peculieverywhere the same, in kind if not in degree, and the arity that the language contains; much better is it to circumstances and desires of mankind are everywhere conduct the student at once to the principles, which less or more alike. To express these classes of ideas, are, as it were, the fountain-heads of rules. In the men, in all countries and in all stages of society, use one way, we should but exhibit to him everything by corresponding classes of words, although the words may our torchlight; but, in the other, we kindle his own, themselves be different. For example, men everywhere and having pointed out the road in which he is to see tangible objects around them. To these they apply travel, leave him to himself. When the student is distinct names or appellations, which form, it may be familiar with the principles, it may be desirable to said, one class of words—Nouns. They see things per- exercise himself on minute details, and a school gramform acis; as, for instance, they see cattle browse and mar (see list of school books in the preceding number kids dance. Thus arises another class of words--Verbs. on EDUCATION) should provide exercises on the minutest They see white cattle and black cattle; hence ADJEC- peculiarities of the language. TIVES. These and other kinds of words, or, to use the common phrase, parts of speech, are found equally in the language of the North American Indian and in the
ETYMOLOGY. refined discourse of the European philosopher. To ex- ETYMOLOGY, from the two Greek words, etumon, the bibit the nature and power of words, taken singly and root of a word, and logos, a discourse, is that part of in combination, viewed as a vehicle of thought or a grammar which treats of the various classes into which medium of communication, is the first and highest words are arranged, of the different modifications they object of the science of grammar.
undergo to express difference of meaning, and of their In the speech of every nation there are also many origin and history. peculiarities, both in the formation of words to express varieties of sense, and in the way in which words are
I. CLASSIFICATION. arranged, these being partly the result of intellectual Words are the symbols of ideas, and they are classipeculiarities of the people, and partly the effect of ac- fied and named, not from their form, but from the naeident. Grammar also takes cognisance of such pecu- ture of the idea which they represent or for which they liarities. Hence there is not only universal grammar, stand. The class of any particular word is only to be which relates to whatever is common to the structure ascertained by observing the office which it performs. of all language, but likewise a grammar for each par- What it does, alone indicates what it is. ticular tongue; as, for instance, the Greek graminar, It would be quite impossible to say, previous to acthe Latin grammar, the French and the English gram- tual inspection, how many sorts of words, or, as they mars. Our present business is with English grammar, are generally called, parts of speech, exist in any lanor to set forth, as well as we can, within sinall compass, guage; but upon examination, it is ascertained that the structure and the usages of the English language. all words used in the English language may be arranged
under eight heads or classes. There are four parts in English, as in other grammars, These eight parts of speech are-Noun, Adjective, Orthography, Etymology, Syntar, and Prosody. Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and
ORTHOGRAPHY, from the Greek words orthos, right, Interjection. and graphé, a writing, is that part of grammar which A definition of each of these classes of words ought teaches the nature and powers of letters, and the pro- to point out the characteristic or specific idea by which per method of spelling words.
it is distinguished from all the others; and every indiProsody, from the Greek word prosodia, the accent vidual word, brought under any of the eight heads, of a word, treats of the pronunciation of words, and of must agree with the definition, if it is adequate-that the laws of rhythm or versification.
is, neither too extensive nor too limited. On both these departments we mean to say nothing, principally because, as we apprehend, they can only be effectually taught by the living voice; besides, as far A Noux, from the Latin word nomen, a name, is the as relates to Orthography, so few general rules have been name of any person, place, thing, quality, or principle; ascertained, that they afford little help to the young or or, more generally, it is the name of whatever can be inexperienced student. Practice alone can give facility an object of contemplation or subject of discourse. and correctness in spelling. With regard to Prosody, The characteristic of the noun is this: it gives of we may further remark, that it relates to a mere luxury itself a distinct idea or object of thought; thus of the of language; because, to the effectual coinmunication words, to, pen, just, alas ! he, terrily, and ship, the only of thought, metrical arrangement of language is by no ones that present a picture to the ó mind's eye' are means necessary, and in an elementary work on gram- pen and ship. These, therefore, we call nouns ; but the inar, it may, without impropriety, be omitted.
others do not belong to this class. This leaves us Etymology and Syntax, which unde. It should be carefully observed that every proposiniably constitute the chief parts of grammar; and of tion, or sentence that asserts anything, must contain these we shall treat as fully as our limits permit. at least a noun and a verb-the noun to express the
In ETYMOLOGY we shall be guided by this principle, thing spoken about, and the verb to indicate what is which we hold to be established, that every word has affirined concerning it. of itself a distinct office to perform; and we shall en- Grammarians usually divide nouns into two great deavour to exhibit clearly the force and significance of classes-- Proper and Common. words taken singly.
