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Till within the last few years, the idea commonly en- | and precision in proportion as progress is made in a tertained with respect to general elementary educa- correct system of mental philosophy. tion, comprehended only certain branches of instruction While fully acknowledging the difficulty under which familiarly known by the terms reading, writing, and every candid writer on education must lie, the present arithmetic. A * liberal' education added ancient and would humbly endeavour to make the nearest approach modern languages and mathematics. Such formed to a correct system which his views of the natural chathe entire round of accomplishments which were sup- racter of the human being will admit of. He considers posed, with the accident-directed moral training of the the race as exhibiting a definite mental constitution, in domestic circle, to be sufficient to fit the youth of all its parts harmonising with the surrounding universe. even the highest classes for entering upon the varied He considers this constitution as embracing a variety duties of life. Nor was this scanty education thought of faculties, for sensation and action, which it is the requisite for all. A vast class was allowed to exist business of the educator to awaken, strengthen, and without the least tincture of school learning of any regulate, so that each person may arrive at the best kind, as not being supposed to require any knowledge condition of which his character is susceptible, and beyond that which immediately fitted them for the labo- most thoroughly fulfil the design of his being in all its rious duties by which they earned their bread. various respects. He views, in the first place, the
The active period which has elapsed since the con- faculties of the physical frame as requiring to be duly clusion of the last war (1815), has been distinguished exercised, so as to bring them to the utmost limit of by nothing more than by the enlargement of our ordi. their native power and health. Of the mental system, nary ideas with respect to education. It may be said he views those faculties which constitute the intellecto be now universally acknowledged that all--all, from tual powers as requiring to be drawn out, exercised, the peer to the peasant--ought to be educated, how- and instructed, so that they may operate readily and ever there may still be differences of opinion as to the efficiently for all the various purposes which they means of educating, and what education should consist are designed to serve; and those, again, which conof. It is also generally admitted that reading, writing, stitute the moral feelings as calling for the exertion and arithmetic, even when effectually taught, constitute upon them of all external moral influences—at the head but a branch of education, being merely instrumentary of which stands the revealed will of God with regard to accomplishments, the acquirement and cultivation of human destiny-in order that the best possible state of which tend in a certain degree to improve the intellect. feeling may be attained with regard both to the affairs The study of the ancient classical languages, while of the present and to a future state of existence. Upon still admitted by candid persons to be also a means these views of man's character a scheme of education of improving the intellect, is now no longer upheld, may be founded, which rational persons, as yet unpreexcepting by a few, as the grand instrument of liberal possessed by other notions, will, he thinks, generally education, the character in which it was generally re- acknowledge as accordant with common sense, however garded a few years ago. It is now seen that this study unprepared they may be to trace it to its foundation. gives to the youth of the middle and upper classes but He will therefore, without further preface, proceed to a portion, and in many instances not the most requisite describe such a scheme, adopting the appropriate diviportion, of what they should know on entering the sions into physical, moral, and intellectual, and comworld. The old elements of education may therefore bining, as far as his space permits, practical directions be said to have sunk from their former character of with what may be called the philosophy of the subject. all-sufficiency, and to have now taken their place as only parts of a complete education,
PHYSICAL EDUCATION.. The primary meaning of the term educate, from the The object of physical education is to insure, as far Latin educare, to lead or bring out, does not ill express as possible, that sound and vigorous frame of body the first great principle of the science. It may be held which, while all must feel it to be one of the greatest to assume that the human being is naturally in a com- of blessings, appears to be an essential concomitant of paratively rude and inert condition, and that external a sound condition of the mind itself. Physical education forces must be applied to draw forth his faculties into comes into operation before any other department, for their full activity and power, and bring them to their one of its first concerns is to take care that the human highest degree of refinement and nicety of application. being shall be brought into the world in the enjoyment This is, in reality, a large part of the business of edu- of a perfect organisation. The mother is here the education, taking even the widest view of its purposes. A cator. She is required, during pregnancy, to order her full definition would further include the regulation and life, with respect to food, dress, and all other habits, discipline of those moral feelings on which our actions according to certain rules, found to be conducive to the are mainly dependent, and also the communication of welfare of her future offspring. Judicious medical mnen such sections of knowledge as the circumstances and recommend that at this time the food taken should not prospects of individuals may render necessary. greatly differ from what is taken at other times. The
Before correct views can be entertained with regard dress should be loose and easy. Moderate exercise to education, or proper steps can be taken for working should be regularly, as far as possible, indulged in; and it out in practice, it is obvious that a distinct notion it is of the greatest consequence, that while ordinary ought to be attained as to the character of the being duties are attended to, a quiet, cheerful, and easy to be educated. Man is this being; but the question state of mind should be maintained. Departure froni • what is man?' is one to which science does not yet these rules, indulgence in late or otherwise irregular enable us to give an answer that all would acknow- hours, and exposure to the excitements produced by ledge as right. For this reason it is totally impossible violent passions, or the frivolities of fashionable life, for any writer to present a theory of education which are calculated to occasion deplorable effects on the would be generally received as a perfect science. The being yet to be brought into the world. subject must needs partake of the obscurity and uncer- INFANCY.-The physical education of an infant in, tainty which as yet rest upon at least the mental cha- volves simply the means of keeping it in health. For racter of man; and it will only advance in clearness this purpose nature has made one signal provision, in No. 86.
