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ful Departed.- A very solemn festival of the Romish | Bishop Hall, in his “Satires,' written in the time of Church, which has masses and ceremonies appropriate James I., mentions to the occasion, designed in favour of the souls of all

-Dried flitches of some smoked beeve, the dead. “Odillon, abbot of Cluny, in the ninth cen.

Hang'd on a writhen wytho since Martin's ere. tury, first enjoined the ceremony of praying for the It appears that the contents of the puddings, as made dead on this day in his own monastery; and the like in England, were composed of blood, suet, and groats; practice was partially adopted by other religious houses and there was an enigmatical proverb thence arising, until the year 998, when it was established as a general that blood without groats was nothing,' meaning festival throughout the western churches. To mark that birth without fortune was of little value. Down the pre-eminent importance of this festival, if it hap- to near the end of the last century there was not a pened on a Sunday, it was not postponed to the Mon- family above the poorest condition in the rural districts day, as was the case with other such solemnities, but of Scotland which had not a mart, or a share in one, kept on the Saturday, in order that the church might and salted meat was the only food of the kind used in the sooner aid the suffering souls; and that the dead winter ; now, there is no such practice known. might have every benefit from the pious exertions of Martin, in whose honour this festival was at first the living, the remembrance of this ordinance was kept instituted, is said to have been born in Lower Hungary up by persons dressed in black, who went round the about 316, and to have originally been a soldier. After different towns, ringing a loud and dismal-toned bell | a number of miraculous adrentures, he settled as a at the corner of each street, every Sunday evening hermit in the hollow of a rock near Tours in the south during the month, and calling upon the inhabitants to of France, where he was greatly venerated. He died remember the deceased suffering the expiatory flames bishop of Tours in 397. When a few fine days occurred of Purgatory, and to join in prayers for the repose of about this time of the year, they were called St Mar. their souls,' - Brady's Clavis Calendaria.

tin's summer. 5. The anniversary of the discovery of the Gunpowder 23. St Clement's Day, in the Church of England Plot in 1605, and of the landing of King William III. calendar. Clement is spoken of by St Paul as one of in 1688; observed in the British dominions as a holi- his fellow-labourers. Monkish imagination has supday, and celebrated by the Church of England by a plied him with a history and a martyrdom. He is said form of prayer with thanksgiving. There is also a to have been thrown into the sea with an anchor fixed popular celebration of this day. From an early hour, about his neck. An anchor is therefore assigned to the boys go about collecting materials for a bonfire, him as an emblem: of this the metropolis presents a or money wherewith to purchase them. In some, per- conspicuous memorial in the anchor which forms the haps most places, they carried with them a frightful vane of the church of St Clement Danes, in the Strand. figure composed of an old suit of clothes stuffed with St Clement is held as the patron saint of the blackstraw, to represent Guy Fawkes. They called on the smiths. It was formerly customary for boys, and the passengers and householders to remember Guy,' or lower class of people generally, to go about on this day shouted some balderdash rhymes. In the evening the begging for liquor, wherewith they made a regale at bonfire is lighted, with Guy Fawkes in the middle of night. Hence, in a certain class of old almanacs, the it, amidst tumultuous merriment. The firing of guns day was signified by the figure of a pot. as a token of rejoicing, we are glad to say, is now dis- 29. This is one of the days on which Advent may continued on this day, and we trust the other absurd commence. Advent (literally the Coming) is a terin usages will soon likewise disappear.

