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be embodied in a distinct outward expression. Wel into operation, the execution will mainly depend upon find it to be a common remark, that the strong out- our will, or on the force that usually goes along with bursts of emotion are infectious: people can rarely stand the decisions of the intellect, No doubt the scheme unmored before the influence of laughter or tears. En- being adapted to the collective impulses of our nature thusiasm of any kind, which means an intense exhi- ought to be supported by these, but as it cannot agree bition of some particular emotion, is always catching, with every impulse at every time, and as in some The strong expression of reverence or admiration is apt aspects it may be wholly repugnant to us, it would to find its echo in all bystanders. The gait and manner come to a stand if there were not a force independent of one man may be communicated to the persons about of sense, appetite, instinct, emotions, desires, habits, hiin if they are of the susceptible character. The unoc. and imitation, to carry us over the intervals when cupied minds and undecided activities of the young these are dormant or are opposed to our plans. Were are shaped by spontaneous and unconscious imitation it not for the power imbedded in the centre of intellito a still greater extent than by express rules or formal gence, forethought would be quenched erery day of guidance. More widely still, imitation impresses a our life by some strong impulse of our inferior nature. common cast upon the language and manners of fami- The desire of ease at one time and of excitement at lies, tribes, and nations, and perpetuates the same forms another, the gratification of appetite, and the predofrom generation to generation.

minance of strong emotion, would be more than suffiThe imitation may be of very obvious and conspi. cient to counterbalance duty or prudence, if there cuous bodily actious, or it may reach to the subtiest were not a peculiar and distinct tendency or power to peculiaritics of mind. In the one case it is a mere carry into effect the results of reason or the judgments instinct, in the other it is an instinct extended by in- grounded on our intelligence. tellectual associations. The literal copying of an out- The character of Will in an individual will depend ward act needs no intellect, as we may see in the case very much on the character of the intellect, or on the of repeating a sound or a gesture; but when we imitate kind of considerations that it can most readily enterthe modes of thinking of other men, or embody in our tain. It is impossible that action can be more elerated own language the thoughts that reach us in the lan- than intelligence, or that a man can carry into effect guage of others, there is an express effort of the powers more than he sees. The strength of Will does not of intellect requisite; more especially the powers of increase with the strength of the intellect, but the one similarity and constructive association. The instinctive will always act along with the other. Energy following imitation or literal copying is within the capacity of up reason and the generalities of prudence, right, and snany animals; and some races of men, such as the social good, and tested by overcoming occasionally all Sclavonic populations, possess the power in high per- the inferior propensities of one's being, is the true fection ; but the imitation of an idea, so as to put it definition of will; and the more elevated the character into different forms and language, is an act that shows of the intellectual grasp, the niore does the will stand a considerable force of intellect. Sir Christopher Wren's / apart from the other forces and activities of the being. imitation of St Peter's is very different from the prac- When a man forms rery refined and lofty ideas of tice of literally copying Greek temples in every imagi- prudence, self-culture, or social and moral duty, such nable kind of building.

as will require the restraint or suppression of many It has been common to designate certain of the fine powerful impulses and instincts, and when bis resoluarts, such as sculpture, painting, and poetry, Imitative tion is powerful enough to carry these into full effect, Arts, and to ascribe their origin to the innate tendency he must be reckoned a man of singularly powerful will of man to imitation, thereby recognising the production as well as of elevated susceptibilities and intelligence. of likenesses or similitudes as one of the active princi- There is in some men a general temperament of activity ples of human nature.

or a strong tendency to action in every way that may be open to them, extending over all the specific ini

