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The most superficial survey of the earth shows its | tication had brought it. On such grounds it is that human inhabitants to be greatly diversified in exter- naturalists hold the distinction and perseverance of nal qualities—as complexion, stature, the form of the species as facts in nature. It has been found, indeed, head, and the cast of the features. It also exhibits that species nearly allied, as the horse and ass, will these diversities as all more or less localised, whence produce an offspring in which the parental qualities

course the inference is drawn, that they attach to are associated or blended; but such hybrids have never races or nations, with whom they form permanent cha- been known to continue a race manifesting this union racteristics. Modern times saw the rise of a science, of qualities, and accordingly they in noway affect the which, under the name of the Physical History of Man, conclusion, that specific character is a determinate thing observed these external qualities as zoological facts, in nature, only liable to temporary modifications. facts both in themselves interesting, and of some value Under the light thus derived from the study of the as means of determining certain points in the early lower animals, it is now generally held that we are to history of the race. Latterly, the various languages of regard mankind as of one species--a species passing mankind have been added to the subjects embraced by into an unusual number of varieties in aspect and the science; and as these are not to be comprehended mental character, only because they are more widely under the term physical, a new name has become diffused than any other animated beings over the face Decessary, and that of Ethnology, as implying simply of the earth, and thereby exposed to an unusual variety the science of national distinctions, has been adopted of conditions, and called to exercise their mental quaby many. It appears that we are now to look to this lities in an unequalled variety of ways. In the group science not merely for a view of the natural history of of human beings commonly called a nation, there is man, and of the sundry questions connected therewith, always some set of characteristics more or less peculiar, bat for light regarding that obscure but interesting and by which it can be distinguished from all others; portion of his social history which preceded the use of though even in this association, especially if civilisawriting. As yet, however, Ethnology is only in its tion have made any considerable way, we shall find infancy, and for much which it advances, we are to great differences in complexion, form, and mental chaexpect that corrections or modifications will come ere racter. Nations, again, are generally capable of being muany years are passed.

grouped under some denomination which expresses a more comprehensive set of characters, and marks an

affinity of a wider kind. We may go on classifying in The observations of naturalists have shown that, this manner, by more and more comprehensive characwhile it is true that a certain species of animals, re- ters, until we arrive at a small number of leading maining under certain conditions, exhibits uniforinity varieties, in which nothing remains in common but the of characters from one generation to another, a change general forms and powers of the human organisation. of conditions will, in the course of generations, produce it is difficult, in the present state of the science, to say a corresponding change in the organic characters of the how many such varieties there are; but it may be conspecies, and even in its mental habitudes. Thus, for venient to describe the five into which the venerable example , while the wolf is everywhere the same animal

, Blumenbach has divided mankind. because everywhere passing a wild life in desert places, the dog, distributed over the whole civilised world, and

Caucasian (Indo-European and Syro-Arabian) Race. subjected to a great variety of conditions, has passed into The many nations extending from India westward numberless varieties of form, colour, and disposition. through Southern Asia into Europe and Northern It appears, however, that these results are only efforts Africa, and which recent times have seen sending out of nature to accommodate herself to circumstances, for offshoots into the western continent, are comprehenthe purpose of maintaining the existence of the species sively grouped by Blumenbach and Cuvier under the under the new conditions, and that there are limits term Caucasian, because tradition seemed to point to beyond which change cannot be carried; so that, after the mountains between the Caspian and the Black Sea all , a particular type is constantly

preserved, towards as the region where the race had originated. The prowhich the animals would return if the original con- priety of the designation is denied by many, and it is ditions were restored. Thus the domesticated pig of now believed that two distinct varieties of mankind aro Europe, allowed to run wild in America, has recovered grouped under it. These Dr Prichard describes as the the tusks and other external features of the wild boar Indo-European or Arian race-comprehending the Hin-that original state of the

species from which domes- I doos, Persians, Affghans, and Armenians, besides the No.51.

1

PRIMARY DIVISIONS OF MANKIND.