Proper Nouns are such as are applied to individual In Syntax we shall not attempt to lay down rules, persons or things only; such as, Victoria, Britain, as they are called, for every mode of expression, but Edinburgh, Pyrenees, Jupiter. No. 87.
Common Nouns are applicable to whole classes of the definite article ; but as they in all respects one persons or objects; as, queen, island, city. Common under the definition of the adjective here giren, it is Nouns are by some divided into three sub-classes, called unnecessary as well as improper to rank them as s Abstract, Collective, and Verbal ; by which arrange- class by themselves. ment the class of Common Nouns, in the limited accep- In signification, a or an is equivalent to the numeral tation of the term, includes only the names of things adjective one, and the to the demonstrative adjective obvious to some of the five senses.
that; and the only difference between them is, that 2, An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality thought an, and the, convey the idea less emphatically than a of apart from all consideration of the substance in and that. Whoever reads Dr Crombie's remarks ül which the quality resides. The term bears reference the “ Article' must be convinced of the absurdity of to an act of the mind, called abstraction, by which we reckoning it a distinct part of speech. fix our attention on one property of an object, leaving Various other words, generally arranged under the the others out of view. Snow, chalk, and writing-paper head of Pronoun, seem more properly to belong to the are white, and from this quality are oppressive to the adjective. For instance, the eight words, my, ihy, his, eyes. Abstracting the quality from the substance, we her, its, our, your, their, correspond exactly in office with say, 'Whiteness is oppressive to the eyes.? Whiteness the definition of the adjective; but as they are derived thus becomes an abstract noun, Aú abstract noun from, and answer to the personal pronouns, they may be may also be a name indicating the want of a quality, called pronominal adjectives with more propriety than as unuorthiness. Comprehensively, abstract nouns are possessive pronouns. If they ever stand alone, they do the names of immaterial existences, acts, or states. not exactly supply the place of a noun, but merely bare
Collective Nouns are those which, though singular in it understood, and so, as will presently appear, do form, may suggest the idea of plurality. They are such come under the definition of pronour. In like manner, as, urmy, clergy, crowd, class.
the words this and that, with their plurals these and thusa The imperfect participle of a verb (which will be by many called demonstrative pronouns ; as also the treated of afterwards), when used as the name of an four words each, every, either, and neither, named dis, action, is called a Verbal Noun. For example, in the tributive pronouns--must in strict propriety be con sentence, “ The eye is not satistied with seeing, nor the sidered as adjectives, inasmuch as they both precede ear filled with hearing,' the words sceing and hearing and designate nouns, but never supply their place. are termed Verbal Nouns.
A Pronoun, as its composition indicates, is a worl An ADJECTIVE is a word that qualifies a noun-that is, that supplies the place of a noun, marks it out from other things that bear the same name. Pronouns may be divided into three classes--Per.
The characteristic of the adjective is, that it limits sonal, Relative, and Interrogatire. the application of the noun : thus the term island is The Personal Pronouns are three in number—Damelj, applicable to every portion of land surrounded by 1, thou ; and he, she, or it. water ; but if the adjective fertile be affixed to it, all I is used when the person speaking refers to hiiseli; islands not distinguished by the property of fertility thou, when he refers to the person addressed ; and being are excluded from our consideration.
she, or it, when he speaks of some other person or thing, This part of speech seems to have received its name In Mr Mill's · Analysis of the Human Mind,' a wcik from an accidental circumstance, and not from any equally interesting to the grammarian and the philo, thing essential to its nature. In the Latin language sopher, we find the following account of the Personal it was usual to place the word modifying the noun after Pronouns, and we confidently recommend it to the it, thus tabula longa, while we prefix it, and say a long attention of our readers :—- In all speech there is a table; the Latin grammarians, therefore, called this speaker ; there is some person spoken to; and there is class of words adjectives, from ad, to, and ject us, thrown, some person or thing spoken of. These objeets easand we retain the term, although our modifying word stitute three classes, marks of which are perpetually goes first. If the student has learned to recognise the required. Any artifice, therefore, to abridge the use noun, he will feel no difficulty in knowing the adjective, of marks of such frequent recurrence, was highly to because its office is to point out some peculiarity or be desired. One expedient offered itself obviously, as quality which distinguishes the noun.
