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all within the range of its influence. Without Benevo-racter in great strength, but their direction was rena lence, it is apt to be too severe and stringent. When dered unprofitable by the predominance of Wonder Conscientiousness is weak, or when, as happens in per- and Self-Esteem.' The general function of the organ fectly honest' and 'honourable' people, in the broad is held to be ascertained, but the metaphysical analysis sense of these terms, it is not something more than is still far from being perfect. average in its power, the defect will run through the whole conduct and judgments of an individual. We

No. 19.-Ideality. often hear people complaining that a particular friend The organ of this faculty is situated farther down, is ' uncertain. This word expresses concisely the de- but close to that of Wonder, along the temporal ridge fect of Conscientiousness above described.

of the frontal bone. Dr Gall discovered it in the busts The existence of Conscientiousness as an indepen- and portraits of deceased, and in the heads of a great dent element in the human constitution, renders number of living, poets. This confirmed to him the intelligible many supposed inconsistencies in human old classical adage, that the poet is born, not made; conduct—that a man, for instance, will be kind, for- in other words, that his talent is the result of a primigiving, even devout, and yet not just. It is a great tive faculty. Dr Gall called it the organ of Poetry. mistake with regard to those who, after many years of Dr Spurzheim corrected this, and gave it the elegant sanctimonious professions, are detected in dishonest name it now bears; which has, as well as others of acts, to say that they must have been all along mere the expressive names of the phrenological organs, been hypocrites. It is quite possible that many of their adopted into ordinary language. religious feelings and convictions may have been sin- The faculty delights in the perfect, the exquisite, the cere, but only insufficient in force to compensate for beau-ideal-something beyond the scenes of realitythe lack of direct Conscientiousness. Conscientious- something in the regions of romance and fancy--of the ness gives remorse when the individual has been beautiful and the sublime. Those writers and speakers tempted to sin. The organ is larger in some nations who possess it large adorn all they say or write with its than others. It is larger generally in Europeans than vivid inspirations. It is the organ of imagery. The in Asiatics and Africans; very generally it is deficient sermons of Chalmers owe much of their charms to it, in the savage brain. It evidently grows in civilisation; and the organ was very large in his head. Shakspeare indeed, it constitutes an essential of civilisation. The created such beings as Ariel, Oberon, and all the imaorgan is often found diseased, and the insanity con- ginings of the Tempest' and 'Midsummer Night's sists in morbid self - reproach, imaginary debts, and Dream,' under its influence. The faculty renders conunfounded belief in merited punishment.

versation elevated, animated, and eloquent.

Nature abounds in beauty and splendour to gratify No. 17.-Hope.

Ideality--a proof of pure beneficence in the Creator; The organ of this faculty has its place on each side for it is a pleasure of unmixed gratuity, if we may so of Veneration, partly under the frontal, and partly speak: man might have been created without it; but under the parietal bone. It was discovered by Spurz- Divine goodness superadded that, the most exquisite, heim, but never admitted by Gall, who considered to his other enjoyments. The organ is small in crimiHope as a function of every faculty that desires. To nals and other coarse and brutal characters, for it is this Dr Spurzheim answered, that we desire much of essential to refinement. It prompts to elegance and which we have no hope; a criminal on the scaffold in- ornament in dress and furniture, and gives a taste for tensely desires life, but has no hope of it. Dr Spurz- poetry, painting, statuary, and architecture. A point heim considered Hope a faculty sui generis, producing of interrogation is placed on the bust on the back part hope, in general, of good, or gratification to the other of the region of this organ, conjectured to be a different faculties; and, by careful observation in nature, found organ, but one allied to Ideality. Some phrenologists the organ in the situation just described. It seems to have considered it the organ of the Sublime, from its have been given to man to make him happy. It pro- touching on Cautiousness, which the grand, at least the duces gaiety and cheerfulness, looks on the sunny side terrific grand, in some degree affects. A writer in the of everything, and paints the future with bright colours. Phrenological Journal' suggests the love of the past as When not regulated by the intellect, Hope leads to its function. The existence of the faculty of Ideality rash speculation, and, in combination with Acquisitive- demonstrates that the sentiment of beauty is an original ness, to gambling, both at the gaming-table and in the emotion of the mind, and settles the controversy in counting - house. It tends to render the individual which Professor Stewart, Lord Jeffrey, Dr Brown, and credulous, and often indolent.