applied from an early period of ecclesiastical history to 11. St Martin's Day, or Martinmas, in the Church the four weeks preceding Christmas, which were obof England calendar. Popularly, this is one of the served with penance and devotion, in reference to the most remarkable days of the year, especially in Scot approaching birth of Christ. There are four Sundays land, where Whitsunday and Martinmas are the two in Advent, the first of which is always the nearest great terms for leases and engagement of servants, the Sunday to St Andrew's Day (November 30). latter being that at which the occupation of farms 30. St Andrew's Day.--The festiral day of this saint usually commences. Formerly, it was a quarterly is retained in the Church of England calendar. St term day in England: a payment of corn at Martinmas Andrew was one of the apostles. His history, as reoccurs in the Doomsday Survey. On the continent, lated by the Catholic writers, represent him as marfrom an early age, the day has been distinguished con- tyred in the year 66 at Patræe in Greece, upon a cross vivially; and this apparently for two reasons-namely, of the form of the letter X, which accordingly is still that now the people first tasted the wines of the season, recognised as St Andrew's Cross. A supposed relic of and killed the animals required to be salted for their this cross, carried to Brussels in the middle ages, caused winter provisions. The entrails of these animals, pre- its figure to be adopted as a badge for the knights of pared as sausages, or blood-puddings, became the sub- the Golden Fleece. Some relics of the apostle himself ject of an immediate feast, while the rest of the meat are said to have been carried by a Greek devotee named was salted and set aside. In some countries, also, the St Regulus, to Scotland, where they were placed in a goose, which is elsewhere enjoyed at Michaelmas, was church built at a place which subsequently became disnow presented. The killing of beeves at Martinmas tinguished by the name of St Andrews. St Andrews for winter provision was formerly universal in northern became the seat of the Scottish primacy; and from this Europe, in consequence of there being no means of cause probably it was that St Andrew was in time conkeeping them alive in winter; since the improvement sidered as the patron saint of Scotland. In that counof husbandry in some countries, the custom has been try, however, there is scarcely any observance of this given up, and fresh meat used all the year round. The day in any manner; it is only when Scotsmen are feasting upon the entrails was equally universal. So abroad, and have occasion to select a day for an annual much was all this associated with Martinmas, that in convivial meeting, that St Andrew's Day comes into Scotland a beeve killed at that time was called a mart, notice. There used to be a procession of Scotsmen on or mairt. In the old book of laws attributed (errone this day in London, with singed sheeps' heads borne ously) to David I. of Scotland, it is provided that the before them. It is remarkable that St Andrew is also fleshours sall serve the burgessis all the time of the a tutelar saint of the Russians, probably in consequence slauchter of Mairts.' In Northumberland, also, a of the Greek locality of his martyrdom. There is an Martinmas bullock is called a mart. Tusser, in his ancient and widely-prevalent custom connected with curious metrical treatise on husbandry, written in the St Andrew's Day, to which Luther has adverted. time of Henry VIII., says

Maidens, on the eve of this day, stripped themselves, When Easter comes, who knows not than

and sought to learn what sort of husbands they were to That veal and bacon is the man?

have by praying in these terms Oh, St Andrew, cause And Martinmas beef doth bear good tack,

that I obtain a good pious husband; to-night show me When country folks do da inties lack.

the figure of the man who will take me to vife.'

DECEMBER,

Natural History.- In this month the business of | least, has been the subject of a curious superstition. The vegetation experiences its death. The trees are now ancients supposed that it built its nest on the ocean, and thoroughly stripped of their foliage. It is reputed as brought forth its young at the winter solstice. To aca gloomy month; but the temperature is sometimes count for the preservation of the nest and young anidst agreeable in the earlier part of it, and its average for the severity of the season, they imagined that the bird the whole term is 43 degrees. A considerable number had a power of lulling the raging of the waves during of plants remain in flower throughout November. The the period of incubation; and this power was believed gloom of the month is said to have a depressing effect to reside in its song. on the spirits of the English nation; let those who are 13. St Lucia's Day.-Retained in the Church of Engliable to such influences lay to heart the following re- land calendar. St Lucia was a young lady of Syracuse, marks of Johnson in the idler::— The distinction of who obtained a high character for a devout and chariseasons is produced only by imagination acting upon table life, and died in the year 304. The last of the luxury. To temperance every day is bright, and every four series of Ember Days commences on the Wedneshour is propitious to diligence. He that resolutely ex- day following this festival. cites his faculties, or exerts his virtues, will soon make 16. O Sapientia.—This day is so marked in the himself superior to the seasons, and may set at defiance church calendar, probably from an anthem sung on the morning mist and the evening damp, the blasts of this day in the Romish Church beginning, “O sapientia the east and the clouds of the south. Instead of look- quæ ex ore altissimi prodidisti,' &c. ing for spring with anxious and caring mind, enjoy the 21. St Thomas the Apostle, a festival of the English present day; there are pleasures even in November.' Church. It was customary for women to go a-gooding

