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of scales. If we wish to compare nine times six with 1 of these powers become, according to the way that eleven times five, we find it most convenient to bring they happen to be adjusted, solids of more or less com. both into products of tens, by making the one fifty-four, pactness, liquids, or airs. These powers of adhesion and the other fifty-five.
are very varied and unequal, and in this respect Algebra is a higher process than Arithmetic, and contrast with the uniformity and regularity of the has been defined the reduction of equations. Its main gravitating force. They not only differ in different peculiarity lies in putting two different complex ex- substances, but they differ in the same substance, in pressions that are equal over against one another, and consequence of there being a grand pervading energy then in operating upon the two by adding, subtracting, of nature supplied in the first instance by the sun, &c. the same things from both, so as still to preserve which is able to overrule and modify them. In fact, the equality, and at the same time to bring the equa- the adhesion of atom to atom in a solid or liquid is the tion to some simple form that will give the value of a result of a natural attraction between the particles single ingredient of the original expression. Thus an resisted up to a certain point by a repulsion infused easy question in Algebra would be to find a number into them from without, by the all-pervading influence which, when added to its square, would give 56, that we term Heat, and which we speak and think of Here an equation would be formed by putting 56 as a subtle substance or fluid like air, but which is on one side, and on the other an expression of a num- more properly a grand relation of mutual action beber added to its square, the number being represented tween all material bodies, whereby they affect one anby a letter (such as x), and the business would then other's atomic constitution whenever a peculiar balance be to operate on this equation till it is reduced to an- or equilibrium is disturbed. It is very inconsistent with other with nothing on the one side but the representative our rude instinctive notions of force, to suppose that beof the number itself, in which case the other side would cause some change has come over the interior attractions give the actual number in arithmetical figures. The and repulsions of one body, a set of analogous changes higher analysis was invented by Newton and Leibnitz will be propagated to all bodies in the neighbourhood to solve such questions as computing the areas and till some state is given to each consistent with the repose circumferences of curved surfaces, and the spaces and of the whole. But having once admitted the principle times of accelerated and retarded motions.
of action through distance, without any intermediate Geometry treats of the laws and properties of lines, filling up of the interval between the bodies, there is surfaces, and solids, straight or curved. It has two | no reason why we should not prepare ourselves for branches--Special and General Geometry: the one is finding other cases of the same kind of action though exemplified in Euclid, who treats each figure by itself varying in the details. in succession, as in triangles, circles, &c. General The first division of Terrestrial Physics being the Geometry treats whole classes of figures at once by Laws of Material Aggregation, and the second the stating them in Algebraical Language.
Laws of Heat, it is usual to follow these up with PracGeneral or Rational Mechanics lays down the first tical Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, and Acousprinciples or laws of motion, and applies these to cal- tics, which involve no new first principle not contained culate the effects of all possible kinds of forces, single in the previous departments. There, then, remain the or combined. It makes an important distinction betwo subjects of Electricity and Light, each involving & tween forces that are counterbalanced so as to produce distinct natural agency. Electricity has now been comrest or equilibrium, and forces productive of movement; pletely generalised, and shown to be a wide ranging this gives rise to two branches named Statics and Dy- power of the polar nature, which puts on many forms namics. To determine the path of a projectile is a according to its material connections, but invariably simple mechanical problem: two forces are given, which, maintains the character of a polar or double force, separately, would produce certain known effects, and There are no less than six or seven subordinate the question is to find the effect of both acting together. branches, falling under two grand divisions, which are
Astronomy is the link between General Mechanics distinguished by the terms Statical or Reposing, and and terrestrial Physics: it is a case of motion and forces Dynamical or Curr Electricity. The first of the subwhere the natural agent, gravity, is brought into the ordinate branches is the oldest-namely, Magnetism, question. Experimental induction having traced out where the polarity is most conspicuously exhibited, the law of gravity as the power concerned in keeping from its acting on large masses of iron or other mag. the heavenly bodies together, the principles of mecha-netic metal. The second of the Statical branches is nics enable us to compute, by the help of mathematics, Frictional Electricity, or the electricity of the common all the consequences of this agency--that is, if we find machine. This branch was created in the latter half that the moon is acted on both by the earth and by the of last century by Franklin and others. The first of sun, with a certain energy depending on the mass and the Dynamical branches is termed Voltaic Electricity, distance of each, it is possible to calculate what course or the excitement of the voltaic pile, which first showed she will describe under the two actions, and where she the close connection between electricity and chemical will be at any specified time. Or the great problein action. Next follow Electro-Magnetism and Magnetoof Astronomy may be stated thus: Given the present Electricity, being the laws of the derivation of magposition of any one body in reference to all the others netism from electricity, and conversely of electricity that act upon it, and given the effect of each of these from magnets. Thermo-Electricity is the derivation for a certain instant of time, and also the body's own of the excitement from heat, which completes the proof proper movement, to find where it will be an hour, a of the connection between these two great natural day, or at any time, hence; this, it will seem, is only powers. In addition to all these, electricity has to be a more complicated case of the question as to the path considered in its relation to animal and vegetable of a projectile. There are certain terrestrial actions-bodies, as being both produced and expended within as the Tides--which come under Astronomy from their the living organism. being caused by distant gravitation.
