or England, the mass of the population are better in- | region, in the shade; the produce is evidently immense, formed than in either of these countries. Reading the but current reports are yet too vague to be of anything journals universally, and knowing a little of what is like statistical value. doing at home and throughout the world generally, Silver and its ores are not of frequent or extensive they betray none of that awkwardness which springs occurrence. Mercury has been found native in Kenfrom conscious ignorance.'

tucky, but it occurs plentifully in the ore as bituminous It must not be supposed, however, that this general cinnabar, through the Ohio and Michigan territory. account of the state of education applies equally to It is found in the soil as a black or red sand, someevery district. It relates, indeed, chiefly to the great times as a fine red powder, and at other times in irou towns, and to the thickly-peopled places in their neigh- clay. There are lead mines of vast extent on the bourhood. The remote townships, which in a country Missouri; they are said to occupy a surface of 600 so lately occupied form a large proportion of the whole miles in length, and 200 in breadth. One miner will area, are frequently as much deficient in the means of raise about 2000 lbs. per day, which sell for 45 dollars, instruction as in regard to religious edification; and and yield 1200 lbs. of pure lead. In 1840, the amount they have indeed little anxiety to improve themselves. of pig lead exceeded 31,200,000 lbs. Many of them pay no attention to the regulations for Epsom salts, Glauber salts, and nitre, are found in establishing schools, and, were it left to themselves, Ohio and Indiana; the two latter in caves, the former would allow their people to remain as they are, without in a thin layer on rocky surfaces. Salt, which in couneither reading or writing. In America, however, as in tries far removed from the sea is an article of great most other free countries, the well-informed portion of expense, is produced from salt springs, or from borings the community is the most active, and, like the little in different parts of the western country. Mineral leaven which leavens the whole lump, it is continually waters of valuable medicinal qualities occur at several at work to stir up a desire for information and light in places; the springs principally frequented are those of all the dark places around it. In all the newly-settled Saratoga in New England. states, lands have been allotted for the erection of academies, and the establishment of regular district or

Agriculture and Crops. parochial schools, according as the population increases; In point of productive industry the United States 640 acres are generally set apart in each township for is yet more an agricultural than a manufacturing this purpose, besides one or two entire townships in each country, though of late years an immense impetus has state for university funds.

been given to the latter department. Oats, rye, and

barley are raised in all the northern states, and also in Minerals-Mining.

the hilly districts of the south. Of barley, two crops There is a great variety of useful minerals distributed in a season are obtained in favourable situations. through different parts of the States. Coal may be Maize is common to every part of the Union, but mentioned among the first : it exists through all the thrives best in the middle states; it is a vegetable country, lying north of a line drawn from Philadelphia adapted to a greater variety of soil and climate than to the mouth of the Ohio, and is particularly abundant wheat, and yields a much larger produce. The sugar on the upper waters of the Susquehanna, as well as maple grows everywhere, but thrives best in the good on the Allegbany and the Monongahela. At Pittsburg maize districts. Wheat is also cultivated through the there is a hill principally composed of coal, and it is whole Union; but it is only a profitable crop to the found at many places in this district within a few feet north of the Potomac, or in the hilly districts of the of the surface. There are extensive coal-mines also south; in these situations it yields large returns, and on the Roanoke and Appomatox in Virginia. In 1840 of excellent quality; in the low warm districts it is there were raised in the States 27,603,191 bushels of not cultivated; these are more favourable to the rice bituminous coal; and 863,489 tons of anthracite. crop. In general, it is remarked that the late wheat