on St Thomas's Day; that is, they went about begging

money, and presenting in return sprigs of palm, and So called as being originally the tenth of the Roman bunches of primroses, probably with a view to the deyear.

Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors called Decembercoration of their houses against Christmas. winta monatthat is, winter month; but after becoming 25. Christmas Day, observed from an early period as acquainted with Christianity, this name was changed the nativity of our Lord, and celebrated not only by into heligh monat, or holy month, with reference to the the religious ceremonies from which the name of the celebration of the nativity on its twenty-fifth day. day is partly taken, but by popular festivities of the

most joyful kind. In England, Christmas is held by 6. St Nicholas's Day.— Retained in the Church of the church as a solemn festival, and distinguished by England calendar. St Nicholas was Archbishop of the complete cessation of business—an honour paid to Myra, in Greece, A. D. 342. He is regarded as the no other day besides Good Friday. But within the patron saint of children and of mariners, probably in last hundred years, the festivities once appropriate to consequence of his benevolent zeal in the protection of the day have much fallen off. These at one time lasted orphans and stranded seamen. Churches built near with more or less brilliancy till Candlemas, and with the sea are in many instances dedicated to St Nicholas. great spirit till Twelfth Day; but now a meeting in the He is also said to have shown much kind interest in evening, little different from a common dinner party, the fate of young women, sometimes secretly throwing though sure to be marked by a roast and plum-pudding, purses into the chamber-windows of those who lacked and pretty generally followed by a game at cards, is all dowries. Hence has arisen a custom prevalent over a that distinguishes Christmas in most families. large part of the Christian world. On his eve, presents In former times the celebration of Christmas began are hid in the shoes of those to whom any one wishes to in the latter part of the previous day-Christmas Eve. give a pleasing surprise; and these, being found in the The house was first decked with holly, ivy, and other morning, are jocularly said to be gifts from St Nicholas. evergreens. Candles of an uncommon size were then

St Nicholas is also considered as the tutelar saint of lighted, under the name of Christmas Candles; an enorscholars, or clerks, and of robbers. The fraternity of mous log, called the Yule Clog, or Christmas Block, parish-clerks have thought themselves entitled by their was laid upon the fire: the people sat round, regaling name to adopt him as their patron. How robbers should themselves with beer. In the course of the night, have come to be called St Nicholas's clerks, or St Ni- small parties of songsters went about from house to cholas's knights, it is not easy to see, unless it were house, or through the streets, singing what were called from the coincidence of his name with one of the slang | Christmas Carols---simple popular ditties, full of joyful appellations of the devil.

allusions to the great gift from God to man in the Throughout the middle ages, there was a universal Redeemer. A mass was commenced in the churches custom of electing a kind of mock bishop on St Nicho- at midnight, a custom still kept up in the Catholic las’s Day. A boy, possibly taken from amongst the Church. At one period, the people had a custom of choristers, was chosen by his associates as bishop, ar- wassailing the fruit-trees on this evening; that is, they rayed in suitable vestments, and indued with appro- took a wassail bowl, threw a toast from it to the tree, priate powers, which he enjoyed for some days. The and sung a song, expecting thus to secure a good crop infant prelate was led along in a gay procession, bless-next season. It was thought that, during the night, ing the grinning multitude as he went, and he was even all water was for a short time changed into wine, and allowed to sing mass and to mount the pulpit and that bread baked on this eve would never become preach. Edward I., in his way to Scotland in 1299, mouldy. These notions are essentially foolish; but as heard vespers by a boy bishop at the chapel of Heton, they are all well-meant adorations of the simple spirit near Newcastle. The boy bishop at Salisbury is said of the people, they should not be hastily condemned. to have had the power of disposing of any prebends The carols were more generally sung in the morning that fell vacant during his term of office; and one who of Christmas Day. A contributor to the Gentleman's died at that time had a monument in the cathedral, Magazine,' in 1811, describing the manner in which representing him in his episcopal robes. Mr Warton Christmas is celebrated in the North Riding of Yorkis of opinion that we see some faint traces of the rise shire, says— About six o'clock on Christmas Day I of dramatic entertainments in the strange mummeries was awakened by a sweet singing under my window; connected with the election of the Boy Bishop.

