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bourage. 4. Lake Erie, receiving the surplus waters | larches, poplars, and pines; mosses and lichens; and of Huron by the navigable rivers St Clair and Detroit a scanty herbage, interspersed by a few wild flowers -the former, after a course of 30 miles, expanding into during summer. In the Canadas, and generally in the a shallow lake, which again contracts into the latter, basin of the St Lawrence, the true forests of American also about 30 miles long. Erie is 230 miles long by pine and fir prevail, though the trees are inferior in 40 broad; area 10,000 square miles;

its level 560 feet size to those of the United States. Interspersed with above the sea, and depth 120 feet. The shores of this these, and becoming more frequent as we proceed sheet are low, with a marshy or sandy beach. 5. On-southward, are the white cedar, sugar-maple, basstario, receiving the surplus waters of Erie by the Nia- wood, hickory, several species of oak, and wild cherry. gara, which has a descent of 330 feet, 165 of which are Here also flourish the Canadian lily, the ginseng, by the celebrated Falls of that name, and 51 by the Venus's fly-trap; the cultivated grains and fruits of rapids beneath. This lake is 200 miles long, and 40 temperate Europe; with tobacco, hemp, and flax. In broad; area 7200 square miles, and mean depth 500 the United States—which presents three very different feet. Ontario discharges its waters by the Kataraqui, zones of climate-are found a greater variety of species and the Lake of the Thousand Islands, which after than in almost any other region of the same dimenwards becomes the St Lawrence. The other principal sions. The first zone, north of lat. 44°, exhibits birch, lakes are— -Athabasca, Winnepeg, Great Slave Lake, elm, red and white pines, sugar and other maples, & and Great Bear Lake in the Hudson's Bay Territory; variety of oaks, and the vegetation common to Canada. and Nicaragua in the Central States.

Between this zone and 35°, oaks, ash, hickory, plane, With respect to rivers, no country is more bounti- white cedar, sassafras, witch-hazel, cornel, yellow birch, fully supplied than North America; almost every part and red maple become more frequent, as do also fine of its interior being accessible by their means. The flowering climbers and aquatics. South of this middle Mississippi-reckoning from the source of the Missouri, zone, and up to 27°, most of the foregoing are found, its true head-has a course of 4300 miles, for 3900 of with deciduous cypress, Carolina poplar, magnolias, which it is navigable for boats. It has been calculated swamp-hickory, lobelias, and a greater variety of that the basin of this river has an area upwards of climbers and aquatics. South of 27° the vegetation 1,300,000 square miles, and that the whole amount of merges into the tropical, or that to be described under boat navigation afforded by the river-system, of which the West Indies and South America. As already it is the main trunk, is nearly 40,000 miles. Its prin- stated, all the common garden fruits of Europe are cipal affluents are the Roxo, Arkansas, La Platte, and reared in the north; pomegranates, melons, figs, grapes, Yellowstone on the west ; and the Tennessee, Ohio, olives, almonds, oranges, &c. in the southern zone. Wabash, and Illinois on the east. The St Lawrence, Maize is grown all south of Maine ; tobacco as far estimating its course from the head waters of the rivers north as lat. 40°; cotton to 37°; the sugar-cane to 32°; flowing into Lake Superior, drains a territory of 600,000 rice in the Carolinas, Louisiana, and Georgia; wheat square miles, and affords a partially interrupted boat all over the Union ; oats and rye principally in the navigation of 4000 miles. The other large rivers are north; hemp, flax, and hops chiefly in the western and the Mackenzie, flowing into the Arctic Ocean, navigable middle districts. (See subsequent sections.) during the short polar summer, as proved by Dease The Fauna of North America is in many respects and Simpson; the Columbia or Oregon, a rapid and peculiar, and has, besides, no analogy to several of the obstructed stream; the Bravo or Del Norte, the water forms common in the old world. Of mammalia, we may ing river of Texas; and the Colorado in California. mention the tailed monkeys of Mexico; the puma, These, as well as many others of the minor rivers, lynx, glutton, wolf, American fox; polar, black, and exhibit in their course some of the magnificent and grisly bears, badger, otter, racoon, opossum, beaver, picturesque waterfalls, of which Niagara (165 feet) skunk, ermine; prairie dog; bison, wapeti, prong-horned and Montmorency in Canada (250 feet), the Katerskill antelope, moose, red, Virginian, and other deer. (175), Tauqkanic (160), and Great Falls (150) in the Among birds — the white-headed and other eagles, United States, may be taken as examples.

various vultures, wild turkey, Canada goose, pas

senger-pigeon, bell-bird, mocking-bird, humming-birds, CLIMATE-BOTANY-ZOOLOGY.