pulses of the frame. In such men the force of pure This is reckoned the highest and noblest of all the will does not stand out so clearly as in the class whose active irupulses of man. Its operations are based on temperament is naturally passive and susceptible, but intelligence, and they are intended to coforce the con- / who, on the spur of intellectual determinations, exert clusions of the reason against the instinctive and pas- an unremitted energy of executive force. sionate impulses. By the intellect we make large The actions where a strong will is most required are generalisations of what is good for the future as well such as, while they are at variance with many powerful as for the present, and of what is good for society propensities, are also opposed to common usage, or use at large as well as for the individual; and in obeying and wont in the world at large, and of a kind that the the rules dictated by these intellectual considerations individual is unaccustomed to. With opposing in we are often unsupported by any instinct, habit, or stincts, opposing habits, and, at the same time, an imitatire impulse; and were there not a large reserve opposing social exterior of public opinion, any kind of of power in human nature we might rarely be induced proceeding must be intensely difficult, and must require to act in such cases at all. But in the very seat of a high development of pure will, intelligence itself there is a central force that gives Excitement is apt to come into comparison with impetus to its suggestions, exactly as the ganglia of Will, and to be confounded with it. There is such a sense and instinct send forth the requisite stimulus to thing as a temporary increase of the whole activity or the active organs of these circles. The power of the energy of the system, which enables a ruan for the time appetites and passions diminishes according as the to excel himself, a reaction of languor and weakness object is distant and faintly perceived; the inere pro- being apt to succeed to it. But the proof of a strong spective knowledge that we will be huogry a year will as against mere excitement is an unremitted and hence would not produce the same vigorous action as a continued course of action, which may call for strong present hunger, and would not produce action at all effort at any moment, and which is incompatible with but for there being an additional centre of power at intervals of weakness and irresolution. tached to the region of intellectual associations. Obe. dience to remote and general views, and to what can Having now given a slight sketch of the chief eleonly be conceived by the intellect, proceeds from this moutary powers and peculiarities of the human mind, centre, to which we commonly give the naine of Will. we ought next to go on to the consideration of the When we conceive to ourselves some extensive scheme complex faculties and susceptibilities, such as OBSERVAthat shall involve our whole life, and that we are rion, MEMORY, ABSTRACTION, ReasoN, JUDGMENT, I MAGI.. urged to, not by sonie single appetite or instinct, but Nation, CONSCIENCE, Genius, &c.: but the discussion of by an intellectual appreciation of our whole character these is not possible within our narrow limits, and wc and being and the circumstances that surround us, and must therefore refer the reader to such works as those conclude upon a line of action for carrying the scheme of Locke, Bacon, Reid, Stewart, and Brown.

THE WILL

PHRENOLOGY.

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PARENOLOGY is a Greek compound, signifying a dis- | logist disclaims materialism, but affirms that mind can course on the mind. The system which exclusively operate only by means of some kind of corporeal orgapasses by this name was founded by Dr Francis Joseph nisation. To all sane manifestations of mind, he mainGall, a German physician, born in 1757. Dr Gall was tains that brain in a healthy condition is necessary. In led, when a schoolboy, to surmise a connection of par- sleep, fainting, and compression of the brain, mind is ticular mental faculties with particular parts of the suspended. Were it an immaterial spirit, acting inbrain, in consequence of observing a marked promi- dependently of the brain, the repose of the material nence in the eyes of a companion who always over- brain could not suspend the spirit's working. Presmatched him in committing words to memory. Find- sure on the brain instantly suspends consciousness. ing the same conformation in others noted for the Mr Combe, in his 'System of Phrenology' (4th edition, same talent, he reflected that it was possible that other p. 14), describes several most interesting and instructive talents might be accompanied by external marks, and experiments on compression, as made by Richerand, that dispositions might also be so indicated. He devoted Cooper, Chapman, Cline, and others. Pinel clearly himself to observing marked features of character; and traces to a bodily cause the diseased manifestation of on examining the heads, was struck with differences mind called insanity, by the following case:- 'A man in their forms, there being prontinences and hollows engaged in a mechanical employment, and afterwards in some not found in others, with corresponding varia- confined in the Bicêtre, experiences at irregular intertions of character in the individuals. After most vals fits of madness characterised by the following extensive and accurate observation, he first lectured symptoms:-At first there is a sensation of heat in the on the subject in Vienna in 1796. There his lectures abdominal viscera, with intense thirst and a strong were suppressed by a jealous and ignorant despotism; constipation; the heat gradually extends to the breast, upon which he abandoned Germany and settled in neck, and face, producing a flush of the complexion ; Paris, where he practised as a physician, and studied on reaching the temples it is still greater, and is acand extended his doctrine,' as he always called it, till companied by very strong and frequent pulsations in his death in 1828. His great work, with its illustrative the temporal arteries, which seem as if about to burst; engravings, is one of the most extensive and beautiful finally, the nervous affection arrives at the brain.' What, examples of inductive evidence of which any science then, follows? All the effects hitherto described are can boast. Dr Gall never took any particular step purely corporeal. Pinel proceeds-- The patient is then for making phrenology known in our island. With seized with an irresistible propensity to shed blood; some slight exceptions, the science was not heard of in and if there be a sharp instrument within reach, he Britain till introduced by Dr Spurzheim in 1815. He is apt to sacrifice to his fury the first person who prewas a native of Treves on the Moselle, born in 1776, sents himself.' How powerfully this case connects the pupil, and, from 1804, the associate of Gall. Be- mind and brain, and what a strong light it sheds upon sides making many valuable discoveries in the ana- that really bodily, that is, cerebral disease called 'intomy and physiology of the brain, and ascertaining sanity! The brain, when exposed, has been seen in several organs in addition to those discovered by Gall, action during emotion, conversation, dreams, &c, Sir Dr Spurzheim bad the distinction of systematising the Astley Cooper refers to the case of a young man who discoveries of both into a harmonious and beautiful had lost a portion of skull above the eyebrow. I dismental and moral philosophy. He died at Boston in tinctly saw the pulsation of the brain,' says Sir Astley; the United States in 1832. Since then, the recog. . it was regular and slow; but at this time he was aginised head of the phrenological school has been Mr tated by some opposition to his wishes, and directly the George Combe of Edinburgh, author of many popular blood was sent with increased force to the brain, and works on the science, and its most successful teacher, the pulsations became frequent and violent.?. Blumenby his public prelections in Britain and America. The bach observed a portion of exposed brain to sink during applications of phrenology to insanity, health, and sleep, and swell when the patient awoke. infant education, have been at the same time admir- From the above facts phrenologists assume:-1st, ably made by the late Dr Andrew Combe. Whatever As there is no vision or hearing without their respecmay be thought of phrenology as a system of mental tive organs, the eye and ear, so there is no thinking philosophy, it is undeniable that its adherents have taken or feeling without their respective organs in the brain; à lead in many social improvements, and shown the 2d, Every mental affection must correspond with a cerpractical utility of their doctrines.