surprised at a visit so early and unexpected, I arose, 8. The Conception of the Blessed Virgin in the Romish and looking out of the window, I beheld six young and English calendars.

women and four men welcoming with sweet music the 11. The fourteen days from this to Christmas Eve blessed morn.' It may scarcely be imagined how dewere called the Halcyon Days, and supposed to be,

lightfully at such a moment would fall upon the halftheir calm and tranquil character, an exception from slumbering ear such strains as the following: the season. The terin, which is now a regular adjective in our language, is derived from the bird, king

God rest you, merry gentlemen, fisher or halcyon, which, from the days of Aristotle at

Let nothing you dismay,

For Jesus Christ our Saviour

this time of the year, and St Stephen's Day was that Was born upon this day,

chosen by most people for the purpose. On this day, To save us all from Satan's power,

also, blessings were implored upon pastures. When we were gone astray.

27. St John the Evangelist's Day, observed as a fesOh tidings of comfort and joy,

tival by the Church of England. Because John drank For Jesus Christ our Saviour

poison, without dying in consequence, it was supposed Was born on Christmas Day.

that those who put their trust in him were safe from

all injury from that cause.
In Bethlehem in Jewry
This blessed babe was born,

28. Childermas, or Holy Innocent's Day, observed And laid upon a manger,

by the Church of Rome with masses for the children Upon this blessed morn;

killed by Herod. It was considered unlucky to marry, The which his mother Mary

or to begin any work, on Childermas Day. The learned Xothing did take in scorn.

Gregory says, “It hath been a custom, and yet is elseOh tillings, &c.

where, to whip up the children upon Innocent's Day

morning, that the memory of Herod's murder might Christmas carols are amongst the oldest of English stick the closer, and in a moderate proportion to act songs. A collection of them was printed by Wynkyn over the “crueltie again in kinde.”' de Worde in 1521. They are still printed on single 31. The last day of the year is called in Scotland sheets, which are sold by chapmen or dealers in cheap Hogmanay, a word which has fruitlessly exercised the literature. There is also more than one modern col- wits of the etymologists. The Scottish people, orer. lection of these curious productions of modern ages. looking Christmas in obedience to the behests of their

The ligious service of Christmas Day receives but religious teache have transferred the merriment of a small share of attention from old writers. In fact, the season to Hogmanay and New Year's Day, which the day was chiefly distinguished by the popular festi- they accordingly abandon to all kinds of festivity. vities.' Its grand feature was a feast, of great abund. Handsel Monday, or the first Monday of the year, is ance, and at which a few particular dishes regularly also an occasion of festivity. On Hogmanay, the chilappeared, above all, plum-porridge and mince-pie. In dren in small towns perambulate amongst the neigh. every great hall, whether of a man of rank or of a great bours of the better class, crying at their doors, ‘llos. corporation, there was a boar's head ushered in by manay!' or sometimes the following rhyme :minstrelsy. It was customary for the rich and noble to treat their humble dependents, and to meet with

