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are no aborigines now in Van Diemen's Land, these smaller isles scattered around their shores. They lie having been lately conveyed to an island in Bass's in the great southern ocean in an easterly direction Strait, and an order has been issued by the home from Australia, and at a distance of about 1200 miles government for their removal to Port Philip district, from that continent. The New Zealand islands are New South Wales. Regarding the bush-rangers, or situated between the 34th and 48th degrees of south runaway convicts, from the effective police force kept latitude, and the 166th and 179th of east longitude, up, their depredations are confined to the less-popu- The Middle Island is about 500 miles long, and from lated districts, and even there they seldom exist long 100 to 120 broad. The northern island is the smaller, without being captured.
being about 400 miles long, and from 5 to 30 broad; The capital of the colony is Hobart Town, situated both being estimated to contain nearly 95,000 square on the left bank of the river Derwent, at the head miles, of which two-thirds are fit for cultivation. of a beautiful bay, distant about twenty miles from New Zealand was first discovered in 1642 by Tasman, its junction with the sea. The town is pleasantly who, however, did not land, supposing it to form situated on a gently rising ground, which, gradually a part of the southern continent. Captain Cook first retiring, terminates ultimately in hills of considerable sailed round the islands, and surveyed their shores height, covered with wood, and presenting a most ro- with so much accuracy, that his charts are depended mantic appearance. These again are overlooked by upon even to the present day. The distance of New one of still greater altitude, called Mount Wellington, Zealand from Great Britain is rather more than to which rises to the height of 4000 feet above the level New South Wales, or about 16,000 miles, but is of the sea. Hobart Town is thus happily placed be- reached by the same line of voyage round the Cape of tween highly-picturesque hills on the one hand, and Good Hope, the return being by Cape Horn. Vessels a beautiful bay or arm of the sea on the other; for, reach New Zealand from Sydney in ten or twelve days. though the Derwent be here called a river, it can be New Zealand is evidently of volcanic origin, there so called only in a very extended sense, the water being being many extinct and a few active volcanoes in the still salt, and of considerable width. The town itself interior of the islands. Hot springs have also been covers somewhat more than a square mile of ground; found, some of which are described as higher than boilthe houses are principally constructed of wood, though ing heat, and most of them of a sufficient temperature many of them are of brick and freestone. The streets to cook any kind of native food. A chain of mountains are regularly laid out, and those of them that have been runs through the whole of the southern, and a consicompleted are macadamised, and present on either side derable part of the northern island. Some of these long rows of large and handsome shops. The town de- mountains are as high as 14,000 feet above the level rives a peculiar and highly pleasing character too from of the sea, their tops being covered with perpetual the circumstance of the houses in general standing snow, and their sides with forest-trees and luxuriant apart from each other, each having a small plot of ferns. Besides this chain of mountains, there are other ground, from a quarter to half an acre in extent, at- subordinate ranges, which, for the most part, are covered tached to it. Its public buildings are numerous, and with vegetation to the summit. many of them would be considered handsome even There are numbers of fine streams and rivers scatin Britain. The town contains breweries, tanneries, tered throughout the country, which have their origin distilleries, flour-mills, two or three banks, hospitals, in these mountains. Several of the rivers are navichurches, schools, charitable and stipendiary, inns, gable to a small extent, and possess waterfalls which taverns, hotels, and grog-shops ad infinitum, and every afford the means of establishing mills in most parts of thing else which bespeaks a thriving, bustling, indus- the country. From the shape of the islands, and the trious, and civilised community.