The country on the Ohio is particularly rich in mi-countries are favourable to the European constitution, neral productions. The whole district is bottomed on and that in rice countries, which are warm and moist, limestone, on which rests the wide and valuable coal the African population has a great advantage in respect formation mentioned above, extending from the head to health and longevity over whites. waters of the Ohio, in Pennsylvania, to the river The cultivation of tobacco begins in Maryland, in Tombigbee. Iron ore is found abundantly in the same latitude 39°; it is raised to a greater extent in that district, principally towards the upper part of the state and in Virginia than in any others of the Union; Ohio; bog ore is found in the valleys of the Alleghany but it thrives also in all the western states. Cotton chain; and various kinds of ores of the same metal does not succeed well farther north than the latitude of are met with in the New England states. In 1840 37°, though some of the districts raise it for domestic there were produced 286,903 tons of cast-iron, and use; it forms the staple of all the districts south of the 197,233 tons of bar-iron. Black lead, in veins of from river Roanoke. The best kinds grow in South Carolina fire to six feet wide, traverses the states of New York, and Georgia, in dry situations, upon the sea-coast. The Jersey, Virginia, Carolina, &c. Copper ore is found in cultivation of rice occupies nearly the same region as Virginia, in Connecticut, in New Jersey, and abundantly that of cotton; it is a very unhealthy occupation for the in the neighbourhood of the lakes, and in Illinois. slaves who are engaged in it. The climate which is

Gold mines have been traced extending through a favourable to sugar does not extend beyond the latitude large tract of country in the western parts of Virginia, of 32°; it is raised in the States chiefly for domestic North and South Carolina, and Georgia : they are use, and is not an article of export to any extent. The wrought to a considerable extent, 20,000 men being crop is rather precarious, from the frosts which someemployed at the different workings. The annual pro- times occur even in the most southerly districts. Indigo duce varies widely-ranging from £120,000 to thrice has been tried in America, but could not come into that amount; but we have not heard what proportion competition with that of Bengal. The vine grows sponof this is expended in the work, or what actual profit taneously in most of the southern and western states, has been realised. One singular fact is remarked con- and is cultivated as a fruit about Philadelphia. The cerning these mines, which is, the indubitable evi- mulberry-tree, hops, and hemp, all succeed well in the dences found that they have been wrought at some middle and western states. period before America was known to the Europeans. The timber-trees of the States are of numerous kinds, Many pieces of machinery which were used for this and many of them of the best quality. There are purpose have been discovered in the workings, among twenty-six kinds of oak, of which eleven or twelve which were several crucibles of earthenware, which species are in request; the best for common purposes are far better than those now in use. Since 1848, the is the white oak, a tree which is found plentifully over gold diggings of California have thrown the mines of the whole country: the live oak grows in marshy places the southern states, as well as those of every other near the sea, and has a hard, heavy, and durable timber, much used for shipbuilding. There are eighteen kinds it was found that the number of mills in twelve states of pine, cedar, and larch; seven kinds of maple, three was 795, of spindles 1,246,503, of power-looms 33,506 ; or four of which furnish sugar--the best is called the of males employed in the manufacture 18,539, females sugar maple; ten kinds of walnut-trees; four kinds of 38,927—total employed, 57,466. The amount of capital birch, the bark of one of which furnishes the Indians now invested in this thriving branch of trade, is esti. with canoes; six kinds of ash (the ash of this country mated at 50,000,000 dollars, equal to £10,000,000 steris not of the number); besides many other trees, of ling, being about a fourth part of the capital invested very useful qualities. There are one hundred and thirty in the cotton manufacture in Great Britain. By prokinds which rise to a height of more than thirty feet; curing the cotton cheaper than can be done in England, while in France there are only thirty-seven of that size. the Americans have an important advantage; wages The flowering shrubs, kalmia and rhododendron, which however, are higher. The principal cotton manufac. are cultivated here with so much attention for their turing districts are in Massachusetts, Maine, and other splendid flowers, grow wild on the sides of the Ameri- states on the coast. The chief seat of the manufacture can hills, to the height of fifteen or twenty feet. Even is Lowell in Massachusetts, and it may be termed the in the most thickly-peopled states there are still re- Manchester of America. Besides containing at least maining large tracts of uncleared woodlands, which a dozen factories for cotton and woollen fabrics, Lowell give the country a wild appearance, and form an aspect possesses large machine-making establishments, which on the whole very different from anything seen in employ many hundreds of workmen, Europe, where forests have long been too valuable to Household manufactures of woollen, linen, and cotton, be allowed to remain uncut.