others took a part, as to the origin of our perception

of beauty. The organ is held as established. The organ of this faculty is situated on each side of

No. 20.-Wit, or the Ludicrous. that of Benevolence, with one other organ, that of Imi- The organ of this faculty is situated before, and a tation, interposed. Dr Gall discovered it by observing little lower than that of Ideality. When large, it gives it large in the seers of visions and dreamers of dreams, a breadth to the upper region of the forehead. In the and in those who loved to dwell on the marvellous. portraits of Sterne, his forefinger is represented resting Persons with the faculty powerful are fond of news, on this angle of the forehead, which in him was very especially if striking and wonderful, and are always large, and the mental manifestation powerful. expressing astonishment; their reading is much in the The phrenological writers have discussed at great regions of the marvellous, tales of wonder, of en- length, and with not a little controversy, the metaphychanters, ghosts, and witches. When the sentiment is sical nature or analysis of this faculty. We do not reexcessive or diseased, it produces that peculiar fana- quire to follow them into this inquiry, as most of them are ticism which attempts miracles, and with Language agreed that by means of this faculty we see and enjoy active, speaks with unknown tongues. It draws the the ludicrous, and experience the emotion of laughter. ignorant and fanatically-inclined, who have the organ Man is the only laughing animal, and the impulse and large, with ease by its pretensions; hence the numerous its result are too well-marked characteristics not to be followers of Johanna Southcote. Thom, and Edward the manifestations of a special faculty. Dr Beattie's Irving. Mr Combe says of the last -- I examined theory is the most satisfactory of any—that the objects his head before he was established as a preacher, and of the ludicrous are incongruities, with a certain mixwhen his peculiarities were unknown, and observed ture of congruity. When this organ is large, the inthat the organs of Wonder and Self-Esteem were very dividual both enjoys and creates the ludicrous, and large. They gave a tinge to his whole public life. The is apt to give a ludicrous turn to everything that organs of Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Veneration, passes through his mind. For the discussions in which and Intellect were also amply developed, so that he Mr Scott, Mr Watson, and Mr Schwartz of Stockholm possessed the natural elements of the Christian cha- have taken a part, as well as for the opinions of Gall,

No. 18.-Wonder.

Spurzheim, and Combe, we must refer to Mr Combe's | The senses, as generally received, are five in number *System' (4th edition, p.416). We may observe that Mr Touch, Taste, Smell, Hearing, and Sight. There are cerScott and Mr Hewett Watson consider the organ No. 20 tainly two more--namely, the sense of Hunger and as that of an intellectual, and not an affective faculty. Thirst, and the Muscular Sense, or that by which we Mr Scott views it as the faculty by which we discriminate feel the state of our muscles as acted upon by gravitaor observe differences; and this, by much ingenious tion and the resistance of matter. Without this last reasoning, he is inclined to hold to be the function of sense we could not keep our balance, or suit our movea different faculty from that by which we perceive re- ments to the laws of the mechanical world. Dr Thomas semblances. Mr Watson thinks the function of No. 20 Brown conjectured this sense many years ago, and Sir is to inrestigate what may be called intrinsicalities— Charles Bell has thrown much light on it by proving the intrinsic nature of things. Mr Combe thinks the that separate roots, afterwards joining in one apparent facts adduced by Mr Watson make it probable that nerve, but evidently being two, gave muscular motion there is a faculty for this power, but that it is not and muscular sensation. For further information on No. 20. Dr Spurzheim unsettles both Mr Scott's and this subject, see the preceding sheet. Mr Watson's theories anatomically, by showing that the portion of brain is in the same region with Ideality, GENUS II.--INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES, WHICH PROCURE and is therefore the organ of an affective, and not an