The subject of Light has, in some of its bearings, been The first branch of Terrestrial Physics is commonly set forth with great distinctness, as in all the mathetermed the Properties of Matter, meaning thereby the matical relations of its incidence, reflection, and refraclaws and peculiarities of the aggregation of matter into tion on surfaces; but as to its origin and ultimate solid, liquid, and gas. The next agency that we come action on the surfaces that it renders visible, and on upon after gravity, is the cohesive power that binds the the receiving surface of the eye, nothing is yet known. atoms of bodies into masses of more or less firmness of Most bodies, when heated to some given temperature, structure. It requires us to recognise as a first prin- become luminous; but it does not appear that any of ciple of the composition of the material world, that their heat is wasted in supplying the rays of light; so all its substances are made up of exceedingly small) that although an undoubted connection subsists beparticles or atoms, which are gifted with powers of tween light and heat, it is totally different from the mutual attraction and repulsion; and under the action relation of heat to electricity. Hot bodies give light
in addition to their heating power; but if such bodies in their walls. These cells adhere together, and form are made to yield electricity, their heat is consumed tissues, which, in the living state, go continually through or wasted in the act of being turned into electric ex- the process of decay and renewal, by the operation of citement. No means has yet been found of investi- the bursting of old cells and the growth of new. The gating the changes wrought in the surfaces of bodies contact of a cellular mass with certain kinds of unor. by the action of light; but the invention of the Daguer- ganised matter is sufficient to convert the whole of this reotype seems to be a beginning in this direction. matter into vital tissue, by making it go together into
Chemistry is related to Physics through Heat and coherent cells; the principle of like producing like, or Electricity. It treats of the circumstances and laws of the communication to a shapeless mass of form and of the combination of simples into compounds, and the organisation by the touch of what is already organised, resolution of compounds into simples. The kind of being one of the laws of vitality. combination here meant is something quite different The grand difficulty in physiological science is to from mechanical mixture, as when sand and lime are explain how so small á point as the seed of a plant, or put together to make mortar; it is different even from the germinal matter of an animal, can contain within solution. It takes place in fixed proportions, and ends itself such a definite impress as to determine exactly in producing out of two substances a third so different the character of the future expanded being. But we from either, that it could never be suspected to be ought to consider, that although the whole futurity of a made up as it really is. Chemical combinations like-man may at one stage be contained in two or three cells, wise give forth heat, or produce that general disturb- yet each of those cells, in comparison with the ultimate ance in the atomic condition of surrounding bodies, atoms that make it up, is like the whole of St Paul's as that goes under the name of raising their temperature. compared with a single stone; and therefore there is The chemical properties of a substance mean its power abundant room for its containing all the essential chaof entering into combinations, or causing decomposi- racteristics of the full-grown individual, although they tions, with other substances; a body standing alone cannot be traced even by the microscope. can exhibit po chemical relation; hence the prevalence The recent discoveries in anatomy go far to simplify of the idea of binary combination in chemistry, although the animal structure. Professor Owen has lately comthere is no reason to suppose that three things may not pleted a most important demonstration in respect to combine together in the same act as well as two. the vertebrate skeleton, or the bony framework of all