&c. Of reptiles the alligator, tortoise, rattlesnake, Of climate, although there must necessarily be a black-snake, siren, &c. Of fish, &c. a vast and useful great variety in such a vast extent of continent- variety--as cod, sprat, mackerel, salmon; crab; oyster, stretching from the limits of perpetual verdure to those and other shell-fish. Of useful insects, the continent of perpetual ice-yet it does not agree in particulars possesses the bee and cochineal insect, and is infested from what might be anticipated from an acquaintance with the mosquito. All the domestic animals of Europe with the climatology of different places in the eastern have been introduced with success. hemisphere. It is usually stated that the temperature in any latitude in America is, upon an average, 10 degrees less than in the same parallel of the old world. The people who inhabited the continent at the time The latitudes which are temperate in Europe, for ex- of its discovery in 1492, belonged exclusively to the ample, are extremely cold in America; and at the American variety of our species, but subdivisible into same time no part ever suffers under that intense heat numerous families and tribes, differing not so much in which scorches up the torrid zone of Africa and Asia. physical aspect as in manners and customs. Without The coldness of North America is partly attributable descending to minutiæ, the aborigines might be classed to the extent of land uninterrupted by seas, partly to into the l'oltecans, or Aztecks, a civilised race who inthe amount of surface under the frigid zone, and partly habited Mexico, and had made considerable progress in to the general elevation of the country. Cold currents the domestic arts; the Indian tribes, who led a savage of air are constantly passing from the north over the life, obtaining their subsistence chiefly by hunting and interior, while cold currents of water are as regularly fishing; and the Esquimaux, who peopled, as they do passing froin the Arctic Ocean southwards along its now, the shores of the northern seas. Soon after the shores. The western coast is considerably warmer, discovery, several European settlements were formed at however, than the east; and altogether, it is supposed various points along the eastern shores of the continent, that it will be impossible to carry the arts of civilised from the Isthmus of Panama to the Gulf of St Law. life beyond the 60th parallel, on which may be said rence, and these settlements have been gradually exto be situated the capitals of Norway, Sweden, and tending, either by purchase from the natives or by conRussia in Europe. With this general outline we must quest, till now the whole of the country may be said to here close, referring for particulars to the respective he under European supremacy, before which the Red countries hereafter described.

Man is gradually but surely passing away. The SpaThe vegetation of the northern regions greatly re- niards colonised Mexico; the French settlements exsembles that of Lapland in Europe - dwarf willows, I tended along the St Lawrence and Mississippi; and the

POPULATION-COUNTRIES.

S. Salvador.
Merida.

RUSSIAN AMERICA.

English chiefly along the eastern shores; where also | nexed to Nova Scotia, but since 1768 has formed a settled Scotch, Dutch, Germans, and Irish. Out of all separate colony; 6. Newfoundland, noted for its prothese have been formed the now dominant Anglo-Ame- ductive cod-fisheries, discovered by the English in rican family, which holds subordinate the few remain- 1497, but not successfully established as a colony till ing Indian tribes, the vast population of African ne- 1623; and, 7. To these may be added the settlement groes imported as slaves, and the half-breeds resulting of Belize on the Bay of Honduras, transferred from from intermixture with the white and coloured races. Spain to England by treaty in 1670—valuable for its

Politically, the original settlements have undergone mahogany and logwood. Of these territories and colomany mutations : most of them have declared them- nies, as more especially interesting to British readers, selves independent, and adopted republican govern- we may offer a few details:inents; some have changed masters; and only a few remain in unaltered connection with the mother coun