are made to a great extent. Many families spin, weare, The crops of the chief cultured articles in 1840, and and make up their own clothing, sheeting, table-linen

, the states ranking highest in production, were as fol. &c. They purchase cotton, and mix it up in the yam low :- Indian corn, 377,531,875 bushels—Tennessee, with their linen and woollen stuffs; blankets, quilts

, Kentucky, Virginia; wheat, 84,822,272 bushelsOhio, coverlids, stockings, mits, &c. are made chiefly in the Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia; oats, 123,071,341 family. These are perhaps neither so fine nor made me bushels—in the same states; rye, 18,645,657 bushels- expeditiously as those of regular tradesmen; but they Pennsylvania; barley, 4,161,504 bushels-New York; are produced for domestic use at times when there is potatoes, 108,298,060 bushels-New York and Maine; no other employment, and in this manner may be said hemp and flax, 95,252–Virginia; rice, 80,841,420 lbs. to cost nothing except the material of which they are -S. Carolina; tobacco, 219,163,319 lbs. - Virginia, made. It is supposed that nearly two-thirds of the Kentucky; cotton, 790,479,275 lbs.-Mississippi, Geor- domestic clothing is so made in country places, many gia, Louisiana, and Alabama; sugar, 115,110,809 lbs. families, as in Canada, having a loom in the house. It --cane in Louisiana, and maple in the north; and silk, is the same with soap, candles, and maple-sugar, all of 61,522 lbs. - Connecticut. In the same year, the which are manufactured by the farmers at home. Atlive-stock was estimated at 4,335,669 horses and tempts have recently been made, with great success, to mules; 14,971,586 neat cattle; 26,301,293 swine; and introduce the manufacture of silk; the mulberry-tree 19,311,374 sheep.

grows spontaneously in the middle states, and the light

easy labour which the collecting of the silk requires Manufactures. would afford employment to old people and females

, The vast extent of culturable and prolific land in enabling them to add to the income of their families, the United States, and the constant demand for large when they could not otherwise be able to do anything. supplies for food, form a reason why the nation should Distillation and brewing are conducted upon a large resort more to agriculture than manufacturing industry scale, there being not less than 41,402,627 gallons proas a staple employment. The Americans, nevertheless, duced in 1840; and a little wine is made in North Ca from a strong desire to be independent of foreign coun- rolina and other places. Shipbuilding is extensively tries for a supply of articles of clothing, have thrown followed in Maine and Massachusetts. In 1848, there themselves energetically into a course of manufacturing were 1598 vessels of all sorts built within the Union, in relation both to soft and hard goods. At present having a tonnage of 243,732. they are engaged in a kind of rivalry with Britain, and In the southern states there is little manufacturing; it is certain that they are fast overtaking it, both in the inhabitants there depend on the northern states the excellence and cheapness of their products. or on foreign countries for their supplies, and their

The manufactures which are followed with most ad exports are cotton, sugar, and other raw materials. vantage in America, and without fear of English rivalry, are those which produce articles too bulky or too heavy,