Combination and decomposition being the great facts that class of animals that have & backbone, as distinof chemistry, it became an accurate science when the guished from shell-fish and the other creatures where laws of these processes were ascertained by Dalton. A the hard skeleton surrounds the fleshy and soft parts. great part of chemical research during the last forty He has shown that all these animals, from the fish and years has been devoted to finding the simples that go reptile, up to man, are made on one pattern, varied to to make up the complex substances of the globe, the suit their different peculiarities; and that a fundamenpossible combinations of these simples, and the num- tal or general skeleton can be assigned as the point of bers to be assigned to each as indicating the proportion departure for the whole. What is still more singular, that they bear in combining with one another. Devices this fundamental skeleton is a repetition of the same have had to be invented for bringing about combina- piece from head to foot. In fact, if we take one of the tions and decompositions in all possible cases, as it often vertebræ of the backbone, we have an example of the happens that these cannot take place in any obvious simple piece, which, by being repeated and modified, or direct way. Chemistry is usually divided into Inor- makes the whole skeleton of a man, a quadruped, a ganic and Organic. Organic Chemistry treats of the bird, a fish, or a reptile. Four vertebræ joined together, chemical composition and actions of the substances and having some of their parts more expanded than that are formed in the vegetable and animal processes. usual, constitute the head and the two arms. So that As distinguished from the materials presented by the to make the skeleton of any animal, what is required mineral and inorganic world, these substances are all first is a sufficient number of these vertebral cross very complex. Sugar is by no means an extreme ex- pieces; and in the next place, a determination of the ample of organic complexity of combination; but one extent of growth that is to take place in their several of its atoms contains twenty times as many atoms of parts, so as to suit the demands of the species proposed simples as an ordinary inorganic acid, such as oil of to be created. Professor Owen bas been able to idenvitriol. The products of the animal tissues are far tify every bone of every animal of the vertebrate class more complex than even this. The number of sub- with the corresponding bone of every other animal, stances in nature that are chemically distinct may through all their changes of form, and also to assign amount to hundreds of thousands, giving thus a pro- the portion of a vertebral cross-piece that every one of digious choice for human purposes when once they them sprung from. As regards the complicated struccome to be properly known. There is scarcely a single ture of the head, Mr Owen has had the glory of comvegetable or animal species that does not yield some pleting the identification through the whole species, peculiar and characteristic chemical compound. and of finally clearing up all the doubts and per
Organic Chemistry is the link connecting chemistry plexities that were left hanging around the subject by with the science of living bodies. It is necessary to the most illustrious of his predecessors
. One magnifiknow fully all the physical and chemical properties of cent idea may now be said to reign through this wide the tissues and substances used in vegetable and animal region of nature's works, which includes the nobler life, in order, by their separation according to the ex- half of the entire animal creation. perimental method of residues, to ascertain what func- As the mind of man is a portion of the living tions are due to vital powers and properties, rightly so system, and as a special organ is devoted to its action called. Thus the act of digestion is performed partly on the framework, the study of this organ—the brainby the physical action of solution, and partly, it would under anatomy and physiology, might naturally be appear, by chemical combination; but when these are supposed to be the prelude to the science of mind. allowed for, there still remains a portion of the effect In this point of view, psychology would be the natural to be ascribed to a power different from either. sequel to the general science of life. But it so happens
The general science of Life is divided into Vegetable that this is not the only way of approaching the subject and Animal Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy is of mind: had it been so, we should have been in total understood to mean the description of the organised ignorance of the mental phenomena until within the structure of living bodies; and Physiology describes the last few years; for it is only of late that any progress processes and changes that go on within them. has been made in tracing the laws of mind from the
The great foundation peculiarity of an organised anatomy of its material organ. There are two other structure is, that it is made up not of atoms, but of great sources of knowledge on this subject-namely, the cells, which have the power of breaking up and giving outward appearances and manifestations of thought, birth to other cells from a nucleus in their interior or I and feeling, and consciousness; and the inward sense that each individual has of what passes within himself. I vernment with some of the most powerful reigning imThese have been illustrated in our previous number pulses of the human mind. If the sentiment of filial (71) on the Human Mind.
