Persons skilled in the gathering and preparation of the bright stream which sweeps by them, guiltless of their leaves have been introduced from China ; and there impiety and unconscious of their homage - afford a seems little reason to doubt that Assam is capable of scene such as no European and few Asiatic cities can producing tea to any extent, if sufficient capital and at all parallel in interest and singularity.' enterprise were exerted in the undertaking.

In recent times considerable improvements have

been made in and about Calcutta, jungles being cleared CHIEF CITIES.

away, streets drained, and stagnant water renoved. Calcutta, the British capital of India, is situated about Though the situation of Calcutta has not been well 100 miles from the sea, on the east bank of the Hoogly, chosen, it is excellently adapted for commerce. At a branch of the Ganges, in latitude 22° 23' north, longi. high water the river is here a full mile in breadth. tude 88° 28' east. The length of the town is about 6 The advantages possessed for inland navigation are miles along the bank of the river. When seen from considerable; foreign imports may be transported with the south, on which side it is built round two sides of great facility, on the Ganges and its tributaries, to the a great open plain, with the Ganges on the west, it pre- north-western quarters of Hindoostan, while the valuable sents the view of a very noble city, with tall and stately productions of the interior are received by the same houses ornamented with Grecian pillars and spacious channels. There is at all times a vast quantity of merverandas. The esplanade between the town and Fort- chandise deposited at Calcutta, and the trade carried William leaves a grand opening, along the border of on is now very extensive. Besides a government bank, which is placed the new and splendid government-house, there were lately two private banks, which circulate erected by the Marquis Wellesley. Fort - William, to a considerable amount. There are several daily, which was commenced by Lord Clive, is the largest and twice-a-week, and weekly newspapers; and recently a strongest fortress in India, but is considered too exten- quarterly review. The religious, and charitable, and sive to be easily defended: its garrison usually consists educational institutions are numerous, and of great of two European regiments, with artillery, besides a service. Society in Calcutta is gay and splendid; and supply of native troops. The public buildings of Cal- the British inhabitants among their own class are cutta, besides the government house, are a town-hall, described as hospitable, though jealous of etiquette, a court of justice, two churches of the established reli- and of an overbearing disposition. There are no gion, and one for the Scotch Presbyterian worship, hotels, or inns, or lodging-houses of any description which is a very handsome edifice. There are also seve- - a want which appears perfectly amazing- and all ral chapels for other religious bodies, mosques, and strangers, male or female, must be provided with intropagodas—the latter generally decayed and ruinous, the ductions to the houses of residents.