tain state of the organ, and vice versâ; 3d, The perfection of the mind will have relation to the perfection

of its organs. According to this doctrine, therefore, the The brain is the organ by and through which mind study of the cerebral organs is the study of the mind, is manifested. Formerly, it was believed that mind in the only condition in which we can cognize it. and body were two distinct entities, and they were The brain being the general organ of the mind, we accordingly treated of separately by two orders of phi, come next to inquire whether it is all necessary to losophers — the metaphysicians and the anatomists. every act of feeling or thinking; or whether it is In vain to the metaphysician was it obvious that divided into parts, each part being the instrument or we have no knowledge of mind but through the me. organ of a particular mental act. lst, It is a law of orgadium of a bodily apparatus, with which it grows and nisation that different functions are never performed decays; he continued to treat of mind as a spirit un- by the same organ. The stomach, liver, heart, eyes, ears, connected with body. The anatomical investigator have each a separate duty. Different nerves are necesreasoned quite as unphilosophically when he assumed sary to motion, feeling, and resistance, and there is no that mind was nothing but matter, the higher qualities example of confusion amongst them. Analogy, thereof which were to think and feel. The phrenologist says fore, is in favour of the conclusion that there are distinct he aroids both these assumptions. He does not pretend organs for observing, reflecting, and feeling kindness, to know, much less to assume, the essence or nature of resentment, self-love, &c. 2d, The mental powers, do either mind or matter. Whether they are one or dis not all come at once, as they would were the brain one tinct is known only to the God who made them; and indivisible organ. They appear successively, and the whatever they are, they must therefore be the best pos- brain undergoes a corresponding change. 3d, Genius sibly adapted to their end and design. The phreno. I varies in different individuals: one has a turn, as it is No. 72.

337

PRINCIPLES OF PHRENOLOGY.