obedience be very strong, and if the people can be in. But there can be no doubt but that the future pro- duced to consider the supreme civil ruler as a father, gress of anatomical and physiological discovery will they will be disposed to render him obedience with the act powerfully in throwing light upon the laws and whole force of their filial devotion. If the religious properties of mind. It is not the dissection of the sentiment is high in a people, and if they can be made brain alone that we depend on: the structure of the to believe in the Divine right of kings, obedience may organs of sense and of the muscular system, which are be secured from this source. If society is so constituted the terminating points of the great proportion of the as visibly to be for the advantage of the majority of its nervous threads, is of equal consequence. But no part members, the sentiment of self-interest wilĩ suffice to of the system is unimportant in its bearing upon the keep up the spirit of obedience. It will thus be seen thoughts, feelings, actions, and volitions of the mind. that the supports of Order are such of the mainsprings And if ever the laws of mind should be completely of human action as can, for the time, be brought into traced through the medium of the anatomy of the harmony with the principle or pretence that lies at the framework (a thing scarcely to be hoped for), psycho-foundation of the existing government. Hence the logy would become purely a dependent branch of character of the people is an important consideration biology; but in the meantime it possesses an indepen in determining the means of securing their obedience. dent existence, and it has in all ages been studied, Order not only implies a harmonious relation between and in some measure understood, without the help of the mass of a people and their central government-it any of the other abstract sciences that stand before it. extends to all the smaller associations included within This is perhaps the only apparent break in the strict the greater. The proper constitution of local governdependence of the six fundamental sciences.
ments, of the spiritual government, of the family, of The great peculiarity of the method of psychology the relations of master and servant, teacher and pupil
, benceforth must be the reconcilement of the indications is a matter of adjustment according to the prevailing of the three different sources of knowledge anatomy, impulses of the individuals concerned, and no one rule external manifestations, and consciousness. No prin- can be made universal in any of the cases. ciple of human nature can be finally accepted, till it is Progress, which is also termed Civilisation, means verified in all the three ways.
the advancement from one state of Order to a higher, Sociology, or the science of human society, comes or to a state where a superior class of the impulses and last of all, as being most complex, or as involving all the capacities of man are brought into action. When a gophenomena of the previous sciences. The arrangements vernment, based on the superstitious prostration of the of society depend on the properties of the inorganic and mind, gives place to one recognised by the reason, on organic world on the one hand, and on the character of the grounds of its contributing to the well-being of the the mind of man on the other. The life of men and of society, a step of progress has been achieved. So, when societies is restricted by the mathematical, astronomical, a clear knowledge of affairs in a ruler, instead of the physical, chemical, and vital laws and conditions of the arts of oratory, is the means of gaining a people's surrounding world, and is rendered more perfect in confidence and co-operation, the society has entered & proportion as these are better known.
higher stage of advancement. The more immediate dependence of the structure of The proper meaning of Civilisation is the application society on the peculiarities of the mind of man, has of intelligence to the improvement of the human conenabled the subject to be studied along with this last dition. It includes all that is not derived immediately from the very dawn of human speculation, and while from nature; in other words, nature and civilisation all the preceding sciences were in their infancy. But it together make up the whole of human existence. The has been shown by M. Comte, that every advance in these instinctive capacities of men are the immediate gift of sciences has been accompanied with some correspond nature; the powers acquired by the use of intelligence ing advance in the mode of viewing social questions; and will, confirmed into habits, and transmitted by in. so that all history attests the existence of a real depend-struction from age to age, are civilisation. The original ence under the outward appearance of independence. genius, or inventive capacity of man, is the origin of
The greatest simplification that has been made in the everything included in human progress. Consequently complicated subject of society, has arisen from carrying civilisation consists of as many distinct streams as there out a distinction derived from the anterior sciences; the are divisions in the arts of life and the creations of the distinction in Mechanics between Statics and Dynamics; human intellect. The industrial arts, the training arts, and in Biology between the powers that maintain or- the healing arts, the arts and forms of social intercourse, ganic life and the powers that bring about the progress the art of government, morality, religion, science, the of the being from one stage to another. In society, the fine arts, literature, and the art of living, are all interms Order and Progress express the two correspond- cluded in this one comprehensive designation. ing ideas. Order means the maintenance of the peace- But it is especially important for our present purable workings of any one society; Progress means the pose, which is to consider the dependence of the diffeadvancement from one arrangement to another of a rent branches of knowledge, to call attention to the superior kind—as from the state of slavery to the state fact, that although we have named eleven different of liberty. By discussing the two subjects apart, all the branches of civilisation, there is one that is at the questions relating to society and history are at once centre of the whole, or so related to every one of them, freed from the largest share of the embarrassments and that if we concentrate our regards upon it as we pass difficulties that have always surrounded them. along the stream of human history, we shall thereby
The doctrines of Social Order are more particularly detect the very essence of what progress there may dependent on the laws of human nature, and are ad. have been. This central and predominating part is vanced in precision exactly in proportion to the accu. science, meaning thereby more particularly the abstract racy of our knowledge of these laws. The fundamental or fundamental sciences as we have now sketched them idea of society being the harmonious co-operation of a out. Science is the perfect work of the human intelmultitude for the better attainment of common ends, lect, its highest achievement in the search after truth, and the first step in the working out of this idea being and the very touchstone of its capacity to grapple with the setting up of a central government, or ruling power, the appearances and realities of the world, and to form the grand requisite of good order is obedience to this such conceptions as can be relied on in practice. This power. Where the government is obeyed, order reigns, connection of the progress of science with all the col. whatever other evils may exist; where successful dis- lateral branches of civilisation, and with the great obedience has occurred, there is disorder or anarchy. revolutions of the world, has been pointed out for the To secure obedience is, therefore, the problem of Order; first time in all its extent in the Cours de Philosophie and this must be accomplished by connecting the go-Positive of M. Auguste Comte.