the tenderness which she has infused into the female aired nursery, and occasional walks out of doors, preheart--a feeling which insures an unfailing kindness tection from all injuries through the medium of the towards the young. But something besides kindness is nurse and otherwise, and the muscular exercise of required to rear children successfully. It is necessary which its system is capable. ()* that those who have the duty of nursing the young, Childhood, YOUTH, AND MANHOOD.--Physical eduwhether mothers or substitutes for mothers, should cation ought to be continued till the body is brought have some knowledge of the physiology of the infant to the utmost degree of perfection, in all its functions, body, or at least be acquainted with the rules of ma- of which it is capable. The improvement of all the nagement which result from such a knowledge. The systems and functions of the body may be called the sad effects of ignorance on this subject are sufficiently education of these systems and functions ; hence recent conspicuous; for we cannot doubt that, of the great writers on the subject speak of the education of the mortality of the young (about four-tenths of them dying skin, the education of the lungs, of the digestive organs, under five years of age), much is owing to erroneous of the muscular frame, of the brain. methods pursued in the nursery.
In a former number of this work—that on the PreHere the leading rules only can be indicated. An SERVATION OF HEALTH (No. 45)—most of the matters infant should never be plunged into cold water, or which fall under Physical Education are carefully exposed in any other way to cold, because, the circu- treated. By reverting to that paper, the reader mi lation being comparatively languid in the infant sub- find of how much importance must be the formation ject, he can less endure cold than grown-up persons; of habits of bodily cleanliness, seeing that the skin is and an attempt to produce hardiness may only under- a system which only can have a healthy function when mine health. It is of the greatest consequence that an it is thoroughly free from impurities, and that nothing infant should be kept constantly clean and dry, that is more indispensable for general soundness than the its hours be early and regular, and itself be as far as particular health of this part of our frame. In the same possible habituated to a periodic recurrence of all its paper, the value of a due supply of pure air for the wants. The mother's milk is the most appropriate health of the respiratory organs is insisted on; as also food; next, that of a nurse about the same time con- the proper regulation of the appetite for food. The fined; next, cow's milk warmed and diluted. Farina- education of the muscular system implies a competent ceous, or any other kind of solid food, is unsuitable to knowledge of the structure, attachment, and conditions the stomach of an infant under six months old. A child of action of the muscles; the operation of arterial blood ought, if possible, to be nursed about eight months, and and nervous influence on the muscles, and other matters, somewhat longer if weakly, or when the period of eight for which we refer to our number (8) entitled ANIMA months terminates in the dead of winter. After weaning, PursioLOGY—The Human Body. the food should be farinaceous—that is, of substances Under this branch of physical education falls all the composed of grain, potatoes, arrowroot, &c. Animal science of exercise-walking, riding, running, leaping, food should be avoided till the period of infancy may be swinging, skating, dancing, fencing, cricket, ball-play, considered as nearly at an end, and even then it should &c. The importance of these to health, in the full be of the tenderest fibre, and administered in very development of the muscles and improvement of the simple forms and moderate quantities.