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called, for one thing, and another for something diffe- most virtuous and talented of the reformers; while rent. 4th, Dreaming is explained by the doctrine of fig

. 2 is the atrocious criminal Hare, who murdered by distinct organs which can act or rest alone. Its dis- wholesale for gain. The superiority of fig. 1 in intellect jointed images and feelings could never occur if the is obvious by one glance at the high and full forehead, brain acted as a whole. Undivided, it must either all sleep or all wake; so that there could be no such thing as dreaming. 5th, Partial insanity, or madness on one point, with sanity on every other, proves the distinction of organs, and their separate action. 6th, Partial injuries of the brain, affecting the mental manifestations of the injured parts, but leaving the other faculties sound, prove distinctiveness of organs. 7th, There could be no such state of mind as the familiar one where our feelings contend, and antagonise and balance each other, if the brain were one organ.

These are grounds for presuming that the brain is not single, but a cluster of organs, or at least that it is capable of acting in parts, as well as in whole. For this conclusion the phrenologists have found satisfactory proofs in repeated observations, showing that par

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2: ticular manifestations of mind are proportioned, in intensity and frequency of recurrence, to the size or compared with the forehead villanous low,' as Shak. expansion of particular parts of the brain, and are thus speare would have called it, of fig. 2. The horizontal to be presumed to depend on those parts. This is a line in fig. 2 shows the shallowness of moral brain. A law everywhere seen affecting organic nature; a large line drawn from the same points in fig. I would shows muscle, the conditions of health, quality, and outward much greater depth; while the mass of brain behind circumstances being the same, has more power than the ear in fig. 2, compared with fig. 1, shows the prea small one. The same is true of a nerve. Dogs ponderance of animal brain in the former. have very large nerves for smelling, eagles for seeing, &c. A child's brain is smaller, and its mental power

PRIMITIVE FACULTIES OF MIND, AS CONNECTED WITH weaker, than those of an adult. A very small brain

THEIR ORGANS IN THE BRAIN. in an adult is the invariable cause of idiocy. A large Mind, which was considered by the metaphysicians head may be idiotic from cerebral disease, but a very as a single thing or essence, was said by them to be small head, from defect of size alone, is always idiotic. capable of being in different states, in each of which Men of great force of character, such as Napoleon, states it made one of its various manifestations Franklin, Burns, &c. had brains of unusually large memory, judgment, anger, &c. In no particular does size. Powerful energetic nations exceed weaker ones the phrenological hypothesis differ more from the in size of head, and invariably, when brought into colli- metaphysical than in this. The phrenological doctrine sion with them, overcome them. The average European is, that the brain, the organ of the mind, is divided head is to the average Hindoo as the head of a man into various faculties, each of which has its own modes to that of a boy; hence the conquest and subjection of acting. It is accordingly heldof a hundred millions of the latter by thirty thousand First, That by accurate observation of human actions, of the former. The general law, then, being that size it is possible to discriminate the dispositions and is of organ is accompanied by power of manifestation, we tellectual powers of man—such as love, anger, beneroproceed to inquire, secondly, if there are any circum- lence, observation, reflection, and so forth. stances, and what these are, which modify this law. It Secondly, That the true form of the brain can be will be found that quality of brain is a modifying cir- ascertained from the external form of the head; the cumstance, also health of brain, and exercise of brain. brain, though the softer substance, being what deter: Phrenologists conjectured that different brains differ mines the shape of the skull. in quality, but were long without any indications of Thirdly, The organs or parts into which the brain is these differences. The doctrine of the Temperaments divided, all of which organs are possessed by every has thrown considerable, though not perfect light on individual except in the case of idiocy, appear on the this point, and for this we are indebted to Dr Thomas brain's surface in folds or convolutions, somewhat like of Paris. There are four recognised temperaments, the bowels or viscera of an animal, but have a well. accompanied with different degrees of power and acti- ascertained fibrous connection through the whole subvity-in other words, quality-of brain. These are the stance of the brain with one point at its base, called bilious, the nervous, the sanguine, and the lymphatic. the medulla oblongata, which unites the brain to the The predominance of these several bodily systems is spinal cord. The organs have thus each a conical form indicated by certain sufficiently obvious external signs, from the medulla oblongata to the surface. whence our power of recognising them, as fully de- Pourthly, The brain is divided into two equal parts scribed under ANIMAL PhysioLOGY, Vol. I. p. 125. called hemispheres; on each side of the fosse or division