New Britain, try. The following table exhibits the existing political or, as it is commonly termed, the Hudson's Bay Terdivisions of the continent:

ritory, comprehends the whole lands in North America

granted by the British government to the Hudson's Countries. Sq. Miles. Population. Chief Towns. Bay Company. The boundaries of these lands were

never very satisfactorily defined. Originally limited to Russian America, 500,000 50,000 New Archangel. the districts drained by the rivers falling into Hudson's British America, 2,900,000 2,000,000 Quebec. Bay, they have, since the union of the Hudson's Bay Danish Greenland,

7,000
Good Hope.

and North-West Companies in 1821, been regarded as United States, 2,650,000 17,095,000 Washington. Mexico, 900.000 8,000,000 Mexico.

comprehending the whole of British America, with the Central States, 186,000 2,000,000

exception of the settled provinces or crown colonies. Yucatan, 76,000 570,000

The territory, as might be expected from its vast ex

tent, presents considerable variety in physical character, Such are the existing divisions or governments, the though on the whole cold, dreary, and uninviting. In physical, political, social, and industrial features of the north, vegetation is scanty and stunted; as we which we shall now endeavour to describe as fully as travel southwards, the pine forests begin to appear, till our narrow limits will allow :

in the southern regions on both sides they become dense, with open spaces of lake, morass, and prairie

ground. With the exception of Red River district, This territory comprehends the north-western corner near Lake Winnepeg, which was sold by the Company of the continent, together with the adjacent islands, to Lord Selkirk, and is assuming the form of a Euroforming in all an area about 500,000 square miles. It pean settlement, the whole territory may be regarded is in the immediate possession of the Russian-American as a vast hunting-ground, occupied by buffaloes, muskCompany, whose chief object is the collection of peltry oxen, deer, bears, wolves, foxes, beavers, lemmings, for the Chinese market; but their dominion over such ermines, and other fur-bearing animals—the skins of a vast and in hospitable region is merely nominal. The which constitute the principal value of the territory. natives who live along the coasts, and barter furs and No doubt copper, iron, lead, plumbago, coal, and salt skins with the Company's agents, acknowledge in some have been discovered in several places; but these, withdegree the sovereignty of the empire; but those of the out the facility of being mined and transported, remain interior are utterly ignorant of, and uncontrolled by, unemployed and worthless. The population, amountany idea of extraneous authority. They are compara- ing to about 140,000, consists chiefly of various Indian tively few in number, are thoroughly savage, and sub-tribes, who roam over the interior; of Esquimaux, insist wholly by fishing and hunting. As a race, they habiting the northern and eastern coasts; and of the are rather under the middle size, are of a dark brown officers and servants of the Company (with a sprinkling complexion, and seem, especially towards the coast and of half-castes), who inhabit the forts or factories. on the islands, to be intermediate between the Mongo- With respect to the Hudson's Bay Company, which lians and true Americans of the interior. The white was chartered in 1670, and possesses the monopoly of population form a mere handful of agents and their the fur trade in these regions, the suprenie direction servants—inhabiting the forts or settlements, which are (we quote Waterston's Cyclopædia of Commerce :) is few and widely separated. The chief of these is New vested in a board consisting of a governor, deputyArchangel—the capital of the country-containing a governor, and seven directors, who hold their sittings mixed population of 1000. It is situated on the west in London. A resident governor appointed by them coast of Sitka Island, and contains the boards and has the superintendence of all the settlements, and is warehouses of the Company. As a region, Russian assisted by local councils, composed of the principal America is sterile, dreary, and unimprovable; even the officers in each district, who meet him at central points trade which it at one time possessed is rapidly on the during his annual tours of inspection. The acting decline, in consequence of the unsparing massacre of officers consist of chief factors, each of whom has charge the animals-sea-otters, seals, sea-lions, foxes, wolve- of several posts, of principal and secondary traders, rines, &c.—which yielded the furs and peltry.