likely to prove of the highest utility, Speakers coNouns adjective,' says Adam Smith,' are the words stituted one class, with numerous names; person: which express quality considered as qualifying, or, as spoken to, a second class ; persons and things spoken of, the schoolmen say, in concrete with some particular a third. A generical name might be invented for each subject. Thus the word green expresses à certain class-a name which would include all of a class, and quality considered as qualifying, or as in concrete with which singly might be used as the substitute of many. the particular subject to which it is applied. Words of For this end were the personal pronouns in rented, and this kind, it is evident, may serve to distinguish par- such is their character and otfice. “I” is the generical ticular objects from others comprehended under the mark which includes all marks of the class speakers; same general appellation. The words green tree, for “thou" is a generical mark which includes all marks example, inight serve to distinguish a particular tree of the class persons spoken to; "he," " she," " it," an from others that were withered or blasted.'
marks which include all marks of the class persons or Adjectives are generally divided into two great things spoken of.' classes Attributive and Numeral, or those which de- All pronouns refer to some noun, which, as it genenote quality and those which refer to number.
rally goes before, gets the name of antecedent; but as it The words a or an (two different forms of the same may come after, correlative would appear a better tere, word) and the, are reckoned by some grammarians a In the case of one class of pronouns, the reference is separate part of speech, and receive the common name so obvious and immediate, that they have been called of Article—a or an being called the indefinite, and the, Relative, by way of distinction. These are, ucho, rische
that, and as * Though we thus distinguish one class of nouns—those, person; which, when it is to a thing; that and as refer
Who is used when the reference is to s namely, which coine from adjectives or are closely connected either to persons or to things. with them--by the title abstract, we are far from wishing it to be inferred that common nouns are not apprehended by the same
The Interrogative Pronouns, so called because they faculty. On the contrary, metaphysical propriety compels us to are used to ask questions, are who, which, what, and admit that such is the case; and if any of our readers feel an
whether, When what is not used to ask a question, it interest in the question, we request him, before condemning our gets the name of Compound Relative Pronoun, as it in. opinion, to peruse the third chapter of the third book of Locke's cludes in itself the ideas of both correlative and rela* Essay Concerning Human Understanding,' and also Adam tive; thus, · Give me what is in your hand' is equiraSmith's • Dissertation on the Formation of Languages.' lent' to 'Give me the thing which is in your hand.
LIST OF PREPOSITIONS.
The inseparable word self, with its plural selves, is in most other tongues. Ruddiman justly says, “That called the Reciprocal Pronoun, and denotes that the adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to object and agent of the verb are the same.
express compendiously in one word what must otherSelf is added to personal pronouns for the same pur- wise have required two or more.' The truth of this pose that own is affixed to pronominal adjectives; that doctrine will appear by an inspection of the following is, to express emphasis or opposition. Thus, ‘I did it table of Adverbs of Place :with my own hand;' that is, without the assistance of any other person: He did it all himself;' that is, with.
This place, out any help from another.
The Preposition. The characteristic of the verb is affirmation; it A PREPOSITION is a word that connects two words may indeed, in common with the adjective, denote a together, in such a manner as to indicate the relation quality; but this is accidental, and not essential to its which the things or ideas signified by them bear to nature. The attribute and the assertion are often con- each other. joined in one word, as in the sentence, “ The man This part of speech, like the adjective, which it rerejoices ;' but they may be separated, and then an sembles in other respects, has received its name from adjective will denote the attribute and a verb will indi- an accidental circumstance. It generally goes immecate the assertion; thus, The man is joyful. It is diately before the object related to the other thing but fair to add, that this doctrine of the verb is not named; but the essence of the preposition, it should be universally received; although, after weighing the ad- carefully observed, is to signify relative position. verse arguments of Horne Tooke and Mr Mill, we are We subjoin a list of the prepositions in most common inclined to consider it well-founded.
and we recommend the student to exercise himOn attending carefully to the nature of the idea pre- self in putting them all, one after the other, into sensented by verbs, we find that, while they all assert, tences. In this way he will learn to apprehend their they differ in this respect, that some of them express a real significancy; and instead of calling a word a presort of action which affects or operates upon some per- position, because it is so named in a compendium of son or thing different from the agent, and that others grammar, he will recognise it from its function. Doubteither denote no action at all, or else a sort of action less, by committing the list to memory, a practice as which is limited to the actor. The first class is called common as it is mischievous, he might soon be able to Transitive, and the second Intransitive Verbs. If the parse; but his knowledge would be mere deception, student consider with attention the state of his own and he himself would be but as sounding brass and mind when he repeats, with intelligence, the sentences, a tinkling cymbal.' " James strikes the table,' and 'James walks,' he will have no difficulty in discerning the distinction that
Till exists between a Transitive and an Intransitive Verb.