The brain must be in a healthy condition to mani. between these hemispheres the same organ occurs; all fest itself properly in the mental faculties. The phre- the organs are therefore double, in analogy with the nologist must therefore inquire into this circumstance, eyes, ears, &c. But when the term organ is used, both as the external development does not reveal it. organs are meant. The organs which are situated close

Exercise-or whether or not, and how, the brain has to the middle line vertically drawn on the head, though been exercised - is another condition to be inquired close to each other, are nevertheless double; for ex. into before judging of two individuals similarly orga- ample, Individuality, Benevolence, Firmness, &c. nised. The brain which has been the more and more Fifthly, Besides the brain proper, there is a smaller judiciously exercised, will, other things being equal, brain, lying below the hinder part of the base of the manifest the greater degree of activity and power.. main brain, called the cerebellum.

If size of organ implies vigour of function, it is of Sixthly, The brain, including the cerebellum, is divided great moment in what region of the brain the organs into the anterior, middle, and posterior lobes. The cereare largest—whether in the animal, moral, or intellec- bellum forms part of the posterior lobe. The anterior tual. On this preponderance depends the character. lobe contains all the intellectual faculties; the posterior Two brains may be exactly alike in size generally, yet and lower range of the middle lobe are the regions of the characters may be perfect contrasts to each other. the animal propensities; while the moral sentiments are For example, there is nearly as much brain in fig. 2 found to have their organs developed on the top of as in fig. 1; yet fig. 1 is the head of Melancthon, the coronal region of the head.

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DIVISION OR CLASSIFICATION OF THE FACULTIES.

Moderate.

Small

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The gradation in size of the organs is denoted by the generality of phrenologists as follows:

The faculties have been divided by Gall and SpurzVery Small.

Rather Large.

heim into two great orders-FEELING and INTELLECT,
Rather Full.

Large.
Rather Small
Full.

Very Large.

or AFFECTIVE and INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES. The Feel

ings are divided into two genera—the Propensities and In practice, the general size of the head is measured the Sentiments. By a propensity is meant an internal in several directions with calliper compasses. Twenty impulse, which incites to a certain action, and no inales, from 25 to 50 years of age, measured, from the more; by a sentiment, a feeling which, although it has occipital spine (the bony knot over the hollow of the inclination, has also an emotion superadded. neck) to the point over the nose between the eyebrows, The second order of faculties, the Intellectual, also on an average, 7 inches; some of them being as high suffers division into the Perceptive or Knowing, and as 8 2-8ths, and others as low as 6.1. From the occi- the Reflective Faculties. The Perceptive Faculties are pital spine to the hollow of the ear, the average was again divided into three genera— 1st, The External 43; some being as high as 5, others as low as 3}. From Senses and Voluntary Motion ; 2d, The Internal Powers the hollow of the ear to the point between the eyebrows, which perceive existence, or make man and animals acas above, average nearly 5; some being 5}, others 41. quainted with external objects and their physical qualiFrom the same hollow of the ear to the top of the head, ties; and 3d, The Powers which perceive the relations about an inch behind the centre (the organ of Firm- of external objects. The fourth genus comprises the ness), the average was 5 9-10ths; some being 61, others Reflective Faculties, which act on all the other powers; 55. Across the head, from a little below the tops of in other words, compare, discriminate, and judge. the ears (from Destructiveness to Destructiveness), the We owe to Dr Spurzheim the names of most of the average was 5 8-10ths; some being 64, others 54. The faculties as yet in use; and they have only been ridi. averages are in these twenty individuals higher than culed, on account of their novelty, by those who did those of the natives of Britain generally, some of them not perceive their logical accuracy. In all the probeing large, and none small.

pensities we find the termination ive to denote the It ought never to be lost sight of that, in estimating quality of producing--as Destructive. To this is added character from development, it is not legitimate to go the syllable ness, to denote the abstract state. Instead out of the same head, and compare any organ with the of ive, the termination ous is found in the name of a same organ in another head. This will never ascertain sentiment, with ness added—as Conscientious-ness-to the effect of a particular organ in the head where it express the abstract quality. The names of the intelexists; and for the plainest reason, that character is lectual faculties require no explanation. The arrangeanother word for the most powerful organs, as modified ment of the faculties usually adopted is that of Spurzby their neighbours in the same head. A virtuous per- heim, in the third edition of his · Phrenology.' son may have the organ of Destructiveness absolutely The following is a representation of a bust of the larger than a person remarkable for a violent disposi- human head in four points of view—front, side, back, tion; but it will be found that there are moral faculties and top—with the organs marked by numbers:to control, or that there has been education to modify, in the one person, and not in the other. In studying phrenology, however, different heads may be compared, in order to observe where particular organs are absolutely large, and where they are absolutely small.