Commerce. in proportion to their value, to bear the expense of a The wealthiest class in the United States is gene long carriage, or of which the materials are found in rally the merchants of large seaport towns. Commerce the country, and can be wrought up there at less ex- may be considered as forming the aristocracy of that pense than by carrying them to cheaper tradesmen at country, and is regarded everywhere as highly honourà distance. Some of these branches may be mentioned able. Young people are educated for it with as much —such as the making of soap, candles, and hats; tan- care as for the army, or for any of the learned proning and working in leather, particularly bulky articles; fessions. The manufactures and markets of foreign building of carriages; making of all kinds of agricul- states-the quality, value, and profits of every comtural implements; carpentry, sawing, and turning of mercial article-form the objects of their study, and most descriptions; building of ships and steamboats; prepare them for engaging in business with system and constructing and putting up of mill-work and ma- advantage. The same energy of character which has chinery; distilling; the employments of goldsmiths, brought English commerce to the highest pitch, is car. tinsmiths, and printers. There are several businesses, rying forward the United States in a similar career, however, whose prospects depend chiefly on prohibiting but perhaps with undue speed. The chief fault of the the cheaper manufactures of England, and which of American commercial character is an over-haste to be course are liable to be deranged by any alteration in the rich. This .go-ahead' policy leads to wild speculatariff laws: these are the making of glass and earthen- tions, on an extensive scale, which produce most disasware; spinning and weaving most kinds of cotton goods; trous results on the currency and finances of the making of woollens, carpets, &c.; most of the finer nation. At an interval of every few years

, the banks kinds of hardware, iron, steel, and brass; hempen goods suspend payments of their notes in cash; debts due to and silk goods.

foreign merchants and others cannot be liquidated, and Within the last few years the manufacture of cotton money is scarcely to be had. has been conducted on a great scale by means of fac- In the year ending June 1847, 14,229 vessels, with a tories on the same plan as those in England. The cotton tonnage of 3,321,705, entered the ports of the United manufacture was introduced only in 1790, and in 1832 States, and 14,370 vessels, with a tonnage of 3,378,998,


cleared out. Of this vast amount of shipping more all a resemblance to those of our own country. They than one-half belonged to the country—the number of cultivate wheat and the other European grains; their American vessels entering being 7730, with a tonnage garden vegetables, potatoes, turnips, carrots, cabbages, of 2,101,359, and of those clearing out 8102, with a &c. are the same as ours; they employ the same dotonnage of 1,220,346. In the same year, the gross mestic animals; and they use of course the same agriimports of the Union amounted to 146,545,638 dollars, cultural implements, the same grist-mills, &c. requiring and the exports 158,648,622 : of which 150,637,462 also the same tradesmen to prepare and work them. consisted of the growth, produce, and manufactures of Even in these great divisions which we have pointed the States. The largest items of export were-cotton, out, there are portions which differ exceedingly from yielding upwards of 53,000,000 dollars; flour, 26,000,000; each other. New Orleans, for instance, which belongs Indian corn, 14,000,000; tobacco, 7,000,000; pork, bacon, to the slave states, has a completely different set of lard, and live hogs, 6,600,000; cotton piece goods, manners from Charleston in Virginia. The former is a 4,000,000; rice, 3,600,000; and beef, tallow, hides, and city of immense trade, situated at the mouth of the horned cattle, 2,400,000.