frame, has long been known, and by some nations The food and general habits of the nurse are of great steadily practised. The perfect forms of the Greeks and direct importance. The child is immediately depen- and Persians were the result of this branch of educa. dent in all respects upon the person who suckles it; tion receiving a large share of national attention. thrives with that person, and also declines with her; Ample provision for such exercises should be made in suffers when she suffers, and is well when she is well. all seminaries of education, infant and more advanced. So remarkably is this the case, that an act so simple on What are strictly called gymnastics are more violent her part as the taking of a hasty draught of cold water, and trying than any we have mentioned, consisting of will probably give the infant a stomach-ache within climbing poles, leaping bars, swinging by the hands, two hours. It is therefore of the greatest consequence and maintaining difficult positions. These require to the welfare of the young, that those from whom they much caution in the watchful educator, and should not draw their sustenance should observe all the rules pro- be allowed in slender and weakly boys. They ought per to their condition. A nurse should live a quiet and not to be overdone by any youth whatever, seeing that, regular, but not inactive life, using simple wholesome even in the robust, strains and ruptures have been diet, avoiding stimulating drinks, and preserving, as far occasioned by them. (See GYMNASTICS, No. 95.) as possible, a cheerful mind. Fermented liquors, as porter and ale, are only to be resorted to when her
MORAL EDUCATION, strength would otherwise sink under exhaustion of her system. In ordinary health, a light beer is perhaps The training of our moral nature for the due perthe most suitable beverage.
formance of our part as members of society, is that For the due development of the muscular system of branch of education which the great majority of those an infant, its dress should sit light and easy upon its who have reflected on the subject consider as by far person, and its limbs should be allowed free play on all the most important. It is a great mistake to suppose possible occasions. The restless movements of an in- that this is a branch which the adrocates of improvefant, the tossing about of its head, arms, and limbs, are ments in education have generally overlooked. As far to be considered as merely impulses of nature, directing as we have observed, all but a small sect of this class it to exercise, and consequently strengthen, its mus- of philanthropists acknowledge its paramountcy. This cular system. These movements should therefore be is the part of education which, in a national system, rather encouraged than repressed. Care should be would call for the most attention, because, while degrees taken that it is not too soon allowed to bear its own of intellectual attainment are proper for different classes weight, as the natural consequence is bending the as yet of men, there is no class of whom it can be said, that soft bones of the legs, which may thus become deformed a right and perfect moral development is not of the for life. Whenever a child of proper age is unable utmost consequence both to themselves and the society to bear its own weight, or walk without this effect fol- of which they form a part. Beside such a benefit, lowing, we may be sure that its general health is defec- that of an acquaintance with the mere elements of lite tive ; and it is a more immediate and pressing duty to rature sinks into insignificance. There is no need, take measures for remedying this defect, than to attempt
* The numbers introduced in this manner refer to volumes of to keep the limbs straight by mechanical appliances. Chambers's Educational Course, according to a list (as far as
The general health of an infant may be described, in published) given at the close of the section · Intellectual Eduå word, as to be secured (supposing a good constitution cation. It will be understood that the volume referred to either at first) by food appropriate to its organs, warmth, treats that department of the theory and practice of education cleanliness, regularity in sleep and other wants, a well- | fully, or is a school-book in which the subject is ern bodied
however, to exalt any department of education at the to be awakened into activity by the presentation of its expense of another. It may be true that intellectual appropriate object; and it is the equally natural result, development is not expressly moral development; but that the frequent activity promotes the power and the it must be clear to every candid person that the refine- tendency to activity of those feelings. By presenting, ment and expansion of mind obtained from intellectual then, what are called temptations, we are taking a direct culture are favourable to the moral nature. A think- means of educating and strengthening the inclinations ing man is not on that account likely to be the less a towards error. On the contrary, a feeling allowed to virtuous man; else much of our common observations lie dormant, loses in power, and becomes always less of life must be a blindness and delusion. We would and less liable to act. There is perhaps a confusion of therefore say, let no department of education be con- ideas at the bottom of the objectionable theory. The true sidered as calling for exclusive or disproportionate cul- plan seems to be to remove all actual temptation, but tivation ; but let all go on in harmony together. to give the intellect and the moral feelings proper warn