NATURAL THEOLOGY is that branch of logical science tions generally use, we might reasonably argue that we which comprehends the discovery of the existence and had found the dwelling of an untamed savage. But if, attributes of a Creator, by investigating the evidences instead of this, we find the surrounding land trenched, of design in the works of creation; and in an enlarged enclosed, and cultivated; should we find the cominon sense, it refers to the probable intentions of Deity articles of European husbandry, and the common utenwith regard to his creatures, their duty, and conduct. sils of a European household, we should naturally It cannot but appear to every rational mind, that a draw the inference that we had reached the abode of subject involving such important views and considera- an emigrant, who had thus reared around him the tions is full of the deepest interest, and may be made the attributes of civilised life. Much more a few addiagent of much intellectual improvement. It is incum- tional observations might reveal to us, and enable us to bent on us to read the wisdom of God, and his admirable form conjectures, bearing the aspect of probability, con contrivance, in all that we see around us and above us, cerning the people among whom we had fallen. Now and which pertains to the universe to which we belong. it is in this way alone that we can argue respecting the Independently of the pleasure, and perhaps worldly Author of all things, and discover proofs and demonadvantage, which the study of Natural Theology may strations of a first supreme Cause. To prove that the produce, it will be equally serviceable in keeping alive formation of all things was the result of DESIGN, it is feelings of piety and devotion. As Lord Brougham has only necessary to show that they are in general, or in very appropriately remarked, 'even the inspired pen- so far as we can discover, admirably suited to the uses men have constant recourse to the views which are de- and purposes to which they are to be applied--that rived from the contemplation of nature when they would their arrangement is perfectly harmonious-and that it exalt the Deity by a description of his attributes, or is impossible that any chance could have thrown them inculcate sentiments of devotion towards him. " How together in a way so happy. To discover if this design excellent,” says the Psalmist, “is thy name in all the can be evidenced or demonstrated, it is necessary to earth! thou hast set thy glory above the heavens. I seek through the various works of creation with which will consider the heavens, the work of thy fingers; the we are surrounded; and the more minute we make our moon and stars which thou hast ordained," :
inspection, the more likely shall we be to perceive the It is worthy of remark, as showing the depth and deduction. If there be some departments to which our solidity of the foundation on which rests the existence senses have a readier access than to others, and which of a supreme, intelligent, and beneficent First Cause, we can therefore more readily examine, from these that the farther we push our discoveries, the more especially we ought to deduce our result. It may be clearly are the Divine perfections exhibited. It is not that we shall find many things which, from the defimerely true that, on a superficial view, we perceive the ciency of our observing faculties, we cannot understand, necessity of believing that a limited and changing world, nor discover the uses or consequent design which they such as that on which we dwell, could neither exist display; but still if, in the course of our inspection, without being produced, nor be the author of its own we find every part admirably adapted for a specific existence; and that there must therefore be, beyond purpose, and teeming with the most convincing erithe range of our senses, an independent and uncreated dences of design, then we may with safety, and in the Essence, without beginning, without bounds, incapable spirit of true philosophy, infer that in those objects of change, intelligent, ever-active, all-pervading; but which, from their nature and our imperfection, we canit is also certain that those views are not only uncon- not so completely investigate, a greater degree of light tradicted, but fully established by the most minute sur- would tend to confirm the result to which our previous Fey of the objects within the sphere of our observation; observations, among other things, had led us. so that he who penetrates the deepest into the secrets of nature, only multiplies proofs of that most sublime and most animating truth, that' verily there is a God' To the uninstructed eye, the earth which we inhabit who made and rules the universe. It is difficult to appears on a clear night to be surrounded by a numeunderstand that strange moral obtuseness which has rous host of radiant points, which, rising in the east, induced a certain class of writers to reject this; for move majestically through the sky until they reach the grant but one assertion, which is—and it is not easily western horizon, when they set or disappear; and so to be questioned—that there exist in nature indisput- completely does this idea commend itself to the mind able traces of design, planned with wisdom, directed of an observer, that it requires a considerable effort to by goodness, and upheld and accomplished by power, conceive how it can be otherwise. But science has and it follows that there also of necessity must have taught us that this is a mere illusion, and the disbeen a wise, a good, and a powerful Designer.