We have said, the larger the brain, and of course the head, the more the power. The old adage, Big head, little wit,' is often true, but not always. It is true when, with a large brain, there is a lymphatic temperament, or when some damaging or deranging circumstance has taken place, to deprive the brain of its natural power, or when the largeness is not in the intellectual region. It is to be remarked, however, that even large animal brains have great animal power, in spite of their intellectual deficiency. A moderate-sized head, of which the brain is chiefly in the anterior or intellectual region, will have much more wit or cleverness than the other. Its power will be intellectual.

Phrenologists further distinguish between power and activity in the mental faculties. Power, in whatever degree possessed, is capability of feeling, perceiving, or thinking; while activity is the exercise of power, or the putting into action the organ with more or less intensity. An individual, for example, may possess great power of destruction, and yet it may remain quiet, and the individual be perfectly calm. His large Destructiveness, however, will be more prone to start into activity than a smaller would. Activity is measured by the rapidity with which the faculties act. The powers of mind, as manifested by the organs,

I.-PROPENSITIES.

II.-SENTIMENTS. are called faculties. A faculty may be defined to be

1. Amativeness.

10. Self-Esteem. a particular power of thinking or feeling. A faculty has seven characteristics, in order to our concluding it

2. Philoprogenitiveness. 11. Love of Approbation. primitive and distinct in the mind--namely, 1. When it exists in one kind of animal, and not in another;

4. Adhesiveness,

14. Veneration. 2. When it varies in the two sexes of the same species; 3. When it is not in proportion to the other faculties 6. Destructiveness.

16. Conscientiousness. of the same individual; 4. When it appears earlier or [Alimentiveness. ]

17. Hope. later in life than the other faculties; 5. When it may [Love of Life.]

18. Wonder. act or repose singly; 6. When it is propagated from 7. Secretiveness.

19. Ideality. parent to child; and 7. When it may singly preserve 8. Acquisitiveness.

20. Wit, or Ludicrousness, health, or singly manifest disease.

9. Constructiveness.

21. Imitation.

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GENUS I. -- PROPENSITIES.

ears.

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INTELLECTUAL.

The most savage races must have the impulse to pro-
29. Order.

tect their young, or they would become extinct. The
1.-PERCEPTIVE,
30. Eventuality.

organ, like the other cerebral organs, may become
92. Individuality.
31. Time,

diseased; and insanity on the subject of children may
23. Form.
32. Tune.

be found in many asylums.
24. Size.

33. Language. 25. Weight.

No. 3.-Inhabitiveness-Concentrativeness. 26. Colouring.

II.- REFLECTIVE.

The organ is situated immediately above the preced-
27. Locality.
34. Comparison.

ing. Two of the most distinguished phrenologists, Spurz-
28. Number.
35. Causality:

heim and Combe, disagreed about the function of this

organ--at least about its whole function. Dr Gall did
ORDER FIRST.-FEELINGS.

not discover its function at all; and Dr Spurzheim,
observing it large in persons attached to their native

place, or any place in which they had long dwelt, called
The propensities here classified and described are it Inhabitiveness. Mr Combe does not disallow to it this
common to man and the lower animals.

function; and certainly man has such a faculty as attach

ment to place, often so strong as to render it impossible No, I.-Amativeness,

to move him from a particular spot by the most tempt. This organ (No. 1 on the marked bust) is situated ing inducements. The purpose of a faculty, which immediately over the nape of the neck, and fills up prompts men to settle instead of roaming, which latter the space between the ears behind, or rather between habit' is inconsistent with agriculture, commerce, and the mastoid processes, or projecting bones behind the civilisation, is obvious; nostulgia, or home-sickness, is