Moral education can have no definition from us but ing against all such dangers, and thus prepare them the development and regimen of the moral nature for resistance when the time of unavoidable trial arof those who are to be educated. Of the perplexity rives. We would say, then, do not allow the young to which attends this part of our being, it is unnecessary see or touch evil things, or even to be in company where to speak. Let us only see if we can settle upon any such things are to be spoken lightly of, from an idea principles by which it may be beneficially affected. It that they are thus to be hardened against temptation. appears to include a variety of native feelings, of various Be content to inspire a salutary horror of such things strength and tendency to activity in every different by your own report, if you only are so fortunate as to person, yet all of them liable to be acted upon by ap- be able to keep your young charge exempt from posipropriate external means, to good as well as to evil. tive contact with what is discommendable. An error In a mind totally untrained, the good dispositions are may of course be committed in speaking too strongly not without some energy; but generally, where there against what you disapprove of, in which case the is a want of regulation of the feelings, and of certain young person no sooner discovers the exaggeration, principles to which the character of emotions and ac- than, from a principle of contradiction, he is inclined tions niay be referred as to a standard, the moral being to embrace the vice. But discretion will save from is a scene of deplorable confusion--the more so, of this mistake. Upon the whole, it may be set down as course, in instances where there is a considerable a most important rule in education, to reduce temptanatural endowment of the inferior feelings. We have tion within the smallest possible bounds. then the coarse, sensual, and selfish conduct which has Nearly connected with the education of circumstances been the mark of the rude and uneducated throughout is the education of example. Here personal conduct in all ages. On the other hand, we cannot doubt that the educating party is all in all. Children are remarkmany natures, not originally of a high cast, thrown ably disposed to imitation. They imitate instinctively, under influences which tended to check the less worthy without having necessarily any discrimination of the tendencies, to strengthen and develop the good, and character of the act which they are imitating. The to induce regularity over all, must have been thereby general nature of their conduct is therefore ruled very enabled to pass through life in a creditable manner, if much by the nature of the conduct presented to their not with some higher result less open to observation. observation. So much is this the case, that if a child
One principle thus strikes us at the outset as of very be carefully watched, he will be observed to contract å great consequence--namely, the circumstances, or, so to tendency to scolding and beating, from that very disspeak, the moral atmosphere, in which the being to be cipline by which, most erroneously, an endeavour is educated is placed. It is but matter of every-day ob- made to correct his errors. It must obviously, then, servation, that a child reared amidst gross scenes, where be of the greatest importance that the demeanour and no restraint is imposed upon any of the feelings by general actions of the educator, and of the family in those around him, will prove, in all likelihood, a very which a child is reared, should be models of all that different being from one brought up amidst virtuous is proper. Just the more amiable and correct in all and gentle people. Such a difference, we cannot doubt, respects that this conduct is, so will the young be the would exist even where no attempt has been made by more likely to form those habits which their best friends the latter parties to fashion the moral character of the could wish. We will not pause to consider the effect young creature committed to their charge. It is exactly which a positively vicious course of life is calculated to a difference of this nature which exists between the have on such of the young as witness it. The kind of youths native to the vale of the Missouri (or those of bad example which we have here a chance of helping the not less savage classes which social circumstances to abolish, is that which shows itself in acts far within produce in most great cities) and those of civilised the circle of positive vice. Such are the use of offensive countries in general: circumstances decide the one set and uncivil language, wranglings, domineering, low and to be barbarians, and the other to be tolerably well- sordid habits of all kinds. If parents and the other behaved persons.
This education of circumstances, grown-up members of a family do not restrain themthough so powerful, is unfortunately not always within selves from all such acts in the presence of children, the command of well-meaning parents
. Individuals there cannot be a doubt that the children will likewise are here generally able to do little of themselves, if the be addicted to them. It may be a somewhat startling persons by whom they are necessarily surrounded be doctrine, but we nevertheless declare our full convicnot of the character that is desirable. Thus it often tion that there is not the least need for ever using, happens that a poor though well-disposed man is obliged in the presence of or towards children, any language to live in a part of a city where his children can only which might not be addressed by a well-bred person to breathe moral contamination; and we can scarcelý a perfect equal. All ordering, dragooning, scolding, imagine a greater hardship. Yet these are just rea- and, much more, all violence, exerted for the purpose sons why every effort should be made to promote a of managing, or punishing a child, are unmitigated universal improvement of society; and it must rarely errors and evils. A child has feelings to be wounded happen that some arrangements cannot be made, ofa and roused up into contradiction by harsh usage, as character likely to operate favourably on the young well as any grown-up person; and it is well known that persons who are the objects of care.
such means are not serviceable for gaining any end with We would here impress the importance of removing our fellow-creatures. A civil request, if reasonable, temptation as much as possible out of the way of young will succeed with a child as with a man. Gentle and persons. There is a notion amongst some that a little respectful language gain as much upon an uncorrupted temptation is not amiss, as a means of training the child's nature as upon a man’s. Such treatment can young to withstand greater assaults. But this is, we have no chance of spoiling a young person: it will only are convinced, an ill-founded doctrine, and most fatal tend to his advancement as a rational well-bred being, policy. It is of the nature of every one of our feelings instead of making him a wrangler or a tyrant.