mountains which intersect them, the rivers do not run The town next in importance to the capital is Laun. to any great length, from 100 to 200 miles being the ceston, situated at the junction of the North and South average. In 1838, the ship Pelorus entered a river in Esk, at the head of the navigable portion of the river the southern island falling into Cook's Straits, and Tamar, which discharges itself into Bass's Strait, about sailed up more than 30 miles, and her boats conti. forty-five miles below the town. The town presents a nued the navigation for 20 miles farther. The river very business-like appearance, with its shipping, wharfs, Hokianga, in the northern island, situated almost oppostores, and public buildings, all calculated to impress site the Bay of Islands, has been navigated 30 miles the stranger even on a cursory glance with a high idea by vessels of 500 tons burthen. Another river, the of its rising importance. From the favourable nature Haritoua, which falls into Port Nicholson, is said to of its situation for commercial purposes, the river being be navigable for a considerable distance inland. navigable for vessels of 500 tons burthen up to the The bays and harbours of New Zealand are not surtown, the trade of Launceston is very considerable, passed either in number or advantages by those of any and is every day increasing.
country in the world. Beginning with the North Island, The population of the colony in 1842 was estimated we have first the harbour of Wangaroa, the entrance to at 50,216 ; but must now be considerably increased, which is narrow; but inside, the harbour is spacious and both from the natural progress of population, and the well-sheltered. The Bay of Islands is about 25 miles influx of additional immigrants. In 1839, the land south of Wangaroa, and is the harbour which has been sales amounted to 42,386 acres, at the average of hitherto most frequented by Europeans. The entrance 108. 2d.; and in 1840 to 88,296 acres, at lls. 4d., exclu- to the bay is 11 miles broad, and perfectly safe, there sive of town lots and military grants. The principal being no bar. Inside, the bay is studded with a number exports are wheat, wool (in 1841, 3,597,531 lbs.), whale- of rocky islands; the water is deep close to the shore, oil, bark, &c. amounting in 1840 to £867,000 ; and the and the anchorage is excellent. To the south of the Bay imports, comprising all kinds of British inanufactures, of Islands is the Firth of the Thames, which contains colonial products, spirits, wines, farming implements, several well-protected harbours. The tide flows in this &c. to £988,356. In 1842 the official value of exports firth to the height of from 8 to 10 feet, and at all times to the United Kingdom was £134,150; and that of there is plenty of water for ships of almost any tonnage. the imports from the United Kingdom £260,730. At The Bay of Plenty, on the north-east coast, is formed present the annual revenue of the colony is about by the island becoming much broader in a curved £100,000, and the expenditure about £138,000. The direction. This bay is very large, and possesses an leading, if not the only misfortune under which Van excellent harbour called Tauranga, which is much freDiemen's Land labours, is a deficiency of good roads. quented for the shipment of flax, &c. Hawke's Bay
is very extensive and deep, the soundings showing from
6 to 27 fathoms water. The most important harbour New Zealand consists mainly of two large islands, in the northern island is Port Nicholson, situated in called the Middle Island and the North Island, sepa- Cook’s Straits. The bay is about 12 miles long and 3 rated by a passage called Cook's Straits, with numerous broad, perfectly sheltered, and ships may enter or leave
with any wind. The depth of water is from 7 to 11 | them who appeared to have any bodily complaint; and
In the middle island, within Cook’s Straits, is the fine open land, consisting of alluvial soil deposited
The forest-trees grow to a very great size, many of
The very circumstance of New Zealand being suited | farming improvements, along with the religious in. for the cultivation of grain, renders it unfit for ever struction which they bestowed upon the natives. A becoming an extensive grazing country, at least for the company, called the New Zealand Association, was growth of the fine wools of Australia. The following started in 1837; and another, under the name of the remarks from the Sydney Herald newspaper were New Zealand Colonisation Company, in 1838. These written by a person who had visited New Zealand on companies may be said to have merged in a New seven different occasions:-—New Zealand is fitted by Zealand Company, which was established in May 1839, nature to become the garden of New South Wales: the and which, since that period, has been actively engaged, fertility of the soil, the excellence of the climate, and, after many obstructions both from the natives and above all
, the regularity of the seasons, eminently com- from the home government, in establishing settlements bine to fit it for an agricultural country. But it is only chiefly in Cook's Straits, as Wellington, Nelson, &c. as an agricultural settlement that New Zealand can In 1840 a regular colonial government was established, flourish; as a pastoral country, it can never compete after the model of the Australian settlements, with with New South Wales. The experiment has again and Auckland in the northern island as the capital. Vaagain been tried, and the result has invariably been rious settlements have since been effected in both the same. The climate is too moist for sheep pastures; islands—the most recent being that of Otago, on the and the fine wool for which New South Wales is so eastern coast of the middle island, under the auspices remarkable, speedily deteriorates in quality on the of the New Zealand Company and the Lay Association transportation of the sheep to New Zealand.'