and of clerks. The higher offices are filled up, according to merit, from the inferior ones; so that it is per

fectly open for a clerk to rise to the rank of chief British America embraces a territory nearly as large factor. The Company have at present in their employ as Europe, and comprises --- 1. The bleak region of about 1000 Europeans, and their descendants by InNew Britain, inhabited by the Esquimaux and other dian wives. They have four or five principal stations: savages, and by the forts or fur depôts of the Hud- | York Fort, the most important, commands all the vast son's Bay Company; 2. Upper and Lower Canada, region extending west and north of Hudson's Bay ; united into one colonial province in 1841—the former Moose Fort, at the south extremity of Hudson's Bay, settled chiefly by emigrants from Britain and the presides over all the country between that gulf and the United States, and the latter originally settled by the Canadian lakes; Ungava Bay, at the exterior entrance French, but conquered in 1759; 3. New Brunswick, of Hudson's Bay, contains a small station for collecting noted for its timber and fisheries, ceded by the French the produce of the adjacent coasts of Salvador, conat the peace of 1763; 4. Nova Scotia, first settled by sisting chiefly of oil from the seal and porpoise; Monthe French, and along with New Brunswick called treal is the centre of the transactions carried on in the Acadia, but subsequently fell under the English, and Canadas.' The Company has also several stations west after several times changing masters, was finally ac- of the Rocky Mountains, the chief of which was Fort quired by Britain in 1763-possesses coal, gypsum, Vancouver, on the Columbia River; but since the ad. wood, and abundant fisheries ; 5. Prince Edward's justment of the Oregon boundaries with the United Island, also taken from the French in 1758, and an. | States, the chief factory has been removed to Vancouver

BRITISH AMERICA.

Canada.

a

Island, which, during the present year (1849), has been feature of the country is its water-courses. By looking given by the crown to the Company as a field for co- at the map, it will be perceived that there is a series Ionisation. Possessing wood, coal, iron, and, it is said, of large lakes, communicating with each other; these other metals; having a favourable climate; and afford- are unequalled by any inland sheets of water in the ing facilities for shipping, Vancouver Island is likely world, and are entitled to the appellation of fresh-water to assume considerable importance; and this all the seas. The series, so far as Canada is concerned (see more rapidly from its being the nearest British terri- page 290), consists of Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and tory to the now El Dorado of California. The annual | Ontario. The waters of Lake Erie, on issuing from its value of the imports from Britain to the Hudson's Bay lower extremity, form a river of nearly half a mile Territory is estimated at £55,000; while that of the broad, which in its course is precipitated over a precipeltry and other articles exported varies, according to pice to a depth of 165 feet, thus making the famed circumstances, from £40,000 to £70,000.

cataract or Falls of Niagara. The river is, at the distance of a few miles below, received by Lake Ontario,

whence issues the river St Lawrence, one of the largest Canada is bounded on the east by the Gulf of St streams in the world, and which, after a course of 2000 Lawrence, on the north and west by the territories of miles, falls into the Atlantic. This majestic river is the Hudson's Bay Company, and on the south by the 90 miles wide at its mouth, and is navigable for ships United States and the British province of New Bruns of the line for 400 miles from the ocean.

In its upper wick. Until a recent period, Canada was divided into parts, its navigation is impeded by rapids, or the rushtwo provinces, the Upper and Lower, each of which ing of the stream down an inclined plane; but some had its own local government; but by an act of the im- of these impediments are obviated by means of canals perial parliament in 1841, the two provinces are united recently cut; wherefore there is now a continued water under one general Legislative Council and House communication for vessels from the Atlantic into the of Assembly, two bodies respectively resembling the interior or innermost lakes. The Welland Canal, a Houses of Peers and Commons in the mother country, magnificent undertaking, connects Lakes Erie and Onand whose measures require the consent of the gover- tario, and affords a passage for vessels of large size. nor, as the acts of the home parliament require that of Lake Erie is also connected by a canal with the Hudthe sovereign. The affairs of this, as of all other colo- son, a river of the United States, which also falls into nies, are subject to an ultimate control, vested imme. the Atlantic. The Ottawa, or Grand River, is next to diately in a colonial minister, but finally in the British the St Lawrence in point of size, and is tributary to it. legislature. In Lower or Eastern Canada, the greater It falls into the north side of the St Lawrence at Monpart of the population is of French descent (this having treal. The Welland, or Chippewa, is also a remarkably originally been a French colony): the laws resemble fine river, wholly unobstructed by falls. The St Lawthose of France, and the French language is generally rence has a tendency northward in its course, and, spoken. Upper or Western Canada lies to the west therefore, the farther we ascend its waters the milder and south-west of the lower province. Its inhabitants does the climate of the country become. are of British descent, and a very large proportion of The climate of Canada presents very opposite ex. them are from Scotland, both Lowlands and Highlands. tremes of heat and cold, and the transition from the The English law and church are here established; but one to the other is much more sudden than in Great there is the most perfect liberty of conscience, and as Britain. Notwithstanding this, however, it is healthy; great a security of life and property as in Britain. The all accounts which we have seen, both those of travelaggregate area of the province has been estimated at lers and the letters of private individuals, agreeing in 355,000 square miles, and the population at 1,225,000. this respect. The spring in Canada generally commences