The preceptive part of moral education, though the The feelings are of very various character. Proceed.
Circumstances, example, precept, are all inferior in cent objects, but often leading into danger, as in any effect to Training, which is more particularly the novel direct form of violence. The superabundant vitality feature of modern education. This principle may be of this period of life seems to be a cause, or at least said to have its natural basis in the law of habit. It is a necessary accompaniment, of the energy of these indicated in the text, • Train up a child in the way he faculties. No peril intimidates; little compunction should go, and when he is old he will not depart from is felt in dealing with either man or beast. In all it;' and in the maxim, “Just as the twig is bent, the this there is no doubt a good end in view; but it still tree is inclined.' We are so constituted, that when remains for the educator to regulate these dispositions, accustomed to do anything, we do it alınost without The contendative spirit may be directed to the orerthe governance of our will or judgment. We do it coming of difficult tasks, the taking of energetic exereasily, and generally well. If accustomed, for instance, cise, and the visiting of places and objects the exami. to a particular class of intellectual operations, we ac- nation of which may be useful. The other feeling, quire a facility in going through them which generally instead of being allowed to show itself in raye, passion, strikes others with wonder. If accustomed to the ex. and resentment, to inflict pain on harmless animals, ercise of a particular class of feelings, be they good or to torture or oppress companions, or take delight in bad, they in time awake unprompted, and we become defacing and destroying inanimate and perhaps ortatheir almost passive instruments. To habituate the mental or useful objects, may be trained to reserte feelings to the exercise and regulation which is pro-actual manifestations of its energy for objects clearly ductive of the best results, constitutes moral training. noxious. It is to be lamented that education, as here.
tofore, and still in many places, conducted, rather tends * The Moral Class-Book, here referred to, supplies a variety of to foster than to regulate or moderate this propensity. narratives, showing the virtues in action, together with a selec- The old notion, that to be able to fight is essential to a tion of moral maxims from Scripture and other sources. youth, still, we fear, in soine measure guides directors
of education, at least so far as to induce their taking improved principles, where the most lively mutual oonlittle pains to prevent scenes of outrage where only fidence exists between the masters and their pupils, youthful good - humour and kindness should prevail. and on the part of the pupils towards each other, with The oppressive system of fagging is also still, to the the best effects on all hands. Honour is thus so habidisgrace of our age, allowed in some of our public tually observed, that the desks containing the little seminaries. It is well, no doubt, that he who is to property, letters, &c. of the pupils need no locks. There find life a thorny and difficult path, should not enter is much evil in families from children being brought up it with too gentle or timid dispositions; but surely it is in non-confidential habits with their parents and with not impossible to draw a distinction between quarrels, each other. The family parlour and table should be a blows, and tyranny, and the encouragement of a spirit scene where all can unfold their ordinary thoughts sufficiently manly and energetic for all the common without fear of censire or ridicule. It is the best needs of our social existence.
means of insuring that the young people will act with The first object of the educator with regard to these the concurrence of their parents, when they come to feelings, ought to be to impress the lesson that their take any of the more serious steps of life. exercise is good or bad just as they have good or bad The acquisitive feeling requires much more educaobjects in view—that they must in all cases be under tional care than it has usually received. We need not the guidance of the moral sentiments and judgment. detain the reader with an exposition of the legitimate The pupils should be trained to check every impulse use of this faculty, which prompts man to accumulate of these feelings which they are conscious has not a or store up the goods of life, for regular instead of prelegitimate object in view, and only to allow them any carious use. To this impulse capital owes its existfreedom when careful reflection has satisfied them ence, without which there could be no civilisation. that such a course is entitled to the entire sanction of The Author of our being has stamped importance on the moral law. Particular regard should be paid to the this faculty, by the strength of the propensity. None suppression of the spirit of wanton cruelty, of malice, more requires modification, regulation, and right direcof revenge, of uncharitableness. And one important tion. It is often too strong for conscientiousness, and means of working out these ends will be to allow no is the source of by far the largest amount of crime. example of harshness, cruelty, or quarrelsomeness But, besides this, it is even with the honest too much ever to appear before the eyes of the young. It is very manifested in abuse. Its objects are made the paradesirable that those who conduct schools in which the mount pursuit of life, and in its intense selfishness it children of the humbler classes are educated, should withers to dust every generous and kindly feeling of address themselves particularly to the formation of the heart. In a commercial country like our own, it habits favourable to humanity, Large sections of the deeply degrades a large proportion of the community, humbler classes, particularly those who have anything and leads to much individual and social suffering. to do with animals, are habitually cruel. Much might These evils are the consequences of the natural be done to mitigate this distressing characteristic by strength of this feeling, the absence of regulating educarefully impressing at school the wickedness involved cation, and the presence of positive mis- education. in every description of cruelty to animals.