great river Mississippi; it contains a mixed population The immense number of navigable rivers which run of blacks of all shades, and of white men from every through the country in every direction, and discharge nation in Europe. Its streets are crowded and speckled themselves into the ocean or the lakes, afford the means with people of every colour; its quays with ships of of a great internal trade. These facilities have been every country; and its wharfs are loaded with bales of increased at many important points by canals, con- goods from all quarters of the earth; some coming from necting the different rivers at points where they ap- Europe or from China, to be carried for three thousand proach each other, or where they flow away in opposite miles up the inland rivers of America ; others sent directions from sources lying in the same neighbourhood. down these rivers some months' voyage, to be carried Between the southern and eastern states there is a con- to the West Indies or the Mediterranean. The air of stant interchange of commodities along the coast, and the place is unwholesome, and it is a mart where people a similar trade goes on from the western states to the hurry to make money before they be overtaken with south, by the Ohio and its branches, down the Missis- disease and death. Such are the influences under which sippi. New Orleans is the great entrepôt for the goods the manners and character of the people of New Orleans of the latter branch of internal commerce. The north are formed. Charleston, on the other hand, is the eastern states furnish rum, molasses, cordials, dried capital of a wealthy agricultural state; the pursuits of fish, European goods of all descriptions, and articles of the people are not decidedly commercial; the town is small value, quaintly styled notions; and they take in the resort of numerous country gentlemen, who pride return corn, grain, cotton, and tobacco, from the south; themselves rather on the oldness and respectability of while from the western states are received hams, beef, their families, and the extent of their property, than lard, flour, &c, either for use or for exportation to the on the activity of their business habits. The gentry West Indies and the other parts of Southern America. strive to keep up between themselves and their slaves The traffic from north to south along the coast is greater an exterior resemblance to the feudal relations of than might be inferred, even from this specimen of in Europe; coats of arms are fashionable, as are liveries ternal trade by the rivers; because the productions of for servants : there is a general air of elegance and the northern and southern districts on the sea-coast are splendour in the buildings of the town: some of the as different from each other as those inland, while the houses are real palazzos, surrounded with orange states in that part of the country have been longer trees, magnolias, and other trees of an almost tropical and more densely peopled. In 1848, there were up-climate. There is considerable taste for the fine arts wards of 4000 miles of canal navigation; and up- among the higher classes, and among the lower an wards of 10,000 miles of railway chartered, of which absence of all that bustle and variety of language and about 5703} were open. The roads, excepting those of dress which mark a great commercial city. It is obNew England, and the national one from Baltimore to vious, therefore, that the manners of these two places St Louis on the Mississippi, 700 miles long, are very can have very little in common. indifferent, being little better than forest tracks.

If we glance at the northern states, we shall find

a difference of a similar kind existing between New Peculiarities of Different Districts.

York and Philadelphia. The former city is the great America is generally considered and spoken of as one thoroughfare of all emigrants and commercial agents country, its people as forming a single nation, and the who arrive from Europe; the people passing through remarks which are made with regard to one part of it it daily are sometimes estimated at 15,000 or 20,000; are supposed to be equally applicable to all. No idea, it lies at a central point, having communication by however, can be more fallacious. The region which rivers, canals, and railways with the whole northern we term the United States is composed of sections of parts of the American continent. Grain, provisions, country as remote from each other as London is from lumber, and manufactures are brought from countries Constantinople, or Madrid from Berlin: they lie under a thousand miles inland, for exportation, or for the use different climates, and the different circumstances under of places along the coast which have not the same faciwhich their inhabitants are placed form in each a totally lity of conveyance. People arriving there are secure different set of manners. The English language is of finding a passage to every other city inland or coastcommon to all, and they all profess the Christian reli- ways; hence the streets and quays are constantly gion; but in most other respects the difference between crowded with travellers and their luggage. The extent them is as great as between any two European nations. of its commercial transactions gives a facility to those The great divisions under which the country ought to who wish to engage in any kind of speculation, because be viewed are the north-eastern or New England states, here they can always learn the prices or the demand in which for the present may be included Pennsylvania; for every article of American produce; hence there is 2d, The southern or slave states, to which section also a restlessness, bustle, and continual spirit of change we may refer Kentucky and Tennessee ; and 3d, The among its population, or a great part of it, which it new states of the west, which are in progress of settle- would be vain to seek elsewhere in Europe or in ment. The manners of the New England states are America. Philadelphia, on the other hand, though also formed on the model of those of our own country, and a place of very extensive commerce, has fewer channels there are few circumstances in the nature of the climate of communication with the distant inland countries, which tend to produce any material alteration; it is and has of course a smaller variety of produce either among them only that due provision is made for the raw or manufactured : hence there is less speculation; education of the people or for religious instruction. business proceeds with more steadiness, but less appaThe productions of the soil—the modes of agriculture rent bustle; there is in the streets an air of quiet regu--the arts and occupations to which these give rise-larity, where every one seems to go easily and leisurely the alternations of season and many other things, have about his business: and the transit of strangers through the place is but inconsiderable. The prevailing religion, | the population is concentrated. The summit of the which is Quakerism, has also a manifest influence in table-land is almost destitute of vegetation, but the producing these effects. The influence of circum- other districts are generally productive. Maize is the stances upon the manners of a people is nowhere more chief object of culture ; besides which, the banana, remarkable than it is here in the case of the negroes. manioc, cereal grains, rice, and the potato form the Slavery is not permitted in this state ; and the inhabi. common food of the people. The narrow insalubrious tants do not countenance in all its severity that feeling plain along the coast called the tierra caliente, or bot of contempt with which black people are regarded in country, is remarkable for its luxuriant vegetation, other parts of the Union; hence the Africans reside | The chief productions of this region are the sugar-cane, here in freedom and comfort, while they see their coun- cotton, cocoa, indigo, and tobacco. The southern part trymen a few miles to the southward poor degraded of the country forming the isthmus is celebrated fa slaves; and they are generally, in consequence, a con- the variety and importance of its woods and drugs tented, cheerful, and industrious caste.