KNOWLEDGE OF EXTERNAL OBJECTS, OF THEIR PHYSIintellectual faculty. He farther holds, that the same CAL QUALITIES, AND VARIOUS RELATIONS. faculty which perceives resemblances perceives diffe- These faculties correspond in some degree with the rences; and both he and Mr Combe, observing that all perceptive powers of the metaphysicians, and form ideas. those who deal largely in the ludicrous have the Organ 20 large, conclude, that whatever may be the object or

No. 22.-Individuality. objects of the ludicrous in nature—whether something The organ of this faculty is situated in the middle of specific, like colour or odour in a rose, or some condi- the lower part of the forehead, immediately above the tion of things, which in themselves are not necessarily top of the nose. It takes cognisance of individual exist. ludicrous—there is a mental sentiment or emotion which ences of a horse, for example. Other knowing faculexeites to laughter. No. 20 is the organ essentially ties respectively observe the form, colour, size, and of this emotion, and so far they hold it established. weight of the horse, but a faculty was necessary to

unite all these, and give the individual idea of a horse. No. 21.-Imitation.

It furnishes the substratum which has form, colour, This organ is situated on each side of that of Bene- &c.-an old desideratum of the metaphysicians. Indivolence. Dr Gall found the protuberance accompanied viduality is the storehouse of knowledge of things that by instinctive, and often irrepressible mimicry. The simply exist. It is often large without being accompurpose of the faculty is to enable the young to learn panied by reflecting power; when this is the case, the from the more advanced, and keep a convenient uni- individual has been compared to an encyclopædia, full formity in the manners and externals of society. Cele- of facts, but unable to reason from them. All the obbrated players always possess it largely, and by it imi-jects of Individuality are noun substantives. Verbs and tate the suppo sed manner, and even feel the sentiments, adjectives are the perceptions of other faculties to be of their characters. The Imitative arts depend on this afterwards noticed. As Individuality merely observes faculty; and its organ is found large, accordingly, in existences, without regard to their modes of action, it painters and sculptors of eminence. What a fund of is the faculty of the naturalist. Those who possess it amusement and delight comes from the group of facul- large and active, observe the minutest objects; nothing ties whose organs are all in this one region of the head, escapes them, and they remember even the minutest well named * The Poet's Corner’-namely Ideality, objects so well, that they will miss them when taken Wonder, Imitation, Wit or the Ludicrous, Time, and away. On the contrary, those who have it small, obTune! The faculty of Imitation has been recognised serve nothing, and give the most imperfect account of in a state of disease when the impulse to mimic is be the objects which have been in their way. In the yond the individual's control. Pinel makes mention artist, the faculty gives great minuteness of detail, and of an idiot girl who was affected in this way. Par- with Imitation and Form, great power of hitting likerots, monkeys, and the mocking - bird imitate and nesses in portrait-painting. The faculty prompts to mimic. The last-mentioned often attracts other birds personification of abstract ideas, as Fame, Envy, Wisby the cries of their own kind; and then waggishly, as dom, Folly. The organ is established : the metaphyit were, scares them away with the cry of some bird sical analysis of the faculty requires farther inquiry. they dread. The organ is established.


This organ is situated on each side of, and close to,

the crista galli, and occupies the space between the By these faculties man and animals perceive or gain eyes. In those who have it large, the eyes are wide knowledge of the external world, and likewise of their asunder, and vice versa. Dr Gall discovered the organ own mental operations. The object of the faculties is in persons remarkable for recognising faces after long to know what exists, and to perceive qualities and rela- intervals, and although perhaps only once and briefly tions. Dr Spurzheim divided them into three genera : seen. The bust of George III. furnishes the best ex-1. The External Senses; 2. The Internal Senses, or | ample in the Phrenological Society's collection; and it Perceptive Faculties, which procure knowledge of ex- is well known that he never forgot a face. Townsend, ternal objects, their physical qualities and relations; the famous Bow Street officer, had the same talent, one 3. The Reflecting Faculties.