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great bulk of the European nations—and the Syro- constituting the Hindoos and Persians. The Zend, the Arabian or Semitic race, comprising the Syrian and ancient language of the Persians, and the Sanscrit, the Arabian nations. Both groups have the general cha- ancient language of the Hindoos, have an affinity which racteristic of a fair complexion (with exceptions to be sufficiently proves the common origin of the two naafterwards noticed); and this seems to justify their tions. The Indians are a dusky people, the general

being considered as one complexion being described as of a coffee-colour; but
race; but, on the other while the people of the high grounds are comparatively
hand, the languages are white, many of those of the plains, and especially the
now believed to have no classes engaged in out-door labour, are as dark as Ne-
sort of true affinity - agroes. In general they are a feeble and gentle people;
test which modern ethno- but their having attained to civilised institutions at
graphers regard as more an early period, and their ancient distinction in the
conclusive. "It will never sciences, particularly mathematics, are circumstances
theless be convenient to which manifest no mean intellectual character.
speak of all these nations Ethnographers consider it as established that the
under the old term Cauca- principal European nations are colonies from Asia, and
sian, which has now been descendants of the same people with the Hindoos and
too extensively recognised Persians. It is solely to a study of the languages that
to be readily displaced. we are indebted for this conclusion. According to Dr

The Syro-Arabian group Prichard, “ If we are to enumerate the different nahave been found from the earliest times of which we tions who are to be considered as ramifications of the have any record, in the countries from which their gene- Indo-European stock, viewing those as the most ancient ral appellation is taken. (They are also called Semitic which are farthest removed from the centre, or from nations, as supposed to have descended from Shem, one the path of migration, we must begin with the Celtic of the sons of Noah.) Distinguished from all the rest nations in the west of Europe, including the two of mankind by their language, they also stand out in branches which are represented in modern times, one history as a people of most remarkable characters, and by the Irish, Scots, and Manx, and the other by the particularly for their exalted notion of an unseen but Welsh and Armoricans, or Bretons. Next to them, in almighty God, the creator of the world. In this group we the north of Europe, is the Germanic family. It confind the founders of the great empire which existed for sists, according to the conclusions of the latest and so many ages on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates; most accurate philologers, of two principal divisions : the Phoenicians, who seem to have been the first com- of the Northmen, ancestors of the Icelanders, Nor. mercial people of the earth; the Hebrews, whose hig- wegians, and Swedes and Danes; and secondly, of tory is that of the faith recorded in the sacred Scrip- the proper Teutonic stock in its three subdivisions, tures; and the Arabians, among whom sprung up the which are the Saxon or Western German, the Suevians Mohammedan religion. The Abyssinians probably or High German, and the Gothic or Eastern clan. The belong to this race, and the ancient Egyptians are next branch of the Indo-European stock are tribes who generally classed with it, though Dr Prichard is of speak the dialects of the Old Prussian or Pruthenian opinion that these were in the main an Ethiopian or language. These dialects are the Lettish, Lithuanian, Negro people. Dr Larrey, the eminent French surgeon, and the Proper Pruthenian, which, of all the languages was of opinion that the Arabs furnish the most perfect of Europe, bear by far the nearest resemblance to the form of the human head—the most perfect develop- original Sanscrit. The people who spoke these dialects ment of all the internal organs, as well as of those had a peculiar mythology, and an ancient and very which belong to the senses.' Spare but active persons, powerful hierarchy, as famous in the north as were skins of a light brown, sallowed sometimes by unusual those of the Brahmins and the Druids in the east and exposure, high foreheads, large dark eyes, oval features, west. The Slavic or Sclavonic race is a fourth Indowith aquiline noses and small thin-lipped mouths, European family: its two great branches are the Westform the personal characteristics of the Arabs. They ern or Proper Slavic, including the Poles, Bohemians, have occupied the confines of the present Arabia from Obotrites, and the tribes near the Baltic; secondly, time immemorial, and their natural habits have ever the Eastern branch, comprehending the Russians, the been pastoral and migratory. The Bedouin Arabs claim Servians, and other tribes nearly related to them.' Dr descent from Ishmael; and however this may be, it is Prichard adds, that the Italian nations, excepting plain, from physical characteristics alone, that they are only the Tuscans, form collectively another and an à cognate race with the Jews. The latter were origi- early branch of the same stock, all their various lannally derived from the Chaldeans, an elder branch of guages, the Oscan, Latin, Sicilian, &c. being but the Arab stock settled in Babylonia, and they were a variations of one speech. Finally, he enumerates the pastoral and wandering people like their neighbours, Albanians, Illyrians, and the more celebrated Hellenic until they settled in the cities of Palestine. A body of or Greek race. It would,' he says, ' be an interesting Canaanite Arabs, expelled by the Jews under Joshua, question, if there were any data likely to facilitate its are understood to have settled in Africa, and become discussion, whether the Arian (Indo-European) nations the nation of the Mauri or Moors. Governed by Mo- found on their arrival in Europe the different countries hammed and his successors, the Arab race rose to high already occupied by previous inhabitants, or vacant, consequence, and, under the name of Saracens, made and affording them a peaceful and undisturbed admisgreat conquests of territory in Asia Minor, Africa, and sion. The former hypothesis appears most probable, in Spain. They were afterwards deprived of supe- since we know that the most remote parts whither these riority in some of these countries, but left extensive nations ultimately arrived were previously inhabited. tribes in the African continent and Asia Minor. The The Euskaldunes appear already to have possessed Berbers (or Libyans) are a race who seem of Arab Spain before the arrival of the Celtic tribes in that descent, but who probably settled in Africa at a far country .... In the north of Europe the German nadistant date. They resemble the Arabs in person, but tions, or rather the Northmen, found the countries on are more darkened in complexion. Under the name the Baltic coast already occupied by Jotuns, nations of of Tuariks, they range both to the north and south of the Finnish or Ugrian race; a people, like themselves, of Mount Atlas. They are wilder in habits than the Eastern origin, but emigrants of an earlier age, and from a Arabs, but may be spoken of as the same race, and different part of Asia. From the appearance, moreover, with the same capabilities.