coveries of Copernicus and Sir Isaac Newton have esLet us suppose ourselves cast ashore upon some tablished the truth suggested by Pythagoras upwards island preriously unknown to us; we immediately pro- of 2000 years before the time of either of them, that ceed to examine the appearances which present them- the apparent motion of the heavens is the consequence selves, in order to discover if any traces exist of human of the real revolution of the earth every twenty-four inhabitants. To ascertain if such beings there existed, hours upon its axis; that, with relation to the earth, it would not be necessary that they should actually be the sun is stationary, while the earth every year comseen by us.
In our wanderings we might come upon a pletes a journey round him; that the planets are globes hut bearing all the marks of occupation; we might see similar to our own, revolving at once upon their own the roots of the trees which had been felled to form it, axes, and round the sun; that the moon is a satellite or and other tokens of the recent presence of man upon attendant upon the earth, accompanying it in its course, the spot; and did we desire to discover something of and at the same time describing every month a circular their character and habits before we presented ourselves orbit round it; and that to several of the other planets to their notice, it is most probable that sufficient data are attached (similar moons or satellites, bearing to would be also afforded on which to found an opinion. them a corresponding relationship. Were the habitations we discovered merely wigwams, By referring to our article ASTRONOMY, in which the or rude enclosures destitute of the conveniences of civi- number of the planets, and their distances from the sun, lised life ; or were the furniture, the weapons, or the with other particulars, are noted, it will be seen that instruments in and around them such as barbarous na- the earth which we inhabit is but a very small point, No. 74.
DESIGN IN THE PLANETARY SYSTEM.
even in the solar system (as the concourse of planets the horizon while another is setting; a third approachround the sun has been called), and that it forms but ing the meridian; one entering into an eclipse, and a part of one magnificent and resplendent whole. But another emerging from it; one appearing as a crescent, to ascertain the marks of a designing mind in this and another with a gibbous phase; and sometimes the mighty maze of brilliant wonders, let us turn our atten- whole of them shining together in one bright assembly: tion to some of those particulars regarding them with the majestic motions of the rings, at one time illumi. which we are acquainted; and it inust be confessed nating the sky with their splendour, and eclipsing the that, if we are to suppose them mere masses of matter stars; at another, casting a deep shade over certain unclothed with aught bearing analogy to our vegetable portions of the planet, and unveiling to view the wonproductions, and uninhabited by beings either sentient ders of the starry firmamentmare scenes worthy of the or rational, it will be difficult to see why any of the majesty of the Divine Being to unfold, and the rational arrangements connected with these bodies, so far at creature to contemplate.' Of the other planets it is least as they themselves are concerned, and apart from unnecessary individually to speak; our knowledge of their attractive influence upon our own world, should them is extremely limited, and we may simply remark, be either beneficial or the contrary. It is solely on the that in most of them the same causes exist which in conjecture that there are organised beings on their sur- our globe produce the various seasons. To the causes face to be warmed, and nourished, and upheld, that we of the seasons, further than that they are the result of can argue regarding such arrangements; and making the influences of the celestial bodies, we will not here this conjecture, we shall find that there are some very allude. To the arrangement of these, and to the foreremarkable apparent contrivances for ministering to thought and all-pervading knowledge and goodness of their comfort and happiness. It has been supposed that Him who designed them, are we, in a word, indebted a planet 80 far distant as Uranus, or even Jupiter or for the opening beauties of spring—the full glow of Saturn, must suffer from an extreme deficiency both of summer, arrayed in flowers and clothed with verdure light and heat; hence it has been argued that they are the sober and sear leaves of autumn, with its aureate necessarily unfit for the sustenance either of animal or fields and happy harvests—and the cold, but not desoof vegetable life. But when we consider that even late winter, which even in its frigidity serves a valuable Uranus possesses "248 times the light afforded by our purpose in the scheme of the natura] world. In these full moon, it will not be difficult to believe that, with arrangements we see proofs of the care, the power, and a somewhat more acute power of vision than we possess, the beneficence of that great Being who was the cause the inhabitants of that planet, if formed like ourselves, of all things. To what else, indeed, shall we trace the may be quite able to engage