of the Free Church of Scotland. Little definite is known of the mineral productions In 1842 the colonial population was estimated at of New Zealand. Iron and coal are found in abund- 17,000, but must now exceed 23,000. In the same ance, along with bitumen, freestone, marble, sulphur, year the value exported to Britain was £10,998, while and copper.
A blue pigment made use of by the the imports from Britain amounted to £42,753. natives is said to be manganese, and there is a valuable green stone (nephrite) found exclusively in the middle
POLYNESIA. island, which, when polished, excels in beauty many of our finer marbles. There is also abundance of clay Polynesia—from two Greek words, signifying many fit for brick-making and earthenware.
isles--is the name given to the numerous groups scatThere are no native quadrupeds in New Zealand, tered over the central parts of the Pacific Ocean, within those at present existing having been left by Captain 30 degrees on both sides of the equator. The chief Cook and other Europeans during their visits to the clusters north of this line are the Sandwich in the east, islands. Pigs are numerous, having spread very rapidly and the Ladrones and Carolines in the west; and south throughout the country. They are said to grow to an of it, the Marquesas in the east, the Society Islands in enormous size, and are highly valued by the natives. the middle, and the Friendly, including the Fejce and Dogs abound, especially about the Bay of Islands; and Navigators', in the west. The Sandwich, Society, and cats are also plentiful, and are eaten by the natires. Marquesas Islands are of volcanic origin-steep, rugged, The cattle which have been introduced by the mission and softy; the active craters of Owhyhee being 13,000, aries are said to thrive well. Sheep have also been 14,000, and 16,000 feet above the sea level, and the tried, and in some open parts succeeded; but New verdant and wooded heights of Tahiti rising to an Zealand, as already stated, is more of an agricultural elevation of 10,000 feet. The other groups, with few than a pastoral country. The only reptile yet seen in exceptions, are entirely of coral formation, elevated but the islands is a small species of lizard.' Birds are very a few feet above the sea, and appearing as long narrow numerous, and are described by all travellers as beau- reefs, circular reefs enclosing lagoons, or barrier reeis tiful songsters. Amongst the feathered tribe may be encircling inner islets, from which they are separated inentioned ducks, geese, woodcocks, snipes, curlews, by deep narrow channels. and wood-pigeons, as affording food to man. Some of Situated within the tropics, but with an atmosphere the birds are very remarkable. One, called by the tempered by the surrounding ocean, and in the larger natives the tui, has the power of imitating the notes of islands by the above-mentioned mountains, the climate all the other birds with great exactness. Another, is delightful, and the soil exceedingly fertile. Among called the kiwi, is about the size of a young turkey, the native productions are the bread-fruit, cocoa, banana, and its plumage resembles that of the Australian emu, pandanus, plantain, and a variety of tropical fruits; being long, straight, and coarse. It has neither wings the taro, yam, batata, and other farinaceous roots. nor tail, but runs with great swiftness along the ground, Among those successfully introduced are the orange, and can only be caught by dogs. Fish are very abun- lemon, sugar-cane, cotton, potato, melon, cucumber, dant all round the coast, and are of most excellent guara, &c. The only quadrupeds found on the islands quality. Whales also frequent the coasts of New when first visited by Europeans were hogs, dogs, and Zealand for the purpose of calving, and are caught in rats; but birds were numerous, consisting of poultry, large numbers. This trade alone is very considerable, pigeons, turtle doves, parrots, and other tropical genera. and would no doubt be greatly extended were settle. The shores abound with seafowl; and the sea teems with inents more numerous in the country.