of the remains of an earlier language in the Celtic, it The Indo-European group is described by Dr Pri- may be surinised that the Celts, whose fate it afterwards chard as appearing in the earliest ages on the high was to be dispossessed of the greater part of their territory, grounds between the sources of the Indus and Oxus, were originally aggressors upon some still earlier people. whence they went off in two great branches, ultimately The Germanic family prevails, as has been said, over

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a great part of Central and Northern Europe, filling | tively heavy, massive temperament of the pure GerGermany and Scandinavia, and partly also Russia mans. We may judge so from looking at the character and Poland. The decline of the Roman power brought of the unmixed Germanic families. The Dutch, for out the Germanic tribes from their northern settle- example, would evidently have been an improved race ments, and, under various names, they intruded into had their gravity of character been lightened by a little the south-west of Europe. They likewise pushed them- infusion of Celtic mercurialism. The Belgians have a selves in powerful masses towards the west, and colo- pretty equal share of Celtic and Germanic blood in nised the principal parts of the isle of Britain. From their veins; and consequently, while they display the them came the chief elements of the dialects spoken in industrial virtues of the latter race, they also show no Holland, Denmark, and England. Robust forms, light slight admixture of Celtic vivacity. hair, blue eyes, florid complexions, and large broad- There may appear some fancifulness in this mode of fronted heads, constitute the chief physical character analysis, but we believe that an accurate examination istics of the pure Germanic family; while, morally and of the proportions in which the Germanic and Celtic intellectually, they stand pre-eminent above all the blood are mingled in all the countries of Europe, would other tribes of mankind. They are conspicuous, in par- fully bear out the views now taken. In Italy, Spain, ticular, for what may be called the industrial virtues, and Portugal, infusions of Germanic blood took place, exhibiting a degree of indomitable perseverance in all but to a comparatively slight extent. The aboriginal improving pursuits, which has rendered them the great Celts of Spain were extensively mingled with Roman inventors of the human race. The admixture of Ger- immigrants; and it may be said that at this day Roman and Tartar blood in the north-eastern nations of manised Celts, with a sprinkling of Gothic (Germanic) Europe, has given to these darker hair and complexions and Saracenic blood in their veins, form the existing than the preceding section, and has also lessened their population. In them, the faults of the Roman chapropensity to intellectual cultivation. The effects of racter, as well as its haughty virtues, are even yet disthe Tartar conquest of Russia in the twelfth century tinctly traceable. Romanised Celts constitute the basis by Ghenghis Khan, whose successors held the country also of the Portuguese and Italian nations, and the prefor 200 years, will probably be observable in the career ceding remark applies to their character as much as of this people for ages yet to come.