Hogmanay, trollolay,

Gie's of your white bread and none of your stay; them on terms of equality, as considering that all men are regarded alike by the religion of him whose natal in obedience to which call, they are served each with day they are celebrating. A sort of license prevailed. an oaten cake. In the evening, there are merry bab. A branch of the mistletoe being hung up in the hall, ings, which are always prolonged to twelve o'clock, or over the doorway, the youths were understood to which has no sooner struck than all start up excitedly, have a right to kiss any maiden whom they could in- and wish each other a happy new year. Small ven. veigle under it. At York, the freedom of the time was turous parties take a kettle with hot ale posset, called 50 extreme, that there were regular proclainations - a het pint,' and go to the houses of their friends, to allowing women of evil repute and gamblers to come wish them a happy new year. Whoever comes first, to the city and walk about openly for a certain number is called in that house the First Foot,' and it is deemed of days. It was also custoinary to elect a person as necessary on such occasions to offer the inmates both Lord of Misrule, who went about taking the lead in a piece of cake and a sip from the posset kettle, otherevery kind of extravagant sport and merriment which wise they would not be lucky throughout the year. the wit of man could devise. The election and func- This is called • First-Footing. Next day, all people go tions of this personage were perhaps the most singular about among all other people's houses; presents are part of the festival. According to Stow,' at the feast given amongst relations; and dinner-parties close the of Christmas, there was in the king's house, wherever evening. Formerly, the first Monday of the year was he lodged, a Lord of Misrule, or Master of merry Dis- also much observed as a festive day, and time for giving ports, and the like bad ye in the house of every Noble- presents, froin which latter circumstance it was called man of honour or good worship, were he spiritual or Handsel Monday. The Handsel Monday, old style, is temporal. The Mayor of London, and either of the still, in some rural districts, the chief feast day of the Sheriffs, had their several Lords of Misrule, ever con

On the erenings of Christmas, Hogmanay, tending, without quarrel or offence, who should make New Year's Day, and Handsel Monday, parties of the rarest pastime to delight the beholders. These young men and boys went about disguised in old shirts lords, beginning their rule at Allhallond Eve, con- and paper vizards, singing at the various houses for a tinued the saine till the morrow after the Feast of small guerdon. These guizarts, as they were called, the Purification, commonly called Candlemas Day : in also acted a rustic kind of drama, in which the advenwhich space there were fine and subtle disguisings, tures of two rival knights, and the feats of a doctor, masks, and mummeries, with playing at Cards for were conspicuous. Almost everywhere in Scotland the Counters, Nayles, and Points in every House, more for festive and frolicsome observances of the New Year pastimes than for gaine.'

tide hare very much declined. The management of the plays usually acted at Christ- Natural History.December is the darkest, but not mas in the halls of colleges and law societies, fell to the the coldest month of the year: the general average care of the Lord of Misrule. The particular function temperature is 40 degrees. The deciduous trees are ary elected in the inns of court in London, after exer- now completely stripped of their foliage, and the ground cising all the duties and going through the parade of often shows a snowy covering, although it is rarely royalty for a fortnight, at an expense of a couple of that there is much strong ice in December. Amidst thousand pounds, was knighted at Whitehall by the the general desolation, the pines and other evergreens real sovereign of the land.

form an agreeable resting-place for the eye. The rose In Scotland, before the Reformation, the religious also continues to blow during this month. Formerly, houses had a similar officer for the Christmas revels, the Glastonbury thorn was a great wonder in England, called the Abbot of Unrcason, whose particular func- being supposed to blow regularly on Christmas Day. tions are graphically portrayed by Scott in his novel The monks of the abbey there represented it as the of 'The Abbot.' The custom was suppressed by staff of Joseph of Arimathea, which, being inserted lip statute in 1555.

him in the ground, had miraculously sprouted out into 26. St Stephen's Day, observed as a festival of the a living tree. But it is now ascertained to have beea Church of England. There was formerly a widely-pre-only a member of a certain species of thom well known valent dogma that it was good to bleed horses about in the East for blowing in the depth of winter.

season.

THE PRIVATE DUTIES OF LIFE,

LIFE AS A WHOLE.

YOUTH.

ones.