a vast variety of fishes, shellfish, crustacea, turtles, seals, The aboriginal natives of New Zealand were formerly and cetacea. The ox and horse have been brought to savage and dangerous, but are now partially improved, some of the larger islands from Europe or from America. and harmless in disposition. From all accounts they The natives seem to belong to the Malay variety of are susceptible of much greater improvement than the human race, and have generally been found much the natives of Australia, being ready in apprehension more tractable than the barbarous tribes in other parts and tractable. They generally dwell in small villages of the world. When first discovered, they were wholly In their intercourse with Europeans, the New Zea- | idolatrous, addicted to cannibalism, infanticide, and landers have on all occasions manifested a desire to similar vices; to the superstition of fetish and taboo; learn, and great aptitude in acquiring civilised customs and to the fashion of tatooing. Within the last forty Regarding the amount of the native population, it can years a large proportion of the inhabitants of the Sandonly be guessed at-probably about 90,000.
wich, Society, and Friendly Islands have embraced The first attempt to colonise New Zealand was made Christianity; and missionaries from the United States in 1825, by a company under the auspices of the Earl of America and Britain have taught them reading, of Durham. Two vessels were despatched to the country writing, and a number of useful arts. by this company, and some land was acquired at Herd's The only foreign powers having possessions in PolyPoint on the Hokianga River, but the idea of settling nesia are the Spaniards, who have occupied the La. it was soon after abandoned. Meanwhile the mis- drones since the end of the seventeenth century; and sionaries had acquired considerable tracts of land in the French, who, since 1843, have attempted the occudifferent parts of the islands, and introduced many | pation of the Marquesas.
This is the largest, and in every respect the most rally, for its northern shores are yet imperfectly important division of the western hemisphere. It is known, and are at the present moment the object of bounded on the east by the Atlantic; on the south farther exploration. If we adopt the opinion of Mr by the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific, save where Simpson, who traversed the coast from Point Barrow to connected to South America by the narrow Isthmus Point Turn-again, that the waters of Melville Sound of Panama; on the west by the Pacific; and on the are connected with the Gulf of Boothia, then is North north generally by the Arctic Ocean. We say gene- | America distinct from the arctic regions of Cumberland
Island, New Georgia, and Greenland, which will require general altitude. 2. The maritime region between to be erected into a new geographical division. Fol- the Pacific Ocean on the west and the ridge of mounlowing, however, the usual course of including these tains which extends from Cape St Lucas in California regions, and leaving the north-west passage'as still northwards to Aliaska. This ridge has a general problematical, the area of the known continent may be elevation of 8000 or 10,000 feet, but rises in Mount St stated at 8,000,000 square miles—the great mass of Elias to 12,630. 3. The elevated region which forms which lies within the northern temperate zone.
a sort of table-land between the maritime chain be
fore- mentioned on the west and the Rocky MounSUPERFICIAL FEATURES-GEOLOGY.