to that of the Spaniards. The languages of the three The Celtic family formed extensive settlements at a countries bear out these observations. very early period in Western Europe. The whole, it It has been remarked that the Semitic nations are may be said, of Italy, Spain, France (called Gallia distinguished from the rest of this group by their lanCeltica), and Britain, was peopled by them. The suc- guages. In using language as a means of ascertaining cessive commingling of races, caused by incursions of the affinity of nations, philologers attach less consethe Greeks, Romans, and Germans, did much to oblite- quence to a community of words, though this is not rate the traces of this variety in its pure state; yet overlooked by them, than to a community of grammathe race, language, and name, still remain in their tical forms. It is remarked that " a similar construcprimitive condition on the outskirts of the original tion prevails through whole classes of languages which Celtic dominions. These pure Celts show us what the have few words in common, though they appear to physical characteristics of their ancestors were. Their have originally had more. The words, it appears, frames are athletic, spare, and wiry; their foreheads change and perish, but the grammatical structure is narrow, and the head itself elongated; the nose and permanent. It is also remarked that there is a cogmouth large, and the cheek-bones high; in all, their nate character in words themselves, which sometimes features are rather harsh. In character they are hot pervades the entire vocabulary of a whole family of and fiery, but generous and brave; and they are re- languages, the words being formed in the same manner, markably patient of fatigue. Intellectually considered, and according to the same artificial rule.'* Conimon they are acute and ingenious in the highest degree, but words, to be of any service in the inquiry, should be are deficient in that breadth and solidity of under- those which refer to the most simple and domestic standing which distinguishes the Germanic family. things, and the most natural and ordinary acts, as

The present population of France partakes largely of those denoting father, mother, brother, the various the Celtic blood, notwithstanding various invasions of parts of the body, the most conspicuous objects of exthe Germanic tribes, from one of which, the Franks, ternal nature, as the heavenly bodies, the domestic came the modern name of the country. From the animals, &c.; also the first few numerals, and the Celts, the French people derive their proverbial viva- terms for such acts as eating, drinking, sleeping. city of temper, their quickness of perception, their Other words, it will readily be apprehended, are inore dashing bravery, and, most probably, their undeniable apt to have passed from one people to another, in the inconstancy and flightiness of disposition. Britain, course of commerce or other intercourse.

Of these, again, has retained comparatively slight traces of her however, it may be said that they are indestructible early Celtic inhabitants, though the language is con- possessions of all nations. “Tribes and families sepaspicuous in a vast number of the names of places rated from each other have been known to have prethroughout the island. A branch of the Germans served such similar words for thousands of years, in a had visited England even before the invasion of the degree of purity that admitted of an easy recognition Romans; and after the latter came Dane, and Saxon, of this sign of a common origin.' and Norman, in such numbers, that the pure aboriginal Upon these principles, it has been settled that the stock were left only in the Highlands of Scotland, and Sanscrit, the ancient written language of India, besides partly in Wales.' The Scottish Lowlands had early being in strong affinity to the Zend, or ancient lanbeen colonised by people of Germanic origin; and sub-guage of Persia, forms as it were the type of all the sequent intermistures with the southern inhabitants of languages of Europe, thus contirming the fact of all the island in time gave the population still more of the these nations being from one original. Old, however, Germanic character. In this manner was formed the as the Sanscrit is, it is only the last refined form of a root of the existing British nation, one of the most re- language which had long existed in a ruder state. It markable on the face of the earth. Inferior to none of is likewise on the same grounds established that the the Caucasian families in intellectual endowments, and Syro-Arabian family of languages is entirely distinct possessed of indomitable courage and unbounded enter- from the Indo-European; for which reason, those who prise