It generally forms a projection in that part, and the disease of the feeling. Mr Combe claims for it, gives a thickness to the neck when it is large, and a however, a more extended sphere of action than love spareness when small. The cerebellum, or little brain, of place-one, at the same time, with which we have is, or at least contains, the organ of this propensity. It always thought lore of place may be reconciled. He has was Spurzheim's opinion, that the fact that the cere observed the organ large in those who can detain con. bellum is the organ of the amative propensity, was tinuously their feelings and ideas in their minds, while supported by a more overwhelming mass of evidence the feelings and ideas of others pass away like the than any other truth known to him. Although Ama- images in a mirror, so that they are incapable of taking tiveness is the only ascertained function of the cere- systematic views of a subject, or concentrating their bellum, it is not impossible, from its size and struc- powers to bear on one point. The first class of perture, that it may include the organs of other functions; sons, in conversation, continue the same subject till it but no others have yet been discovered.

is exhausted, and pass gracefully to another connected
It is not necessary here to enter fully into the cha- with it: it is painful to converse with the others, whose
racter of this faculty. As the basis of the domestic unconnected thinking gives us the notion of what is
affections, it is one of great importance, and its regu. vulgarly called scatter-brains. We must content our-
lation has ever been one of the prime objects of moral selves with what is here said, and refer the reader
systems, laws, and institutions.

For the evils and for proofs and arguments, on either side, to the works
calamities, often amounting to national, to which it of ÑIr Combe and Dr Spurzhein. The organ is stated
has occasionally led in its abuse, we need only refer as only probable, till further facts are obtained.
to history. Dr Spurzheim held, with regard to this
faculty, that, in education, a more candid and explicit
mode of treating it might be advantageous; and much This organ will be observed on the engraving of the
could be said in defence of his opinion.

marked bust to be situated on each side of No. 3; a

little lower down than No. 3, but a little bigher up No. 2.-Philoprogenitiveness.

than No. 2, at the middle of the posterior edge of the
This, in man as well as animals, is the feeling of the parietal bone. It was discovered by Gall, from being
love of his offspring: It depends on no other faculty, found very large, and of the same shape as on the bust,
as reason or benevolence; it is primitive; and in the in a lady remarkable for the warmth and steadiness of
female, who, for wise reasons, is gifted with it most her friendships; and was observed in so great a number
strongly, its object, the infant, instantly rouses it to a of instances to accompany this propensity, and to be fiat
high state of excitement. It is situated in the middle or hollow in those who never formed attachments, that
of the back of the head, and when large, projects like a he came to consider it as demonstrated. It attaches
portion of an ostrich egg. See fig. 3. It is small in fig. 4. nien, and even animals, to each other, and is the foun-

dation of that pleasure which mankind feel, not only
in bestowing, but receiving friendship. Acting in con.
junction with Amativeness, it gives constancy and
duration to the attachment of the married. Amative-
ness alone will not be found sufficient for this. Hence
the frequent misery of sudden 'love marriages,' as they
are called, founded on that single impulse. The feeling

attaches many persons to pets, such as birds, dogs,
Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

rabbits, horses, and other animals, especially when It was discorered by Dr Gall from its extreme protu- combined with Philoprogenitiveness. With this conuberance in monkeys; and we have only to visit a zoolo-bination, the girl lavishes caresses on her doll and on gical garden to see how that animal cherishes its young. her little companions. Added to Nos. 1, 2, and 3, with Åll naturalists are agreed in this as a quality of the which it is in iinmediate contact and ascertained fibrous monkey species. The organ is one of the easiest to dis- connection in the brain, it completes what has been tinguish in the human head. Those who are flat and called the domestic group of organs, or the love of perpendicular there, instead of being delighted, are spouse, children, home, and the friends of home, as annoyed by children. It is generally smaller in males brothers, sisters, cousins, &c. The feeling is strongest than in females, though sometimes found larger; and in woman. Her friendships, speaking generally, are men so organised delight to carry about and nurse more ardent than man's. The faculty is not kindness children. The feeling gives a tender sympathy gene- or benevolence; it is instinctive attachment, often felt rally with weakness and helplessness; and we find it by those who are selfish in everything else-selfish eren often returned by the young themselves to the old in their attachments. It is the faculty which prompts and feeble. It is essential to a soft kind attendant on man to live in society; and its existence overturns the the sick, to a nursery-maid, and to a teacher of youth. I absurd theory of Rousseau and sone others, that man

No. 4.--Adhesiveness.

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