The expenses religion of the people being chiefly conspicuous in their of living are very considerable; and as there are worship of the Ganges. Behind the elegant front lines now no more opportunities of acquiring wealth by the of houses is ranged the native town, deep, black, and spoliation of native principalities, fortunes are much dingy, with various crooked streets, huts of earth baked seldomer realised than formerly. There being also now in the sun, or of twisted bamboos, interspersed here fewer deaths, there are fewer chances of promotion. and there with ruinous brick bazaars, pools of dirty The population of Calcutta is composed of about water, cocoa-trees, and little gardens, with some fine 14,000 Christians, 48,000 Mohammedang, and 120,000 large dirty houses, the residences of wealthy natives. Hindoos; but this is the amount only within the city 'Fill up this outline,' says Bishop Heber, in his valu- proper. If the environs or suburbs be included, the able Correspondence, 'with a crowd of people in the population will amount to perhaps 500,000; and so street, beyond anything to be seen even in London, densely peopled is the surrounding district, that within some dressed in tawdry silks and brocades, more in the circuit of twenty miles there is a population of white cotton garments, and most of all black and naked, nearly two and a half millions. In 1841 the exports except a scanty covering round the waist, besides figures of Calcutta amounted to £5,867,767, and the imports of religious mendicants with no clothing but their long to £8,369,329. hair and beards in elf-locks, their faces painted white Madras, the seat of government of Southern India, of yellow, their beads in one ghastly lean hand, and the is situated in the Carnatic, on the shore of the Bay of other stretched out like a bird's claw to receive dona- Bengal, in latitude 13° 5' north, longitude 80° 21' east. tions; marriage processions, with the bride in a covered the shore is here low, and dangerous to approach by chair, and the bridegrooin on horseback, so swathed vessels. On the beach stands Fort St George, a place of round with garlands as hardly to be seen; tradesmen considerable strength, and which may be easily defended sitting on the ground in the midst of their different by a small garrison. A noble range of public edifices, commodities, and old men, lookers on, perched naked including a customhouse and courthouse, also adorn as monkeys on the flat roofs of the houses; carts drawn what is called the north beach. Madras differs in apby oxen, and driven by wild-looking men with thick pearance from Calcutta. It has properly no European sticks, só unmercifully used as to undeceive perfectly town, the settlers residing in their houses in the midst of all our notions of Brahminical humanity; attendants gardens, and transacting business in the district approwith silver maces pressing through the crowd before priated to the residence of the natives. The principal the carriage of some great man or other; no women church in Madras, St George's, is a beautiful edifice. seen except of the lowest class, and even these with There are many excellent charities here; and the school heary silver ornaments on their dusky arms and ankles; for male and female orphans, into which the philanthrowhile coaches, covered up close with red cloth, are seen pic Dr Bell introduced the Lancastrian system of educonveying the inmates of the neighbouring seraglios to cation, is superior to anything of the kind in Calcutta. take what is called “the air;" a constant creaking of The society of Madras is more limited than that of Calcart wheels, which are never greased in India; a con- cutta, but the style of living is similar. The roads in the stant clamour of voices, and an almost constant thump- vicinity are excellent, and afford most agreeable drives ing and jingling of drums, cymbals, &c. in honour of to the European residents. According to Heber, the their deities; and add to all this a villanous smell of native Christians are numerous and increasing, but are garlic, rancid cocoa-nut oil, sour butter, and stagnant unfortunately a good deal divided about castes.' The ditches, and you will understand the sounds, sights, and Armenians are here numerous, and some of them smells of what is called the Black Town" of Calcutta. wealthy. A Scotch Presbyterian church has been some The singularity of this spectacle is best and least offen- time erected. The population of Madras and its sively enjoyed on a noble quay which Lord Hastings suburbs has been stated at upwards of 400,000. In built along the shore of the river, where the vessels of 1841 the exports of Madras amounted to £1,780,000, all forms and sizes, Arab, Indian, Malay, American, and the imports to £3,000,000. English-the crowds of Brahmins and other Hindoos Bombay, the seat of government for the western washing and saying their prayers—the lighted tapers, parts of India, is a small rocky island, lying on the west which, towards sunset, they throw in, and the broad coast of Hindoostan, in latitude 18° 56'north longitude

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72° 57' east. Bombay was originally some hilly rocky | the people are consequently at the lowest ebb in regard islets, but these, by the influence of the high tides, have to domestic accommodations or mental acquirements. been joined to each other; and now the island is com- Simple as the bulk of the population is, there are not posed principally of two unequal ranges of whinstone wanting scattered tribes and families dexterous both in rocks, extending from 5 to 8 miles in length, and at cunning and crime. In the accounts of all travellers, it the distance of about 3 miles from each other. All is mentioned that there is no possibility of travelling the ground that can be cultivated is now laid out in in almost any part of the interior in safety without & agriculture, and the remainder is either barren or guard and retinue of servants. The roads, if they can covered with the residences of Europeans and natives. be called such, are hardly-discernible tracks, quite unThese residences are on wet, low, and unhealthy grounds, fitted for wheel-carriages, and travellers must therefore ever below high-water mark; and from this and other ride on horseback, or on the backs of elephants, or be circumstances, Bombay is described as being the most carried in palanquins-a species of litter supported on insalubrious of the presidencies. The fort of Bombay men's shoulders. There being also no inns in India, is situated at the south-eastern extremity of the island, each traveller is obliged to carry tents and provisions on a narrow neck of land. The chief advantage of for daily use. In the states of Bhopaul, Oude, Gwalior, Bombay is its deep tide-water, which permits the most and the Company's possessions in the Doab, as well extensive system of maritime trade: excellent docks as in some other quarters, there exist hordes of wretches are erected for the accommodation of the shipping. called Thugs, who infest the roads, and carry on a Bombay is the seat of very extensive trade with the methodic system of murder, for the sake of plunder. Persian Gulf on the north, as well as with the south of They kill by strangling their unhappy victims. The India. Cotton is the principal article of export. The Thugs form a peculiar race, and practise their murders, population is stated at about 180,000, composed of as is alleged, from a religious principle; at all events Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, Hindoos, and Par- they attach no idea of criminality to the offence. They