in employments which re- primary fact, that of all the hearenly bodies connected quire considerable minuteness of perception. Besides, with our system, the sun alone, situated as he is in to compensate for the deficiency of light derived directly the centre, possesses undivided light, while the planets from the sun to this planet in common with Jupiter which surround him are all dark bodies receiving their and Saturn, there is afforded the subsidiary benefit of light from him? There is no reason, in the nature of several moons or satellites to reflect light upon the sur things, why a body placed in the centre of a system face when the sun has withdrawn his beams; neither should give forth light and heat, while those rerolving is it probable that the inhabitants should miserably round it should be destitute of them. Yet we find it to perish from cold; for putting out of view the possibility be so: and we perceive the consequence of this arrange. that they may be formed with constitutions adapted to ment to be not only most beneficial, but absolutely a more frigid climate than that of any portion of our | indispensable to the existence of the organised beings world, we must remember that heat is not dependent with which these orbs may be clothed or peopled. altogether upon the body from which it originates, but is But there is another view of the system of worlds to regulated in a very great measure by the nature of the which our earth belongs, that strongly corroborntes the body to which it is transınitted. Keeping this in view, existence of a creating and presiding Being. We menn the planet Mercury may be as cool, and Uranus as the provision which is made for its perpetuity, notwithwarm, as our own globe, although they be at such diffe- standing the existence of so many conflicting forces rent distances from the great source of heat. This, how-1-any one of which, if the system were differently arever, can be the subject of conjecture alone; and it is ranged to what we find it to be, might in the course of only valuable as showing that we have no reason to sus. ages derange the relations which the different bodies pect the goodness of the Creator in having placed some composing it possess towards each other, and precipitate of his worlds in situations which at first sight might the whole into confusion, only equalled by that chaos be supposed necessarily incapable of affording even the from which, by might and power, it was called. It will most essential accommodations to organic existences. hardly be necessary minutely to explain the causes by
Of all the planets, Saturn presents us with the most which the earth and the other planets are kept in a singular example of design in reference to this subject. continual state of rotation round the sun; but as perWhen viewed through a telescope, this beautiful orb is spicuity is one of the chief objects at which we aim, a seen to be surrounded by a double circle of 30,000 miles few words on this subject will not be out of place. Let distant from any part of its surface. This apparatus it be understood, then, that in every body of matter consists of two concentric rings, separated from each there exists a certain tendency to rush towards every other by a space nearly 3000 miles in breadth, and other body, and that the larger, and denser, and nearer, moving round the planet at the extraordinary rate of any two bodies are, the greater is that tendency, and it a thousand miles a minute. Now there is one use of will easily be comprehended that the sun, the largest of this appendage, whatever may be its other purposes, | all the bodies in our system, should attract every
other which is very apparent: it must contribute much to orb with a degree of force regulated by the size, the enlighten and beautify the globe to which it is attached; density, and the distance of each; so that, had all these and a very little retiection will show the effect it must bodies at first been placed in a state of rest in the uni. have in this respect. What a magnificent brilliant verse, they would immediately have begun to more spectacle must these rings present to the inhabitants of | towards the sun, and thus in the course of time would, Saturn! During its more than fourteen years of sum- one after the other, have reached and been amalgamer, the night must be enlivened by the bright reflec- mated with him in the form of one vast and irregular tion of this brilliant arch extending its luminous curve But at the creation, this result was prevented from the eastern to the western horizon ; while even by communicating to the planets an impulse at right during the day, the sun must be materially aided by it angles to the diameter of their orbits, which, combin. in shedding light upon the world to which it belongs. ing with the force of attraction—that is, the power of "There is no planet in the solar system,' says a late the sun in drawing or attracting the planets towards writer, 'whose firmament will present such a variety himself-caused the planets to revolve round the sun. of splendid and magnificent objects as that of Saturn. If each of the planets, however, were to revolve round The various aspects of his seven moons, one rising above the sun, with no other prevailing power to interfere