tains on the east, In its southern portion it preThe general physical characteristics of the continent sents the arid salt-plains of the Californian desert; are remarkable for the magnitude of the scale upon between 40° and 45° north it presents a fertile region, which they are presented; the mountains, plains, lakes, with a mild and humid atmosphere; but beyond the and rivers, being superior to those of all other countries. last-mentioned parallel it is barren and inhospitable. They are thus summarily described in the System of 4. The great central valley of the Missouri and MissisUniversal Geography:-1. The narrow region which sippi, extending from the Rocky Mountains on the west separates the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to the Alleghanies on the east, and from the Gulf of from the Pacific, traversed throughout its whole length Mexico northwards to the 45th or 50th degree north lat. by mountain-ranges, which leave a narrow tract of low Between these parallels runs in a waving line the water. land lying along the sea-coasts, while in certain portions shed which divides the basins of the Si Lawrence and of the interior they form elevated table-lands. Here the Mississippi from those of the streams that flow to the mountains (which may be considered as the com- Hudson's Bay and the Arctic Ocean. On the east side mencement of the great Rocky chain) attain a culmi- this region is rich and well-wooded; in the middle it nating point in Guatemala of 14,900, and in the Mexi- is bare prairie ground, but not unfertile; towards the can volcano of Popocatepetl of 17,735 feet; while the west it is dry, sandy, and almost a desert. The Rocky table-land of Mexico is from 4000 to 8000 feet in Mountains, the greatest and most continuous of the No. 69,
North American chains, rise from 8000 to 10,000, and that with no great degree of accuracy. The most occasionally to 12,000, and only between lat. 52o and striking peninsulas are—Greenland, Nova Scotia, Flo53° north to 16,000 feet; while the Alleghanies reach rida, Guatemala or the Central States, and Yucatan their culminating point at 6476 feet, and sink down on the east and south; California and Aliaska on the in their branches to 3000 and 2000 feet. 5. The eastern west. The more prominent capes are-Farewell, the declivities of the Alleghany Mountains and the mari- southernmost point of Greenland; Capes Chidley and time region, extending to the shores of the Atlantic. Charles in Labrador; Race in Newfoundland; Sable and This is a region of natural forests, and of mixed, but Canso in Nova Scotia; Cod and Hatteras in the United rather poor soil. 6. The great northern plain beyond States; Sable, the extreme point of Florida; Catoche the 50th parallel, four-fifths of which are a bleak and in Yucatan; St Lucas in California; Cape Prince of desolate waste, overspread with innumerable lakes, and Wales, the guardian headland of Behring's Straits; and resembling Siberia (No. 67) in the physical character of Icy Cape and Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean. The its surface and the rigour of its climate.
only isthmus deserving of notice is that of Darien or The geology of the continent, with the exception of Panama, which connects North and South America, the United States, parts of Mexico, Canada, and Nova and which at one place opposite Mandingo Bay is little Scotia, has been but imperfectly examined; but so far more than eighteen miles. Various schemes have been as observation has gone, all the usual formations or recently proposed for the crossing of this narrow neck their equivalents have been detected. Granite, syenite, by canal, with a view to facilitate the communication porphyry, gneiss, and the other primitive rocks, are between the Atlantic and Pacific. From the surveys found in Mexico, in the Rocky Mountains, in the made, there seems to be no engineering difficulty which Alleghanies, and on the arctic shores. Overlying these, may not be surmounted; the only question is, at whose in Mexico, are transition and other older strata; the instance, and under what conditions, ought a work of Rocky Mountains are flanked by transition and second such universal utility be undertaken? ary rocks, up to the new red sandstone and saliferous marls; while, flanking the Alleghanies, and taking on in succession, are all the secondary rocks, up to the The chief gulfs are-Hudson's Bay on the north, a equivalents of the chalk and green-sand, though no large inland sea, 800 miles long by 600 broad, intertrue chalk has yet been detected. Deposits of the ter- rupted by shoals and islands, frozen for the greater tiary era are abundant in the United States, though part of the year, and girdled by sterile desert shores; not presenting the same mineral aspect as the lime- subordinate to the above are James's Bay, 250 miles stones, clays, and gypsums of the Paris Basin; and in long by 150 broad, and Chesterfield inlet, penetrating no country in the world are there more extensive dis- westward