PURPOSES OF LIFE.

Tue temporal duties enjoined on rational beings may beings, as he differs from them in figure and appearbe thus classed :-). Duties which one owes to himself. ance. As society is a consequence of the Creator's will, -2. Duties which arise from domestic relations. as the proper divisions of labour are a necessary con3. Duties which arise in the coinmunities of which each sequence of society, it is not irrational to suppose that one is peculiarly a member.-4. Duties which arise individuals are born with adaptation to labour in some from the political relations of society.-5. Duties which departments, and not in others. In the early stages of arise between individuals who are of different nations. life these qualities are sometimes developed, whether We propose in the meantime to treat of those duties they happen to be understood or not. But almost imwhich a rational being may be said to owe to himself, mediately after gaining some hold on life, all human or, as they are generally termed, PRIVATE DUTIES. beings become subject to the incidents which tend to

strengthen original qualities, or to obscure or stop their

progress, and even to suppress them, and engraft on Life is a succession of parts—infancy, youth, man- the original stock those which are entirely different. hood, maturity, decline, old age, and death. What man It would be unjust to make infancy responsible for the becoises depends in part on his genealogy: as his in- evils and errors which arise in this manner; but cerfancy is, so will be his youth; as his youth is, so will tainly those who have the guidance of infancy are rebe his manhood; as his manhood is, so will be his ma- sponsible, and will be held to be so. Children have a turity; as inaturity is, so will be decline; as decline is, right to complain, and society has a right to complain, 80 will be old age. If youth be passed in idleness, igno- if duties to children be neglected; and it is needless rance, folly, and crime, how can one hold his way in the to remark that there is another and inevitable accountworld, side by side with the intelligent, the worthy, and ability of a far more serious character. We shall have the virtuous? If manhood has been passed in low pur- occasion to remark on the very onerous and important suits, in rooting in the heart evil propensities, in wast- duties of those who, according to the order of natural ing natural vigour, what awaits one in old age but po- and necessary law, are intrusted with forming and givverty, pity, and contempt? If infancy be devoted to the ing effect to natural qualities. This matter, however, reasonable expansion of the physical and intellectual properly belongs to another place. powers--if knowledge of duty be acquired, and be rightly used, will not manhood be worthy, maturity respectable, decline honoured, and old age venerable? Life, then, We come now to a period when accountability begins, must be taken as one event, made up of many successive in all the relations which were placed in the division of

On these unquestionable truths we found all | duties. If it be asked at what age this is to be fixed, that is worthy of notice in the following pages. we answer, that the good sense of judicial law recog

nises that a child may be a witness in solemn judicial

proceedings, when inquiries addressed to him are so We beliere that human life, rightly understood, and answered as to make it certain that he understands the rightly used, is a beneficent gist; and that it can be so nature and the obligation of an oath. This may be at understood and used. It is irreconcilable to reason the age of ten or twelve years. But the perception of that inan was sent into this world only to suffer and to right and wrong, and the sense of duty, begin at an Inourn; it is from his own ignorance, folly, or error earlier age. There certainly are children of the age that he does so. He is capable of informing himself; of eight years who have a very clear sense of moral the means of doing this are within his power. If he propriety; and very many who, between that age and were truly informed, he would not have to weep over twelve, can discern and reason on right and wrong, his follies and errors. It is not pretended that every and arrive at a very sound judgment. We shall preone can escape at once from a benighted condition, and sume that all into whose hands this sheet may fall will break into the region of reason and good sense. But be fully capable of comprehending its purpose, and of it is most clear, from what is well known to have hap- judging of its fitness to be useful to them. We must pered in the world, that each generation may improve assume, then, that we are speaking to those who are upon its preceding one; and that each individual, in willing to be instructed in serious things, and that they every successive period of time, may better know the will not reject instruction from any source, however true path, from perceiving how others have gone before unpretending it may be, if it come to them in a manner him. There can be no miracle in this. It will, at best, which they can reconcile with their own reason, and be a slow progress : and the wisdom arrived at in one with their own duty to themselves.