most essential to his office. As every material object must have a form, regular or irregular, this faculty was

given to man and animals to perceive forms, and they By these, mran and the inferior animals are brought could not exist without it. When large, it constitutes into communication with the external material world. an essential element in a talent for drawing, but reMuch metaphysical acumen has been wasted, and much quires Size and Constructiveness to perfect the talent. nonsense written, about the senses. Before phrenology Forms are capable of great beauty, and of affording discovered internal faculties, of which the senses are much pleasure, and in nothing more than in the human the ministers—they themselves giving only passive im- figure. Many persons who have the organ of Form pressions called sensations, but forming no ideas the large, connect their words and ideas with forms, and senses were considered the sole sources of our know these often fanciful and of their own creating. Mineralo. ledge

. They are necessary to that knowledge, but gists and crystallographers generally possess this power would never of themselves have completed it. By each in large endowment. "The celebrated Cuvier owed much sense we discover some quality of material nature. I of his success in comparative anatomy to his large organ


of Form. Decandolle mentions, that his (Cuvier's) | nate colours, often to a ludicrous extent. The organ is memory was particularly remarkable in what related large in great painters, especially great colourists, and to forms, considered in the widest sense of that word; gives an arched appearance to the eyebrow; for exthe figure of an animal seen in reality or in drawing, ample, in Rubens, Titian, Rembrandt, Salvator Rosa, never left his mind, and served him as a point of com. Claude Lorraine, and others. A large endowment de parison for all similar objects.'

the organ gives great delight in flowers and brilliant

colouring of all kinds. Nature has profusely provided No. 24.Size.

for the gratification of this faculty, by the exquisite Every object has size or dimension. Hence a faculty colouring in which her works are dressed. Some meta. is necessary to cognize this quality. The supposed physicians consider the pleasure we derive from colour organ is situated at the inner extremities of the eye. to be the result of the association of ideas. Phrenolu brows, where they turn upon the nose. A perception of has discovered that it is the great gratification of an Size is important to our movements and actions, and organ forming part of our constitution. Like that a essential to our safety. There is no accuracy in draw. Ideality, the pleasures we derive from Colour are graing or perspective without this organ. Sir George tuitous goodness from the Creator's hands. Mackenzie thinks that the faculty of Size, as it cognizes dimension of every kind, whether in length, breadth,

No. 27.–Locality. thickness, height, depth, or distance, is that faculty Dr Gall was led to the discovery of this faculty 23 whereby we perceive spuce in general, analogous to the primitive, by comparing his own difficulties with a ... faculty of Time, by which we perceive time. Different panion’s facilities, in finding their way through the individuals manifest different degrees of the power of woods, where they had placed snares for birds, and perceiving size. Some seem not to possess the power of marked nests, when studying natural history. Every estimating distance or dimension, while others can draw material object must exist in some part of space, and a circle without compasses, and find the centre of one that part of space becomes place in virtue of being so already drawn with the greatest accuracy.

occupied. Objects themselves are cognized by Indivila.

ality; but their place, the direction where they lie, the No. 25.-Weight.