for 270 miles; Hudson's Strait, 500 miles in plays of post-tertiary and alluvial accumulations- length, and only about 80 miles at its narrowest part; attesting the recent rise of a great portion of the Ame- Baffin's Bay and Davis' Strait, celebrated for their rican continent above the waters of the ocean. No whale fisheries; Bellisle Strait, separating Newfound. active volcano, with the exception of Mount St Elias land from the mainland; the Bay of Fundy, between in the Russian territory, is found north of the Mexican Nova Scotia and the mainland, 180 miles long, and table-land; but evidences of recent extinction are said about 33 in breadth, of dangerous navigation, in conto be rife in the Rocky Mountains. Fossils, analogous sequence of fogs and the velocity of the tide, which and contemporaneous with those of the old world, have sometimes rises as high as 70 feet; Chesapeake Bay, a been discovered in the United States—from the curious valuable inlet 180 miles in length, with a breadth transition trilobite, down through the coal Flora and varying from 25 to 7; the large land-locked Gulf of the footsteps in the new red sandstone, to the lately- Mexico, noted for its low alluvial shores, the high existing mastodon and megatherium. (See GEOLOGY.) temperature of its waters, and its currents (Gulf
The economic minerals are numerous and valuable Stream), which passes with great velocity through the -namely, granite and building stones of every kind; narrow Strait of Florida; the Caribbean Sea, bounded marble in the United States ; gypsum in the United on the east by the West Indian Islands, through which States and Nova Scotia ; limestone almost in every it communicates with the Atlantic by numerous paspart; salt springs plentifully in the United States, sages; on the west, the Gulf of California, penetrating California, and Mexico; coal, both anthracite and bitu- inland for 700 miles, with a breadth varying from 40 minous, in inexhaustible fields in the United States to 150 miles, celebrated for its pearls; and the Strait and Nova Scotia; petroleum, asphalte; springs of car- of St Juan de Fuca, now forming a neutral boundary buretted hydrogen, which serve for light; and other between the United States and British America. minor minerals. The chief metals are-gold in Mexico, The fresh-water lakes of North America are the California, and the Carolinas; silver in the Central | largest, and in many respects the most valuable, in the States; iron in the United States, Canada, Mexico, &c.; world. The whole region between 42° and 67° north copper in the United States, Canada, and the far north; is so completely covered with them, that geographers lead abundantly in the Western States and Upper have styled it, by way of eminence, the Region of Canada; and tin and mercury in Mexico.
Lakes. We can only mention a few of the more imThe islands, peninsulas, promontories, and other portant :-1. Superior, 420 miles long by 168 broad, features which give diversity to the sea-coast, appear covering an area of 35,000 square miles; its surface is to be most numerous in the north-the region of least 625 feet above that of the ocean, but its depth is upimportance, and with which we are the least acquainted. wards of 1000 feet. It has, like all the others, no tidal Passing, therefore, the islands in that quarter, the prin- ebb or flow, is studded by few islands, and, from the cipal on the east are-)
-Newfoundland, a large low island, unsheltered nature of its shores, affords no great facility indifferently wooded, defaced by lakes and marshes, for shipping. It discharges its surplus waters by the but celebrated for its adjacent cod-fisheries, 350 miles river St Mary, which, after a course of 30 miles, and long, with an average breadth of 130; Anticosti, in the a descent of 32 feet, falls into—2. Lake Huron, hav. Gulf of St Lawrence, sterile, and all but uninhabited; ing a length of 280 miles, and a breadth of 250; area Prince Edward's Island, somewhat hilly, well wooded, 20,000 square miles, and medium depth 960 feet. It and in part cultivated, about 140 miles long, with an has several large islands, among which are the Maniaverage breadth of 34; Cape Breton, a large irregularly toulin chain, which almost separates that portion known shaped island, with an area of 4000 square miles or as Lake Iroquois or Georgia Bay from the main body thereby, wooded, abounding in excellent coal and valu- of the lake. 3. Michigan, on the same level with Huron, able fisheries, but with an indifferent moist and foggy with which it is connected by the Mackinaw Strait, climate. On the west or Pacific seaboard are—the little more than four miles across. This sheet is 300 now important island of Vancouver, Queen Charlotte's miles long, and about 60 broad; area 16,000 square and George 111.’s Archipelago, and other sterile rocky miles, and depth 900 feet. The shores are low and islets, of which we know little beyond the position, open, and consequently afford no good natural har.