Western Canada, which is the finer and more eligible about the end of April, and the fields are well covered section, is divided into districts, counties, ridings, town- with vegetation by the beginning of May. The therships, special tracts, and allotments, together with mometer ranges during summer from about 80° to 84°; blocks of land reserved for the clergy and the crown, in some instances it has reached 102°; but such exand lands appropriated to the Indians. A district treme heat is very rarely felt. Spring, summer, and contains one, two, or three counties, and each county autumn extend from the end of April to October. contains from four to thirty townships. The line of Winter commences in November, when thick fogs and division betwixt Western and Eastern Canada is in snow-storms are frequent. By the middle of December che part the Ottawa or Grand River. Nearly all the the ground is generally covered with snow, and the other lines of division in the provinces are straight, frost, especially in Lower Canada, becomes sometimes without regard to physical distinction, such as bills very intense. The depth of the snow in Upper Canada and rivers; and this peculiarity is common over the varies according to seasons, from a few inches to several whole of North America. The entire area of Upper feet; the average depth, taking one season with another, Canada has been estimated at 64,000,000 acres. Of has been estimated to be between eighteen inches and this extent of territory, the portion laid out in town- two feet. The winter in the Upper or western part of ships, and open for settlement, amounts to nearly the province is much milder than in the Lower or 17,000,000 acres, the size of each township averaging eastern part, and new settlers generally are pleasantly 61,600 acres. Deducting the quantities granted to disappointed in not experiencing the rigours which, different classes of settlers, and otherwise disposed of from exaggerated rumours at home, they had expected by the crown, there yet remains within the townships, to find. January has generally a week or more of open, at the disposal of government, about 3,000,000 acres. and sometimes mild weather; and it not unfrequently This tract of country, chiefly bordering the north shore happens that it is only in February that the weather of the river St Lawrence, and of the lakes Ontario, may be said to be very severe and the frost intense. Erie, and St Clair, and of the rivers or straits commu- In Lower Canada, where winter is most severe, the nicating between these lakes up to Lake Huron, a thermometer ranges from 25° above to 25° below zero. distance in all little short of 700 miles, and stretching The sky of a Canadian winter is generally almost northward from the water to a depth varying from 50 cloudless, the air bracing, and, from the absence of to 80 miles, is composed of a soil which, for productive wind, in spite of the low temperature, the cold is not richness, variety, and applicability to the highest pur- felt to be disagreeable. From Quebec to Montreal and poses of agriculture, may challenge competition with upwards, the St Lawrence and other rivers, and also the choicest tracts of land in the new world.

the lakes, cease to be navigable ; but the firm icy Western Canada is chiefly a flat country, and is for surface serves as a road for the sleighs and carrioles; the greater part covered with timber, but possesses a and although the entire face of nature is now changed number of chains or ridges of high lands, running in the varied and pleasing tints of autumn in the different directions, and separating the sources and forest, and the busy and enlivening signs of commerce channels of innumerable rivers and brooks. The grand upon the lakes and rivers, having given place to one.

dead and drear - like scene, seemingly destitute of between Toronto and Trafalgar. Although less popu. variety-yet the snows and frosts of Canada are hailed lous than the tract of country composing the first part as ushering in a season which brings with it no small of the division which we have adopted, this portion of amount of social enjoyment. Winter in Canada is the province does not yield to it in fertility, and is indeed the season of joy and pleasure : all classes and equally well watered by numerous lakes, broad and ranks indulge in a general carnival, as some amends beautiful rivers, and innumerable streams and brooks. for the more enervating toil undergone during the The rivers in general abound with excellent fish, and summer months. The double-seated sleigh, with its especially salmon, great quantities of which are annu. mettle pair of horses, or single-horse cutter of the Upper ally speared in the river Credit, for the supply of the Canadian, or the carriole of the humble habitan, or western country. In front of Newcastle district, on proud seigneur of Lower Canada, is got ready all over the borders of Lake Ontario, the soil consists of a rich the country. Riding abroad on business or pleasure black earth; but in the district of Home, the shores of commences; visiting is in active play between friends, the lake are of an inferior quality. The lands upon and relatives; regular city and town balls, and irregular Yonge Street (roads are frequently called streets in pic-nic country parties, are quite the rage.