way to them, depend on another faculty, a faculty giren Weight is a quality of matter quite distinct from all for that purpose. Without such a power, men and its other qualities. The weight of any material object animals must, in situations where objects were pute is only another name for its degree of gravitating ten- rous and complicated in their positions, as woods, hare dency-its attractibility to the earth. A power to per- lost their way. No man could find his own home, na ceive the different degrees of this attraction is essential bird its own nest, no mouse its own hole. The use of the to man's movements, safety, and even existence. There faculty will be rendered plain by considering what it is must be a faculty for that perception, and that faculty we do when we wish to remember our way through tbe must have a cerebral instrument or organ. Phrenolo- streets of a large city; we note particular objects, build. gists have generally localised that organ in the super- ings, for example, and observe how they stand in relation orbitar ridge or eyebrow, inmediately next to Size, to each other, and these relations we can remember, and farther from the top of the nose. But as yet the although with a faint recollection of the forms of the ob function of the Organ 25 has given rise to so much jects themselves. The organ is large in those who find discussion, as to leave it far from certain what that their way easily, and vividly remember places in which precisely is. Mr Combe says, “ Persons who excel at they have been. It materially aids the traveller, and archery and quoits, and also those who find great faci- is supposed to give a love for travelling. The organ lity in judging of momentum and resistance in me- was large in Columbus, Cook, Park, Clarke, and other chanics, are observed to possess the parts of the brain travellers. Geometricians, whose study is the relation lying nearest to the organ of Size largely developed; of spaces, have the organ large-as was the case with and the organ is now regarded as probable. Persons in Kepler, Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Newton. The fa. whom Individuality, Size, Weight, and Locality are culty, when active, prompts the individuals to localise large, have generally a talent for engineering, and those everything, and think of it as in its place. branches of mechanics which consist in the application of forces; they delight in steam-engines, water-wheels,

No. 28.--Number. and turning-lathes. The same combination occurs in The organ of this faculty is placed at the outer elpersons distinguished for successful feats in skating, in tremity of the eyebrows and angle of the eye. It occawhich the regulation of equilibrium is an important sions, when large, a fulness or breadth of the temple, element. Constructiveness, when Weight is small, leads and often pushes downwards the external corner of the to rearing still-fabrics, rather than to fabricating work eye. When it is small, the part is flat and narrok ing machinery.' Mr Simpson has given much attention between the eye and the temple. Their Number is a to this faculty ("Phrenological Journal,' vol. ii. p. 412), very important relation or condition of things, and reand opened up some original views for discussion in quires a distinct perceptive power. Our safety, and the phrenological world; a new chapter, as Mr Combe even existence, may depend on a clear perception of calls it, in the science of mind. He cites a number of number. Dr Gall called the faculty · Le Sens de Nom. noted mechanicians and engineers in whom the Organ bres,' 'The Sense of Numbers,' and assigned to it not 25 is large. In the bust of James Watt it is particularly only arithmetic, but mathematics in general. Dr Spurzprominent. Children who walk early and steadily have heiin more correctly limits its functions to arithmetic, uniformly the organ large, and the inference was drawn algebra, and logarithms; geometry being the exercise, that the faculty gives the power of preserving equili- as already shown, of other faculties. Dr Gall first brium, or that balance of forces which is essential to the observed the organ in a boy of nine years of age near application of animal power, and even to existence. Vienna, who could multiply and divide, mentally, ten

or twelve by three figures, in less time than expert arith. No. 26.–Colouring.

meticians could do with their pencils. Dr Gall adds, As every object must have a colour in order to be he had created his own method'. An advocate of visible, it seems necessary that there should be a Vienna regretted to Dr Gall that his son was so much faculty to cognize this quality. The organ is the engrossed with calculating, that he attended to nothing next outwards from Weight in the eyebrows, occu- else. Dr Gall compared the heads of these two boys, pying the precise centre of each eyebrow. A hollow and found no particular resemblance but in one place there, into which the end of the finger could be put, that described above-- where they exactly agreed. or such a flatness in the ridge of the eyebrow that Dr Gall then went to noted arithmeticians— among a perpendicular line dropt from it would pass through them an author of tables of logarithms--and found the the eyeball, has, times without number, been found saine organisation. Many other examples will be found to be accompanied with a want of power to discrimi- | in the phrenological writings.