Young persons age must command the respect of succeeding ones, and think that they can see for themselves, and that they receive from them the melioration which they can con- need not to be told what others have seen. But let us tribute. We understand nothing of what is called the reduce this to common sense. Suppose a person to be perfectibility of human nature; but we understand this, under the necessity of going from the place in which that if human nature can be made to know wherein its he has lived, and which is familiar to him, to a far disgreatest good consists, it may be presumed that this tant place. Let it be supposed that the road he must good will be sought after and obtained. Man was created travel is crossed by many roads, and that he is freon this principle, he acts on this principle, although he quently to find himself at points where several roads is seen so frequently to make the most deplorable and are seen, either one of which, so far as he can discern, distressing mistakes. If it be not admitted that man- may be the right one. Will it be of use to him to have kind will always strive to obtain whatsoever seems to been told, before he departs, which of these many roads them good, and strive to avoid whatsoever seems to to take? Will it help him onward to his destination, them evil, their moral teaching and training is in vain. when he is bewildered, and unable to decide for himself, If this principle be admitted, the sole inquiry is—what to find some one who can assure him of the right course ? then is goods and what is evil?

Life is a journey. Every step we take in it brings us to something new, something unexpected, and perhaps

entirely different from that which was looked for. Those Erery human being cones into the world with phy- who have gone through it before us have left us their sical and intellectual qualities, propensities, and apti- instructions in what manner it is to be undertaken and tudes, which distinguish him as much from all other | accomplished. They tell us of their own troubles and No. 79.

449

INFANCY.

AIR.

difficulties; they warn us how to avoid the like in our on periodical cleansing. It may be said that there is own journey. Which is wisest—to listen to them, and a connection between cleanliness and moral feeling. weigh the worth of their warning, or to push on heed. Perhaps it may be going too far to say that those who lessly, and take the consequences ?

habitually disregard cleanliness, and prefer to be dirty,

have no moral perception; but it may be truly said that HEALTH-FOOD.

those who are morally sensitive are the more so from We suppose that every child of the ages last spoken respecting this virtue. There is a close affinity beof can form some opinion of the value of health. Most tween moral depravity and physical degradation. The of them have suffered more or less by that time. They vicious poor are always shockingly filthy: the depraved are now old enough to consider the purposes for which rich are visited by worse penalties: they may have life has been given to them. They then feel that the clean garments; but what can wash away the impuri. purpose is to be pleased and gratified; to want and to ties which vice has made part of themselves ? It is not have; and that restraint is disagreeable. But let them for one's self only that the virtue of cleanliness com. remember that life is a whole; that though all of them mends itself. Every one comes within the observation will not, yet some of them will, attain to its longest du- of others. However uncleanly one may be himself, he ration, and that it is wholly uncertain to whom that lot is not the less offended at the like neglect in those whom will fall. Long life may depend, and often does depend, he observes. Now it is every one's duty to himself to on what children do, or omit, at an early age. Among recommend himself to others, so far as he innocently the first gratifications which are looked for at this and reasonably can, and to obtain their respect. Clean period, is the indulgence of the appetite for food. Here and costly garments may fall very short of doing this comes in a rigid law of the Creator. It cannot be broken if it be seen that they are a covering for the neglect of without consequent suffering, nor repeatedly broken this important law. If there be a lovely object to the without impairing, and perhaps destroying, the material human eye, it is a clean, clear-faced, healthy, innocent, frame which has been described as so fearfully and neatly-clad, happy child. There are few children who wonderfully made. To require of that delicate machi- may not, if they will be neatly dressed, for this does nery, on which the action of life depends, that which not depend on that of which the dress is made. There it is not qualified to do, and which it cannot do—to are fewer who may not have a clear skin, and healthy force it to do that which is offensive to it—and to look, if they are properly fed, and sleep in pure air. make this requisition habitually — is a sin against There are none who may not have a clean skin; for we natural law. Its punishments are well known. The speak to those who are old enough to judge for them. restless sleep, the heavy head, the many sensations of selves. And let it be added, for their inducement, that uneasiness, the positive pain, the disgusting remedies, in obeying the command to be clean they are perform. are the punishments which follow. They are not all. ing a moral duty; in neglecting it, they are inflicting an Nature loses its charms, companions their interest, evil on themselves in two ways—first, in diminishing duties become irksome, the mind hates its labour, pe- their own health and comfort; and secondly, in losing nalties are incurred, parents or teachers are regarded the esteem of others. with displeasure. These are the fruits of momentary and improper gratification of the appetites. On the other hand, there is a law of nature that food shall be Among the generally unknown causes of loss of health, grateful. It is required to supply the daily waste is the respiration of impure air. The congregation of to continue life. If there were not a craving want, many persons in one apartment, especially when artiwe should take food as a mere necessary duty. It is ficial light in great quantity is permitted, is a cause kindly made to be a pleasure, and, like every other of more maladies than is commonly supposed. Three pleasure, it is to be used, and not abused. Thus, by causes, in such case, combine to destroy the fitness of ignorant or wilful pursuit of pleasure, we violate a the air