Selfish and exclusive appropriation of desirable things, The secretive disposition calls for a large share of either to eat or hoard, is a lesson taught the youngest, attention from those who would bring up a child well. both by precept and example; and there is none more This tendency of our nature appears to have a legiti- easily learned. Here bribery operates, till infant momate operation in dictating such a reserve as may be rality becomes mere matter of barter, and good connecessary for the restraint of our ordinary feelings, duct and attentive study are estimated by the infant where their expression would be disagreeable or mis- merchant by what they will bring. Perhaps we err chievous; but it is liable to great abuse, and particu. in so soon introducing children to the use of money; larly amongst the young. The first impulse of all it is at least desirable that they should not be accusunregulated minds, young and old, is to conceal the tomed too soon, or at any time, to an engrossing sense truth, if such expedient seem calculated to save them of its value and importance. It is well to accustoin any harm or inconvenience. It is only when the greater them to take care of anything that is their own, but evil of lying is thoroughly understood that this ten- not to set too great store by their little possessions, or dency ceases. It becomes, therefore, of great conse- to be too exclusive in the use of them. A habit of quence to check the first instances that are observed scrupulous regard to the distinction between mine and in the young of a disposition to conceal the truth for thine, is one which cannot be too early formed, at the selfish or base purposes, and to seek to establish prin- same time that children are accustomed to make a ciples and habits of a contrary character. For this end generous use of whatever is their own. nothing is so necessary as a mild and just treatment of Self-esteem and love of praise or approbation are children under all circumstances, seeing that when se- early awakened feelings, and the more call for regulaverity or injustice is to be apprehended, a direct and far tion that they are so liable to be called into exercise too great temptation is given for secretive conduct. by the procedure of education itself. Here it is parti
It is difficult to legislate between the evils of blab- cularly important to keep in mind what are the legiti. bing, and the equally notorious evils of a habitual mate uses of these feelings. A well-regulated selfsystem of conspiring for the concealment of truths esteem obviously gives that confidence in ourselves and which conscientiousness would direct being told. There our powers which is necessary for all our efforts in can be little doubt that the don't tell' practices of the life; while a moderate regard to the opinions of others nursery and school are calculated to implant and foster is useful in prompting to such efforts, and in restrainthe seeds of disingenuousness in the youthful mind. ing us from many displays of caprice and absurdity to Yet it is not less true, that to encourage a tale-bearing which we should otherwise be liable. It will of course habit would be destructive to all manly and honourable be well to encourage these feelings, as far as they tend feeling. Here caution, judgment, and a careful discri- to give necessary confidence, and to maintain a decent mination of cases, must be the chief guides of the edu- regard for character in the world, but no further. cator. We would for our part deem it a duty to lean Their vices, pride and vanity, too much reliance upon as much as possible to the principle of having the truth self, and too abject a regard to the world's opinion, are told at all hazards. The educator may do much by a to be sedulously guarded against. In the procedure of rigid system of inspection, and omitting no opportunity education, they are so readily available as means of of breaking up all confederacies against the truth. As stimulating to exertion, and encouraging good (that is, he never will allow shirking, if he can help it, so also not troublesome) behaviour, that it is not surprising he will never, on his own part, be guilty of the mean that they are so extensively made use of for those ness of winking. The more open and candid his own purposes. The whole system of place-taking, prizes, conduct in all his relations towards his pupils, the medals, &c. is founded on them. It cannot be doubted better will it be for them. There exists a school on that educators are thus guilty in many instances of