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than that of Time, giving a roundness to the point No. 29.--Order.

where the forehead turns to form the temples. It is The organ of this faculty is placed in the eyebrow, large in great musicians; and when small and hollow, between Colouring and Number, and is large and pro- there is an utter incapacity to distinguish either ineminent, and often pointed like a limpet-shell, in those lody or harmony. Music may be defined as a species who are remarkable for love of method, arrangement, of natural language, depending immediately on either and symmetry, and are annoyed by confusion and irre- a melodious succession or a harmonious unison of gularity. The marked love of order in some persons, tones-tones, again, being distinguished from simple and their suffering from disorder, are feelings which noises by a peculiarity in the mode of their production. no other faculty, or combination of faculties, seems to (See Acoustics, Vol. 1.) The organ of Tune in the embrace. Several cases are mentioned in the phreno human brain appears to have been constituted in relalogical books, where it characterised idiots, deficient in tion to these physical facts; and in cases of good en. almost every other faculty. Mr L-, a late medical dowment, to have a most exact perception of all their gentleman in Edinburgh, was remarkable for the organ niceties, and a power of using them to the production and its manifestation. He was pointed in his engage- of the species of natural language which we term music. ments—for the faculty gives this important habit-Cases of a low endowinent of the musical faculty, or of neat and careful in his writings, regular in his accounts, persons said to want musical ear, are of frequent occurprecise in his dress, and cleanly in his person. In rence, though perhaps in many such instances early savages, whose habits are slovenly, filthy, and disgust- culture would have brought out some trace of the ing, the organ is comparatively small.

faculty. The great bulk of mankind possess the organ

in a moderate endowment, so as to be capable of enNo. 30.-Eventuality.

joying music in some degree. The individual possessThe organ of this faculty is situated in the very centre ing it in high endowment becomes, in all stages of of the forehead, and when large, gives to this part of the society, a distinguished artist, exercising a peculiar head a rounded prominence. Individuality has been power over his fellow-creatures, so as to rouse, melt, called the faculty of nouns; Eventuality is the faculty soothe, and gratify them at his pleasure. But the gift, of rerbs. The first perceives mere existence; the other in this active forin, is liable to be much modified ac. motion, change, erent, history. All knowledge must cording as it is accompanied by Ideality, Benevolence, be of one or the other of these two descriptions-either Wit, and other faculties. things that are, or things that happen. In the following examples—the man speaks, the WIND blows, the Day

No. 33.- Language. dauns, the nouns cognized by Individuality are printed When the faculties are in activity, either singly or in capitals; while the verbs, addressed to Exentuality, in combination, the inpulse in almost all individuals is are in italics. The first is simple existence; the other strong, in many irresistible, to conmunicate to others is action, event, history. Dr Gall distinguished, as the the feelings or thoughts produced by them. This may metaphysicians do, verbal memory, local memory, real be done by signs, which is natural language, or by memory. It is now phrenological doctrine that all the words, which constitute conventional. A faculty is given intellectual faculties have their own memory. Form to man and animals which connects feelings with signs remembers forms; Colour, colours ; Size, dimensions; and cries; but to man alone is given articulate speech. Individuality, objects; and so on.

The comparative facility with which different men The most powerful knowing minds have a large en- clothe their thoughts in words, depends on the size of dowment of both Individuality and Eventuality; and this organ, which is situated on the super-orbitar plate, such individuals, even with a medium reflecting orga- immediately over the eyeball, and when large, pushes nisation, are the clerer men in society-the acute men the eye outwards, and sometimes downwards, producof business—the ready practical lawyers. The organ ing in the latter case a wrinkling or pursing of the of Eventuality is generally well developed in children, lower eyelid. There is no fluent speaker deficient in and their appetite for stories is well known. Those, this organ. There is some doubt of the faculty giving however, in whom Eventuality is moderate, and Indi- the power of learning languages, and the spirit of lanviduality large, are prompted less to listen to tales guages in philology; the prevailing opinion is, that than to see things,' as they call the exercise of their the faculty of Language has less to do with this power more powerful faculty. In after-life, the latter will than Individuality, Imitation, and some other faculties. observe minute existences—will tell how many nails Learning the words and structure of other languages are in a door, and miss one if taken out before their is quite a different thing from applying our own to next inspection. The foriner will make use of inci. express our thoughts and feelings. dents when they wish to recall any matter of memory. None of the organs have been better proved to be

primitive by diseased manifestation than this. The No. 31. -Time.