including logwood, caoutchouc, vanilla, jalap, stora, Again, if we look at the western states, we shall find and the trees upon which feed the cochineal insert

. that though there is a certain uniformity of manners Vast herds of horses, mules, and horned cattle also over the whole, they are here also differently modified, cover the plains of the southern district. according to circumstances. Pittsburg, for instance, The mines of Mexico, however, constitute the chief with the neighbouring towns, Wheeling and Steuben- source of its wealth, particularly those of silver, which ville, are in the centre of a country which is rich in are the most productive in the world. Gold is also to various kinds of minerals-coal, iron, lime, &c.; they be found, though in lesser quantities; and copper, tin, are therefore filled with a manufacturing population, iron, lead, and mercury occur in various districts

. and the pursuits, appearance, and manners of their Manufactures are generally in a rude state; agriculture inbabitants differ from those of the country around indifferently attended to; and trade and commerce in them, as those of Birmingham may be supposed to do cessantly injured and obstructed by the internal disfrom other places in the centre of England. The town sensions of the country.' The Cyclopædia of Com. of Cincinnati, again, which is situated on the Ohio, as merce,' from which we extract these remarks, estimates these places also are, is a great inland depôt for mer- the exports (chiefly silver, gold, cochineal, woods, drugs, chandise to be exported or imported. Its inhabitants and dye-stuffs) at from £3,000,000 to £3,500,000 an. are merchants, attendants in counting - houses and nually, but this must be taken as a mere approxima warerooms, owners of river steamboats, and a popula- tion. As to the imports, there are no data whereupon tion attracted by the general trade of the place; while to form any estimate: they consist chiefly of soft goods, there is also a large number occupied in the peculiar hardwares, wines, brandy, and spices. Britain sends business of killing and salting for exportation the im. annually upwards of £450,000 of produce and manu. mense quantities of live-stock reared in the country. factures; the United States about £150,000. The chief

ports for foreign trade are Vera Cruz, Tampico, and MEXICO.

Campeachy, in the Gulf of Mexico; and San Blas, Mexico, occupying that portion of the North Ameri- Mazatian, and Acapulco, on the Pacific seaboard. can continent which lies betwixt 16° and 42° north latitude, was conquered by the Spaniards, under Cor