, it has scattered its colonies over a large portion look most to language as evidence on ethnological of the globe, giving to new regions its language, its subjects, set down the Semitic nations as forming an genius, and its arts. Much of the excellence that be independent variety of mankind. The Chaldee, Arabic, longs to the British character certainly arose from the and Hebrew are the chief languages of this family. preponderating infusion of Germanic blood. But the The last—which appears to have been also the language sprinkling left of Celtic blood seems to have had its * Report on Ethnology to the British Association. By James use also, in giving a share of vivacity to the compara-Cowles Prichard, M.D., F.R.S. 1847.

of Phoenicia and of Carthage-is memorable as that | apart what he calls the Ugro-Tartarian from the Chi. which has given a form of writing to Europe, and nese family of this race. as that through which mankind have obtained the sacred Scriptures.

Ethiopic (African) Race.

The Negro, with his black skin, woolly hair, and Mongolian Race.

peculiar form of countenance, appears as a very disThe high lands of Central Asia, from the southern tinct type of mankind, and this type is represented skirts of which the Indo-European and Semitic races generally as occupying Africa, excepting only a certain

appear to have descended, space bordering on the
are thought to be also the Mediterranean, where a
original seat of a great Caucasian people has in-
cluster of nations, chiefly truded. Ethiopia, a dis-
nomadic or wandering, tinguished portion of the
which now people Tar- territory occupied by this
tary, Mongolia, and Rus-type, has supplied à de-
sia in Asia, and of which signation for it, which
the Turks are an offshoot. seemed the more appro-
Dr Prichard ranks these priate as the ancients re-
peoples together, as exhi- cognised the whole of the
biting a tolerable affinity | African continent under
in features and language, this name. The race has
under the appellation of also been described under

Ugro - Tartarian. With the appellation of Negro. them other inquirers class the vast horde of Chinese It appears, however, on a narrow examination of the and Japanese population, as well as the tribes spread known parts of Africa, that people fully characterised by along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, in Asia, in the popular conception of the Negro features and colour Europe, and America, calling the whole Mongolian, in do not occupy a large part of that quarter of the globe. order to distinguish them as a separate race.

The true Negroes, the people with which the slave The physical characters of the Mongolians vary con- system has familiarised us, may be said to be confined siderably, but the following general description will be to the country of Guinea. Most of the other African found to apply extensively. The skin is commonly of nations depart more or less from this character. a sallow or olive tint, and in some cases nearly yellow; Obscure as is our knowledge of Central Africa, it is the hair is black, long, and straight, seldom curling; tolerably certain that a great range of mountains the beard usually scanty; the iris black; the nose is crosses it nearly in the line of the tenth degree of north broad and short, and the cheek-bones broad and flat, latitude, and that the central parts of the continent to with salient zygomatic arches; the skull is oblong, but the south are occupied by a vast table-land, much like flattened at the sides, so as to give an appearance of that which constitutes the centre of Asia. The range squareness; and the forehead is low. In intellectual of mountains makes one pretty decided division among character, the Mongolians are by no means defective, the African nations, all to the north being partially but they are more distinguished for imitative than in civilised, while few traces of civilisation are observable ventive genius. This faculty at the same time renders to the south. them highly susceptible of cultivation. In many cases, The most southern people are the Hottentots, who however, tribes of this variety have arrived at consider- are described as well-proportioned, erect, of delicate able proficiency in literature and the arts. Their moral and effeminate make, not muscular; their joints and character is decidedly low. The Turkish and Mongol extremities generally small; their face generally ugly, Tartar tribes have been great conquerors in past tinies, but different in different families, some having the nose and have often even vanquished the Caucasians; but remarkably flat, others considerably raised. It is in most cases their victories have only been temporary. somewhat remarkable that this population, placed at The Fins and Laplanders appear to be a remnant of the extremity of Africa, bear a strong resemblance to some primitive Mongolian people, whom the Caucasians the Chinese and Esquimaux, who live at the opposite originally pushed to the extreme verge of the Arctic extremities of the globe. The Bushmen, neighbours of seas, and were content to leave there. The Esquimaux, the Hottentots, appear to be the same people in a deas well as the people of Finland and Lapland, have graded and more savage state. To the northward, some physical peculiarities distinguishing them from stretching across the whole continent, are the great other Mongolians, but these seem to be the effect chiefly nomadic nation of the Caffres. According to Professor of local position.