Betwixt We have already stated, but the importance of the After
Near remark will justify its repetition, that as the noun Against
Toward denotes the thing spoken about, so the verb indicates Among
Amongst Beneath Off
Towards what we affirm concerning it. Without affirmation
Below there could be no communication of sentiment; hence Amidst
} the class of words by which affirmation is made has Around By
Since been dignified by the appellation of VERB, or the word. Round
Within • Verbs, remarks Adam Smith, 'must necessarily
Throughout Without. have been coeval with the very first attempts towards the formation of language. No affirmation can be ex- The following remarks on this part of speech by pressed without the assistance of some verb. We never Adam Smith, and his scarcely less illustrious disciple, speak but in order to express our opinion that some- Mr Mill, will amply repay an attentive examination: thing either is or is not. But the word denoting this " Prepositions are the words which express relation conevent, or this matter of fact, which is the subject of sidered in concrete with the correlative object. Thus, our affirmation, must always be a verb.'
the prepositions of, to, for, with, by, above, below, &c.
denote some relation subsisting between the objects The Adverb.
expressed by the words between which the prepositions An ADVERB is a word that qualifies a verb, adjec- are placed; and they denote that this relation is contive, or another adverb.
sidered in concrete with the correlative object. Words As a description of a fact in grammar, this is unob- of this kind serve to distinguish particular objects from jectionable; but it cannot be received as a definition, others of the same species, when those particular objects since the word defined is made use of in the definition cannot be so properly marked out by any peculiar quaIts application may be thus explained. If we wish to lities of their own. When we say "The green tree of the modify the noun or subject of a sentence, we must use meadow,” for example, we distinguish a particular tree, an adjective; but if the predicate is to be modified, or not only by the quality which belongs to it, but by the any additional modification to be put on a word already relation which it stands in to another object.' And again, qualifying it, the word then used must be an adverb: Every preposition denotes some relation considered thus, in the sentence, “The sun shines,' we have a in concrete with the correlative object. The preposisimple subject, “sun,' and a simple predicate,' shines.' tion above, for example, denotes the relation of supe. If we wish to express any quality of the subject, we must riority-not in abstract, as it is expressed by the word use an adjective; and if the predicate is to be modified, superiority, but in concrete with some correlative ob. we must bring in an adverb; thus, 'The bounteous sun ject. In this phrase, for example, " The tree above the shines,' and . The sun shines equally on all.'.
cave," the word above expresses a certain relation beAdverbs may be divided into four great classes :- tween the tree and the cave, and it expresses this rela1. Adverbs of Manner; as, well, ill, justly, wisely. tion in concrete with the correlative object, the cave, 2. Adverbs of Time; as, now, then, soon, when. A preposition always requires, in order to complete the 3. Adverbs of Place; as, here, hence, there, where. sense, some other word to come after it, as may be 4. Adverbs of Quantity; as, much, considerably. observed in this particular instance.'
The adverb, it may be observed, is an abbreviated To the same purpose Mill says— It is easy to see in mode of expression, and the idea could in all cases be what manner prepositions are employed to abridge the conveyed by the use of two or more words. They have process of discourse. They render us the same service a close affinity to adjectives, not only in English, but I which, we have seen, is rendered by adjectives, in afford
ing the means of naming minor classes, taken out of God, it is not implied that the man of piety' secures
to have felt quite satisfied as to the conclusiveness of
the mode of reasoning which we have been animadvertThe Conjunction.
ing on, for he immediately shifts his ground, and argues A CONJUNCTION, as its name imports, is a word used that, because in such a sentence as, His bag was full to join words and propositions together.
of hares, and pheasants, and partridges,' we may sub-
than that these great grammarians have taken up ?
jections have no more claim to be called parts of speech
“ Four and four, and two, are ten." with which he must be familiar; and by this mental
at once apparent. But not to deal in general
• A man that is young in years may be old in hours, if he has
lost no time; but that happeneth rarely. --Bacon's Essays.
A is an adjective, because it limits the signification of the noun
Man is a noun, because it is the name of a class of beings. this will not do in every case. The sentence, “Charles
That is a relative pronoun; its correlative is man. and John rode to town,' may certainly be resolved into
Is is a verb, because it asserts something (existence). two clauses, 'Charles rode to town,' and 'John rode
Young is an adjective, qualifying the noun man understood,
In is a preposition, inasmuch as it points out the relation that
* It must be confessed that it is not in all cases casy for the
by a dicate carried. In like manner, in the sentence, preposition. The student will do well to fimiliarise his mind * The man of piety and virtuę secures the favour of with physical relations in the first place, and moral will after