CENTRAL AMERICA. tez, in 1521, and continued a colony of Spain till 1821, The United States of Central America, or, more when it became an independent republic. From 1821 briefly, the Central States, include that narrow tract of to 1835 the states were severally independent, but the continent which lies between Mexico on the north united into one federal republic, like the United States; and the isthmus of Panama on the south—being about in 1835 they resigned their separate independence, and 1000 miles in length, and from 80 to 250 in breadth. became a consolidated or central republic. Mexico Their area is estimated at 186,000 square miles, and originally comprehended Texas, which revolted in 1835, their population at 2,000,000. The country was ferand is now part of the United States; California, which merly the captain-generalship of Guatemala; but in declared its independence in 1836, and in 1848 also 1823, the people adopted a constitution providing that joined the United States; and Yucatan, which seceded the government should be vested in a Federal Congress, so recently as 1841. The area of the country, as thus a Senate, and a President. The states constituting diminished, is estimated at about 900,000 square the confederacy are Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, miles, with a population of from 6,000,000 to 8,000,000 Costa Rica, and the federal district of San Salvador. - of whom about one - half are Indian aborigines, The country is extremely diversified, well watered, fer1,250,000 whites, and the remainder mixed races. tile, rich in minerals, favourably situated for comThe Congress of the Union consists of a president, vice- merce, has numerous ports on both seaboards, and is president, and of two legislative bodies—the Senate altogether calculated to support a large and thriving and the House of Representatives. Capital, Mexico, population. The exports chiefly consist of specie, with a population of 140,000.

indigo, cochineal, brazil wood, and other articles of Geographically, about one-half of Mexico lies within tropical produce, amounting to about £1,000,000 anthe tropics, while the rest belongs to the temperate nually. The imports are cotton and woollen fabrics, zone; but a large proportion of the tropical region en- hardware, and other dry goods from Britain ; silks, joys a mild temperate climate in consequence of its wines, and trinkets, from France and Spain. elevation - being from 6000 to 7000 feet above the sea. In the course of this tract, some of the heights

YUCATAN. already adverted to rise to the level of perpetual snow. This state comprises the peninsular district situated *The table-land (see Vol. I. p. 57) gradually declines between the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Honduras, towards the temperate zone; but the descent towards containing an area of about 76,000 square miles, with the coasts, especially the east coast, is by a gradual a mixed population of 570,000. Till 1841, Yucatan series of terraces, which produce an extraordinary di- formed one of the members of the Mexican Confede. versity of vegetation, and at the same time oppose ration, but the people then separated from the Union, great difficulties to the communication between the declared themselves independent, and adopted a constimaritime districts and the interior. In the equinoctial tution on the most liberal political, religious, and comregion there are only two seasons, the wet- from June mercial principles. In physical aspect, natural produce, to September, and the dry, which lasts for eight and industrial pursuit, the country closely resembles months; and in this district the different climates rise, Belize and Mexico already described. Besides some as it were, one above the other froin a temperature of measure of modern importance, it also lays claim to 80° on the coast to 62° in the interior. The coast is considerable antiquarian interest, from the ruins of humid, and unhealthy for strangers; but the table-certain gigantic sculptured structures which are found land is remarkable for its salubrity, and it is here that at Oxmutal and other places. (See Vol. I. p. 433).



This great division of the western hemisphere is a Sea. It extends from latitude 12° north to 52° 30' peninsula of a triangular form connected with North south, or including the Archipelago of Terra del Fuego, America by the narrow Isthmus of Panama. Project- to 56°—the small island called Cape Horn, in that ing its apex far into the Southern Ocean, its western parallel, being generally reckoned the extreme point shores are washed by the Pacific, its eastern by the of South America. Taken at its widest part — from Atlantic, and its base by the Atlantic and Caribbean Cape St Roque in Brazil, to Cape Blanco in Peru-it



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Staten Land

70 extends from longitude 35° to 82° west. Its area is | 150 miles in breadth, and 4000 in length, of which the estimated at 6,800,000 or 7,000,000 square miles, of two extremities are fertile, and the middle sandy and which about two-thirds lie within the tropics.

arid. 2. The basin of the Orinoco, enclosed by two

branches of the Andes, and consisting of extensive SUPERFICIAL FEATURES-GEOLOGY,

plains called llanos, either destitute of wood, or merely The physical configuration of the continent is thus dotted with trees, but covered during part of the year arranged by an American authority:-1. The low belt with high herbage. 3. The basin of the Amazon, a vast of country skirting the shores of the Pacific, from 50 to plain, embracing a surface of more than 2,000,000 No. 70.


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