Lichenstein, 'the universal characteristics of all the Under the test of language, it would appear that tribes of this great nation consist in an external form the term Mongolian, like that of Caucasian, comprises and figure varying exceedingly from the other nations in reality two varieties or distinct races. The language of Africa. They are much taller, stronger, and their of the Chinese, and the nations akin to them, is strik- limbs are much better proportioned; their colour is ingly different in all respects from all others upon brown; their hair black and woolly; their countenances earth, being constructed of monosyllables which are have a character peculiar to themselves,

the high incapable of inflexion, and do not admit of the use of forehead and prominent nose of the Europeans, the particles as a supplement to this defect, the position thick lips of the Negroes, and the high cheek-bones of of words and sentences being the principal means of the Hottentots.' The Caffres have great herds, and also determining their relation to each other, and the mean-cultivate the ground. They have the idea of a supreme ing intended to be conveyed. The languages of the being and of a future state. other nations comprised under the denomination of Similar nomadic nations, more or less approaching Mongolians, possess indeed nouns incapable of inflexion, the Negro type, and of warlike character, occupy the and in which the variations of number, case, and gen- countries of Congo and Loango on the west, and the der can only be expressed by an additional word—thus region of Mozambique on the east, probably also the far showing a faint affinity to the Chinese; but these intermediate unexplored regions. In the whole of languages exhibit other features marking a wide differ- these countries there prevail dialects of cognate lanence, having auxiliaries to composition, such as our guages, excepting the district of the Hottentots. particles and prepositions, though always placed after The great region, now pretty well known to Eurothe words whose meanings they affect, and also a pecu- peans, situated to the north of the Gulf of Guinea, and liar euphonic principle, usually called vocalic harmony, extending far into the interior to the eastward, is the according to which only vowels of certain sets can occur grand seat of the Negro type. It is from the Gold in the same words. On these grounds Dr Prichard sets Coast, a portion of this territory, that the American

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colonies were for ages supplied with slaves. In some height, form the chief physical characteristics of this districts are found the pure Negroes, an essentially race. In their mental character,' says Professor Morsimple and inoffensive people, of whom no description ton, by whom they have been thoroughly studied, the is necessary. Other large tracts are occupied by nations Americans are averse to cultivation, and slow in acquirconsiderably above those in character and in their ing knowledge ; restless, social state. We allude to the warlike tribes of the revengeful, fond of war, Fulahs, the Mandingoes, the Felatahs, and others, and wholly destitute of among whom a civilisation has been in progress for maritime adventure. The many centuries in connection with the propagation of same writer divides the the Mohammedan religion. For an example of the Americans into two great characters of these so far advanced nations, M. Gol- classes, one of which (Tolberry describes the Fulahs as “fine men, robust and tecans) embraces certain courageous. They have a strong mind, and are myste- semi-civilised nationsrious and prudent; they understand commerce. Their as the Mexicans, Peruwomen are handsome and sprightly. The colour is a vians, and Bogotese; while kind of reddish black; their countenances are regular, the other includes all the and their hair is longer and not so woolly as that of hunting tribes of North the common Negroes. The Mandingo merchants are America, the Brazilians, well known for their activity and intelligence. We the Patagonians, the Fuecan all sympathise in the surprise of Mr Park on find- gians, and other minor tribes, none of whom have ing a city of 0,000 inhabitants (Seg with many of exhibited the same capacities for cultivation as the the usual features of civilisation in this portion of the first-mentioned nations. The Americans differ much earth.