instances are numerous of persons losing the power Whatever be the essence of time as an entity, it is a of finding words for their thoughts, and recovering it reality to man, cognizable by a faculty by which he ob- again; and in many of these cases, the brain in the serves its lapse. Some persons are called walking time- organ when examined after death has been found dispieces; they can tell the hour without looking at a watch; eased. Pain in the region often accompanies the loss and some even can do so, nearly, when waking in the of appropriate speech, in plague, yellow and typhus night. The faculty also marks the ininute divisions of fever. But we must refer for further information on duration, and their relations and harmonies, which are this interesting subject, to the works on phrenology, called time in music, and rhythm in versification. The especially to Mr Combe’s ‘System.' impulse to mark time with the head, hands, feet, and whole body, is too common, too natural, and too strong,

Internal Excitement of the Knowing Organsnot to be the result of a faculty; it is the impulse to

Spectral Illusions. dance, almost universal in both savage and civilised The Knowing Organs are for the most part called man. In some, the impulse, when well-marked time into activity by external objects, such as fornis, colours, is offered--the better if combined with music, though a sounds, individual things, &c.; but internal causes well-beat drum may be danced to—is often irresistible. often excite them; and when they are in action, objects It exists in a diseased state, for we have seen dancing will be perceived which have no external existence, madmen. Dogs, horses, and many other animals give and which, nevertheless, the individual will believe plain indications of possessing the faculty, by their to be real. This is the explanation of visions, spectres, conduct on the return of particular days, occasions, &c. and ghosts, and at once explains the firm belief of

many that they have appeared to them, and the fact No. 32.-Tune.

that it never happens that two persons see the same The organ of this faculty is situated still further out spectres at the same time. We formerly remarked,


when treating of Wonder, that excess or disease in that that it is the perception of conditions, of the condition organ predisposes the patient to believe in the mar- in which objects exist. As the organ of analogies, simivellous and supernatural, and probably stimulates the litudes, and comparison of ideas, it is established. Knowing Organs into action, when spectral illusions are the consequence. A young lady known to Mr Simp

No. 35.-Causality. son, and mentioned in the phrenological books by the This is the highest and noblest of the intellectual initials of S. L., lived in indescribable horrors for above powers, and is the last in the phrenological analysis of a year, in consequence of the visits of the spectral the faculties. Dr Spurzheim so named it from believing forms of persons and other objects, and the perception that it traces the connection between cause and effect, of bright lights, brilliant colours, music, and other and sees the relation of ideas to each other in respect illusions, At the time of these false perceptions, she of necessary consequence. Its organs are situated on was strangely affected in the organ of Weight and each side of Comparison. Some metaphysicians have the sense of Resistance; she lost the power of preserv- held that we have no idea of cause, but see only sequence, ing her balance, and saw perpendiculars and horizon- or one thing following another. It is true that we do tals at other angles. She complained of sharp pain see sequence. When, for example, fire is put to gun. when her visitants appeared to her; and although igno- powder, Individuality perceives the existence of the rant of phrenology, and even the situation of the organs, powder and of the match; Eventuality sees the motion she put her finger and thumb, when asked where she which unites them, and the change or event which felt the pain, to the organs of Form and Individuality. takes place in the explosion; but we have a third ideaFor several weeks these were the site of her pain ex- namely, that of power, agency, or efficiency, existing in clusively; and then the figures which appeared to her some way in the cause, to produce the effect. Whence were forms without colour, resembling, as she stated, do we get this third idea ?—from a third or distinct cobweb. Here plainly was Form active, but Colouring faculty, and that is Causality. With a powerful perdormant. Some weeks after this her objects became ception of causation, the individual reasons from cause naturally coloured, and the pain extended along the to effect by logical or necessary consequence. It is the eyebrows, including the organ of Colouring. Embrac- faculty which sees principles and acts upon them, while ing, as the progress did, Size, her illusions referable to the other two faculties only try experiments. Resource that organ in morbid activity were singular: she saw in difficulties, and sound judgment in life, are the objects sometimes gigantic, sometimes dwarfish, and result of powerful Causality. The organ is established. even minute. The pain proceeding onwards along the whole eyebrows, Order and Number became affected, Adaptation of the External World to the Intellectual and her visiters came in great numbers and most an