Canada), which connects Toronto with Lake Simcoe, While the external weather is guarded against by are exceedingly fertile, but so destitute of stones (for warm clothing when out of doors, the habitations of building and other purposes) as to create some inconthe Canadians are kept comfortably warm, the apart- venience to the settlers. A sandy plain, of some extent, ments being heated with stoves, which keep the tem- exists some distance north of Ontario, towards Rice perature at a higher and more uniform rate than can Lake; but saving this, and probably one or two more be effected by English fireplaces.

comparatively insignificant exceptions, the soil of this The various writers on Canada each recommend par- tract of country is extremely, fertile, well adapted for ticular districts for the settlement of the emigrant; but agriculture, and yields luxuriant crops of wheat, rye, it is hardly to be expected that persons in this coun- maize or Indian corn, peas, barley, oats, buckwheat, try can make a perfectly judicious choice, a personal &c. The fronts of all the townships from Kingston to inspection of the lands, or at least information near Toronto are, with few exceptions, well settled; roads the spot, being in almost every case requisite. The lead through them, from which, in many places, others most elaborate details are given by Bouchette, in his branch off to the interior. At intervals, rather distant large work on British America, regarding the different indeed from each other, there are a few small villages. parts of the province; and as what he mentions may On the lands that are occupied, great progress has been be of use in furnishing emigrants with an idea of the made in agriculture : the houses, generally speaking, nature of the lands, we take the liberty of transcribing are strong and well-built: and the inhabitants appear a few of his observations:

to be possessed of all the necessaries, as well as most • The Eastern Section includes Ottawa, Johnstoun, of the comforts, that a life of industry usually bestows.' Midland, and Bathurst districts. Situated between two In this division is the town of Toronto, which occupies broad and navigable rivers, the Ottawa and the St a good situation on a fine bay of Lake Ontario; popuLawrence, and centrally traversed in a diagonal course lation in 1840, 12,000. by an extensive and splendid sloop canal, connecting The Western Section comprises Gore, Niagara, Lonthe navigation with the waters of Ontario, this section don, and Western Districts. The surface is uniformly of country evidently enjoys important geographical and level, or but slightly undulating, if we except a very local advantages. Its surface presents, almost unex- few solitary eminences, and those parts of the disceptionably, a table-level of moderate elevation, with a tricts of Gore and Niagara traversed by the ridge of very gentle and scarcely perceptible depression, as it elevated land. The variety of soils, and the diversity approaches the margin of the magnificent streams by of their combinations, observable in these four districts, which it is bounded to the northward and south-east. are by no means so great as might be expected in so The soil, though sometimes too moist and marshy, is extended a region. The whole tract is alluvial in its extremely rich and fertile, and chiefly consists of a formation, and chiefly consists of a stratum of black, brown clay and yellow loam. This section is intersected and sometimes yellow loam, above which is deposited, by numerous rivers, remarkable for the multitude of when in a state of nature, a rich and deep vegetable their branches and minor ramifications. There are mould, the substratum beneath the bed of loam being also a number of good public roads, both along the St generally a tenacious gray or blue clay, which in some Lawrence and Ottawa, and into the interior. Great parts appears at the surface, and, intermixed with industry and attention to improvement are displayed sand, constitutes the super-soil. There are numerous upon most of the lands throughout this tract. The and extensive quarries of limestone to be found in town of Kingston, the largest and most populous of the these districts, that supply the farmers with excellent upper province, is very advantageously seated on the materials for building. Freestone is also found, but in north side of the St Lawrence, or rather at the eastern small quantities, and generally along the shores of the extremity of Lake Ontario. The thriving village of lakes. The Thames River, in this section, rises far in Perth is situated in the township of Drummond, on a the interior; and after pursuing a serpentine course of branch of the Rideau, and occupies a central position about 150 miles, in a direction nearly south-west, disbetween the Grand River and the St Lawrence, com- charges itself into Lake St Clair. municating by tolerably good roads with Kingston to The chief towns in Canada are Quebec, Montreal, the south and Bytown to the northward, at the oppo- Three Rivers, Prescot, Kingston, and Toronto, forsite extremities of the Rideau Canal. The first estab- merly called York. The city of Quebec is the capital lishment, fostered by government, was made in 1815, of Lower Canada, and stands on the extremity of a by British emigrants, chiefly from Scotland, many of precipitous cape, on the north bank of the St Lawwhom are now at the head of excellent farms, possess rence, opposite the island of Orleans. Population comfortable habitations, and reap the fruits of their in 1840 about 26,000. The appearance of the town, perseverance and industry. Ascending along the shores on coming into view, is particularly striking. The of Lake Chaudiere, the objects of note first presenting city is divided into an upper and lower town; the forthemselves are the rising colonies in front of the town- mer being of ancient date, and adopted as the seat ships of March and Tarbolton; they are chiefly com- of commerce, and the latter being the residence of the posed of families possessed in general of adequate means higher and more affluent classes. There are a numto avail themselves of the advantages that are incident ber of fine public edifices; among the rest, the Castle to a newly-opened country.