for respiration—the animal heat of the assembly, law which brings with its just punishment not only the lights, and the breathing of the same air again and the loss of the like pleasure for a time to come, but again. There must be such assemblies. The remedy also pain and suffering from indispensable remedies. is proper ventilation. The smoke of lamps has freWhen children are sick, they are subjects of tender- quently occasioned death. No lamp is properly trimmed ness and pity; but in most instances they rather if it emit anything more than a pure bright fame. It deserve to be punished, for they have broken a law is a common practice to keep sleeping apartments shut wilfully, since they have disregarded their own expe- up. If there be several persons in a small room which rience. As to kinds or quality of food, nature is not has been shut up for several hours, it would be shock. unreasonably nice about this : that which it more fre- ing to know how often they must breathe again and quently complains of is quantity.

again the same air, and how unfit it is to be breathed after it has once visited the lungs. Add to this the

impurity of the air, which is continually in contact with This is not a mere matter of decency. It is one of the furniture prepared and constantly used for sleepthe positive commands arising from the constituted ing, in an unaired apartment. It is not mere nicety, or order of things. Be it remembered that everything fastidious delicacy, which requires that the pure air that lives, vegetable or animal, is wasting while life con- should be admitted where the human lungs are in actinues; and that all which is sent forth through the tion, but it is a law as old as the creation of man, and millions of openings by the skin, has run its round, cannot be disregarded. A skilful observer might select and is lifeless; and that more than half of all the food among many, from the appearance of the countenance, taken comes forth in this manner. (See PRESERVATION those who have just left an apartment in which they of Health, Vol. I.) If perspiration, sensible and in- have been respiring for hours a spoiled atmosphere. sensible, be permitted to rest on the skin, and stop the No doubt that this cause, long continued, so affects the way of that which is coming, nature is offended, and whole mass of blood as to bring on many diseases. If will show that she is so. Such neglect is one of the pure air be peculiarly necessary to any class of persons, causes of disease. This fact was probably well known it is so to children. We believe a more useful suggesto Eastern nations, since it was part of their religious tion could not be made on the subject of health to the duty to cleanse the skin. These nations were ignorant whole community, than to invite them to respect this of the modern comfort of wearing a garment next the law of nature--that there cannot be perfect health skin which can be frequently changed. The absence where the air is impure, and that this applies especially of this comfort was one of the causes of those dreadful to apartments appropriated to sleep. Visiting friends diseases of which we read, and which are now unknown are often put into sleeping apartments which have not among Christian nations. There are classes of labourers been opened for days and weeks; this is far enough and mechanics whose health would be preserved, and from kind treatment, however innocently it may be their lives prolonged, if they knew how much depended done. (For further information, see No. 45.)

CLEANLINESS.

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