Faculties of Man. noying confusion, so that sometimes they seemed to We quote the following passage from Mr Combe's tumble into her apartment like a cascade, a confused System (4th edition, p. 593):— The human mind and mass of persons, limbs, heads, &c. Her apparitions the external world having emanated from the same began at last to speak to her, and her terrors were much Creator, ought, when understood, to be found wisely, aggravated. It was probable that the organs of Lan- adapted to each other; and this accordingly appears in guage and Tune became affected ; for she often heard an eminent degree to be the case. If the reader will bands and choruses of music. We may add that she direct his attention to any natural or artificial object, was greatly relieved when the true nature of her spectres and consider, 1st, Its existence; 2d, Its form; 3d, Its was explained to her. In time the affection left her size; 4th, Its weight; 5th, Its locality or relation in space entirely. It is likely that the proximate cause of these to other objects; 6th, The number of its parts; 7th, The morbid manifestations was an undue determination of order or physical arrangement of its parts; 8th, The blood to the region of the head where the Knowing changes which it undergoes; 9th, The periods of time Organs are situated.

which these require (we would add here, its sound. producing quality or sonorousness, as quite different

from all those enumerated); 10th, The analogies and difThe Intellectual Faculties already considered give us ferences between the individual object under consi. knowledge of objects, and the qualities and relations of deration and other objects; 11th, The effect which it objects, also of the changes they undergo, or events. produces; and lastly, If he will designate this assem. The two remaining faculties, according to Dr Spurz- blage of ideas by a name, he will find that he has heim, 'act on all the other sensations and notions - obtained a tolerably complete notion of the object.' that is, they judge of the relations of different ideas or We may add, that the relations between the affective classes of ideas produced by the Knowing Faculties. faculties or feelings of man and the moral world are They minister to the direction and gratification of all not less harmonious ; and demonstrate design in a the other faculties, and constitute what by excellence manrer altogether irresistible. is called reason-in other words, reflection.

Relation between the Functions and the Structure of the Brain. No. 34.-Comparison.

An accumulation of facts which amounts to proof Dr Gall discovered the organ of this faculty in a man as cogent as is to be found in regard to any other of science who reasoned chiefly by means of analogies physical truth, has connected with the anterior lobes and comparisons, and rarely by logical deductions. "He of the brain the Intellectual Faculties, and with the illustrated everything, and carried his opponent along middle and posterior lobes the Feelings. The Intelwith him with a flood of resemblances, concluding that lectual Faculties co2stitute the WILL of man, and in the thing disputed must be true, being like so many obedience to the will are the voluntary motions. But things that are known to be true. In his head was a the feelings, when in activity, as is well known, have fulness in the form of a reversed pyramid, just in the certain involuntary motions connected with them. Now middle of the upper part of the forehead. The faculty the spinal cord has two columns--the one, the anterior, perceives analogies and resemblances. Every faculty observed to produce motion, and therefore called the can compare its own objects. Colouring can compare motory tract; and the other to produce sensation, and colours; Weight, weights; Form, forms; Tune, sounds; therefore called the serisory tract. These two tracts but Comparison can compare a colour with a note, or a join the brain by what is called the medulla oblongata; form with a weight, &c. Analogy is a comparison not and here a most striking distinction takes place. The of things, but of their relations. Dr Spurzheim thought motory tract alone con pmunicates with the anterior that the faculty perceives difference. Mr Scott dissents lobes, in which, in the intellectual organs, resides from this, and attributes that function to the faculty the will. Hence in voluntary motion, as an effect of of Wit.

The precise fundamental function of the will, the motory tract obeys the anterior lobe alone; in faculty is yet controverted. Mr Hewett Watson argues other words, the anterior lobe of the brain manifests ingeniously, and Mr Combe assents to the argument, will, and the motory tıract executes will. The sensory


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