of St Louis, a prominent object on the summit of the The Central Section of the province embraces the dis- rock; the Roman Catholic and Protestant Cathedrals, tricts of Home and Newcastle, which occupy a grant of the barracks, hospitals, the Quebec Bank, and a handabout 120 miles upon Lake Ontario, extending from some monument to Wolfe and Montcalm. The insti. the head of the Bay of Quinté westward to the line tutions are in many instances of French character, and the language of the inhabitants is French and English. I height, is diked, and the waters of the sea excluded. As a port, Quebec has great capabilities--the basin Nothing can exceed its fertility. In many places, parbeing sufficient to contain 100 sail of the line. The ticularly about Windsor and Truro, it yields three amount of shipping annually entered is little short of tons of hay per acre, and has continued to do so with400,000 tons. Montreal is a city of an entirely different out manure for fifty years past. There is a difference appearance. It is agreeably situated on a beautiful in its quality. Where the water which overflows it is island of the same name in the St Lawrence, which not much enriched by a long course through the counmeasures 32 miles long by 10 broad, and lies at the try, it is thin, and of an inferior quality. The quantity confluence of the Ottawa River and the St Lawrence of land enclosed in this manner is very great. * At the The island of Montreal is nearly level, and is scarcely head of the Bay of Fundy, there are 70,000 acres in excelled in fertility. The city stands on the south side one connected body. There is one marsh in Cumberof the island, and is reckoned the first in the province, land containing nearly as much land as Romney Marsh in respect of situation, local advantages, and mildness in Kent, and of a quality vastly superior. This land of climate. The houses are well built, and the streets is found in great quantities in Cumberland, Macan, commodious. There are also some handsome public Napan, Londonderry, Truro, Onslow, Shubenacadie, buildings. The literary and scholastic institutions in Noel, Kennetcook, Newport, Windsor, Falmouth, HorMontreal are numerous, and are of great benefit to the ton, Cornwallis, Granville, Annapolis, &c. The next province. There are no wharfs, and the ships and best quality of land is called by a term peculiar to steamboats sail close to the bank of the river, where America, intervale, an alluvial soil made by the overthere is water for vessels of 600 tons. The annual flowing of large fresh-water brooks and rivers in the tonnage entered at the port is about 24,000; the popu- spring and autumn. The quantity of intervale is inlation of the city in 1840 was 35,000.