in colour of skin and stature. Some of them are It is now understood that, as we traverse the African not brown, but of a perfect copper tint. The Patacontinent northwards, we pass through nations in whom gonians are of almost gigantic size, while the Fuethe Negro type becomes less and less conspicuous, as if gians are very short in stature. Yet there are chait were shading off towards the characters of the Se-racters common to all, which have led accurate inmitic race. This gradual change,' says Dr Prichard, quirers to set them down as being throughout one

is not the result of the intermixture of races on the and the same people. Their languages have peculiaconfines of regions of old allotted to either separately: rities of construction found to be universal among The intermediate tribes are not Mulattoes, or at all them, from Cape Horn to the far north. By those resembling Mulattoes: they have each their distin- who, like Cuvier, have not viewed the Americans as guishing features, which, besides their distinct lan- an indigenous race, the mode in which the New World guages, mark them out as races separate and peculiar, was peopled has been curiously inquired into, and it and not less distinct from Negroes than white races has been conjectured that they either came by Behring's themselves. These observations are the results of re- Straits from Asia, or that some small party, in ages cent inquiries made on the spot by persons well skilled long past, was wafted accidentally across the seas to in natural history and comparative anatomy and phy- these vast shores. Such an occurrence as the latter siology, and aware of the important bearing of such has been proved to be not impossible, to say the least inquiries on the physical history of the human species.' of it. But assuredly the weight of evidence is in favour Thus in the great known district adjoining to the Red of the opinion that the Americans are not a casual Sea, we pass through the Gallas, Abyssinians, and offshoot from some other human family, but a people Nubians, amongst whom we find these transitions more so far indigenous at least, and primitive, as to be deor less marked. The Berberines of Nubia are said by rived from a common root, endowed with specific and Dr Prichard to represent very clearly the ancient unique physical characters. The American race is people of Egypt. It appears, on the whole, that there obviously tending to extinction. are as great varieties of national appearances in Africa as in any part of the earth of equal extent and diver

Malay Race. sity of surface, and that the sole ground on which The Malay variety of mankind are characterised by their distinction from the other races can be effec- tawny or dark-brown skins, coarse black hair, large tually maintained, is the peculiar character of their mouth, short broad noses, languages.

seeming as if broken at The African race are generally admitted to manifest the root, Hat expanded an inferior intellect to the various tribes of Caucasians. faces, with projecting upThey have never invented an alphabet, and their reli- per jaws, and salient gious ideas are of a mean character. Yet it fully ap- teeth. The skull in this pears that various portions of this race have made a race is high, and squared certain way in the arts of life and in a social polity, or rounded, and the forewhile we all know that individuals, introduced among head low and broad. The a civilised people, and allowed to partake of education, moral character of the have manifested very considerable talents. It must Malays, generally speakalso be remembered that there are great appearances ing, is of an inferior order. as if some offshoot of the Negro race were at least con. They are a race differing cerned in the origination of that first of all recorded much in some respects civilisations, that of Egypt.

from the Negro and Red

Indian, being of peculiarly active temperaments, and American Race.

fond of maritime enterprise. They exhibit considerable The AMERICAN variety of mankind occupy well-de- intellectual capacity, and are an ingenious people. fined territorial limits. They were originally spread Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Philippine Islands, New over nearly the whole of the Americas, south of the Zealand, part of Madagascar, and various Polynesian 60th degree of north latitude, though their numbers islands, are inhabited by this variety of men. It is are now thinned, and their territorial possessions cur- extremely probable, from the fact of their being found tailed, by the colonial incursions of the Caucasians. in islands surrounded by others in the hands of the A reddish-brown complexion, long black lank hair, Ethiopic race, that the Malays have pushed out the less deficient beard, eyes black and deep set, receding brow active variety from these isles, and, in short, annihilated (sometimes from artificial compression), high cheek- them. It is but too likely, moreover, that the Malays bones, prominent aquiline nose, small skull, with the will in turn suffer extinction at the hands of a superior apex high and the back part fat, large mouth and variety, or a variety rendered superior by civilisation, tumid lips, with fine symmetrical frames of middle if not naturally so.

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