calculable. It is to be met with in every part of the The principal branches of industry in Canada are province, and is frequently found covered with a long agriculture, the main product of which is wheat, natural grass, several feet in length, and is sometimes amounting to upwards of 11,000,000 bushels per an. called "wild meadow.' The quality varies according to num; the felling and export of timber, yielding about the size of the brook or river by which it is made, but £705,000 yearly; the preparation of pot and pearl in general it is very fertile and rich. The upland ashes, in clearing the land of timber, there being about varies so much in character that it is difficult to give a 36,000 barrels annually exported; and the subordinate general description of it. branches of fisheries, oil, and für trade. There are The mineral products of this part of America are some small manufactories of different articles at Mon- valuable; but none is so much worthy of consideration treal and Quebec; flannel, coarse cloth, and linen are as coal, which is worked at Pictou, at Sidney in Cape now made to some extent in various districts; iron- Breton, and also in Cumberland county; and there can founding is conducted on a considerable scale in Three be no doubt that the possession of this mineral will Rivers, Quebec, and Montreal; and soap, candles, and constitute one of the chief advantages of these provinces the like, in several of the larger towns. The chief over every other. In 1847, about 120,000 tons were articles of export are timber, ashes, wheat, and other shipped from Pictou alone. Limestone, freestone, and raw produce; the imports are coal, metals, cordage, slate abound, of the best qualities, and there is plenty East India produce, and various kinds of British manu- of fine clay for bricks. Iron ore has also been disfactures from Europe; sugar, molasses, rum, and hard-covered in several places; gypsum occurs in enormous woods from the West Indies; and beef, pork, biscuit, beds, and forms a valuable article of export to the rice, and tobacco from the United States. The total United States; and · Nova Scotia blue grits,' or grindvalue of the imports average about £2,000,000, and stones, are celebrated all over America. and that of the exports £1,080,000.

The climate of Nova Scotia, like that of the adjoining

districts, is salubrious and pleasant, but is in a peculiar Nova Scotia.

degree exposed to the extreme of summer heat and Nova Scotia is a peninsula connected with the main- winter cold. The ground is generally covered with land by a narrow isthmus. It measures about 300 snow from the 25th of December till the 5th of March, miles in length, but is of unequal breadth; altogether, in which respect it nearly resembles Upper Canada; it contains 15,617 square miles, or nearly 10,000,000 and during this period the farmers draw upon sledges acres, with a population of about 156,000. There are their wood and poles from the forest, and carry their numerous lakes, but the greater number occur near produce to market. It is difficult to say when spring the southern and south-western coasts, covering about commences, as it is rather late and irregular in its apone-tenth of the entire superficies. There is no part proaches. When vegetation does begin, it is very rapid, of the land thirty miles distant from navigable water, and two or three days make a perceptible change in the and in all parts there are fine streams and rivers. The amount of the foliage. The summer may be said to southern margin of Nova Scotia is broken and rugged, be short and powerful, and during the time it lasts it with very prominent features, deep inlets, and craggy exerts a much greater influence on vegetation than is islands. The features of the northern coast are soft, observable in Britain. During this period, the inhaand free from rocks. It is bounded on the north by bitants go very lightly dressed. Altogether, the climate part of the Gulf of St Lawrence, which separates it of Nova Scotia is as good as that of Scotland, if not from Prince Edward's Island; on the north-east by the superior; nor are there any of those local or epidemical Gut of Canso, which separates it from the island of disorders with which other countries are frequently Cape Breton; on the west by the Bay of Fundy, which afflicted. Although the winters are intensely cold, they separates it from New Brunswick; and on the south are not so disagreeable as the raw changeable winters and south-east by the Atlantic Ocean.

of this country, nor nearly so fatal to human life. BeThe soil of a country of such extent and such varied sides, if the settlers work during three-quarters of a features as Nova Scotia must necessarily be various year, they have ample provision for the remaining If an imaginary line be drawn, dividing the province in quarter, and are enabled to look forward to winter as the exact centre, from east to west, the north-western their season of holiday enjoyment and relaxation. half will be found to contain by far the greatest portion Few parts of the world are so well watered as Nova of good land. On the side towards the Bay of Fundy, Scotia. The rivers, brooks, springs, and streams of the soil is very rich, and free from stones, and contains different kinds, are very numerous. Some of the lakes many thousand acres of diked marsh land. This is are extremely beautiful, containing in general one or alluvial land, and is made by the deposit of the tides more small islands, which are covered with a luxuriant ,-a sediment composed of the finer particles of soil, growth of wood, and vary in every imaginable shape. brought away by the rivers and torrents

in their

course The land in the neighbourhood of them is often unduto the Bay of Fundy, of putrescent matter, salt, &c. lated in the most romantic manner. These lakes

will This land, called marsh, after it has attained a suitable in time

be of great service to the province; in several

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