In 1841 the exports of Bombay amounted to have practised the trade for centuries, and are with difti. 25,160,769, and the imports to £5,577,315.

culty restrained within bounds by the European forces.

Independently of the efforts of the Bishop of India

and the religious establishment with which he is conThe preceding brief sketches can convey but a feeble nected, the Church of Scotland and other bodies of idea of the immense extent and varied character of the Christians have for some years been putting forth their Indian empire, as well as of its vast capabilities and exertions to attempt the conversion of the native pagan importance as a possession of Britain. In India, the races, and consequently to elevate their condition. But European traveller is everywhere charmed with the on the whole, very little success has crowned their well. wild grandeur of the scenery and the luxuriance of the meant labours; the loss of caste, which inevitably fol. soil; and he is equally surprised at the density of the lows the abandonment of the Hindoo faith, may be stated population, and the traces of superstitious observance, as a barrier to conversion which no power of persuawhich meet his eye. The people for the most part live sion can remove; in short, it has been proved beyond in an exceedingly simple manner. Much of their food the possibility of doubt, that to Christianise India the requires no cooking; plantains, cocoa-nuts, pumpkins, people must in the first place be instructed in secular and other fruits, being more palatable raw than dressed. knowledge. Aware of this fact, attention is beginning The chief cooked article is rice. Houses are made of to be directed to the education of the young. Fortubamboo or cajann stakes, without splitting, planing, nately, the general population throughout Bengal and or dressing of any kind; they are then woven together Bahar, where investigations have been made, are zeal. with small twigs equally unprepared; the whole is ously anxious for instruction in useful knowledge, as plastered over with mud from the nearest clay-hole, well as to learn the English language. and then thatched with cocoa-nut leaves fresh from the Until within the last few years, the intercourse with tree. Oars for their boats are only bamboos, with a India was carried on by means of vessels belonging to round board tied to the end; the masts are two or the East India Company or private traders, which made three of the same bamboos lashed together with strings. the passage in about five months by the Atlantic and Drinking cups are made of a large nutshell, with one Cape of Good Hope. This most tedious route is still end rubbed off on a stone; a most palatable and whole- pursued by trading vessels; but the more expeditious some drink is found in the juice of the cocoa-nut palm, route by the Mediterranean, Egypt, and Red Sea, to which is received into an earthen jar as it drops from Bombay, is adopted for mail conveyance and passengers the point of a broken branch; and its only preparation who desire a quick transit. The line pursued is across is straining through a kind of natural sieve, which is France to Marseilles; thence by steamboat, touching at found at the roots of every leaf on the tree. The com- Leghorn and Naples, to Malta; and by another steamer inon people wear little or no clothing; and when it from Malta to Alexandria; or from Southampton direct rains, their only umbrella is formed of a number by steamer to Alexandria ; from Alexandria by canal of palm-tree leaves sewed together by the edges into to the Nile, and onwards by boat to Cairo; thence by a shape resembling a cradle cut across, which covers land to Suez; down the Red Sea from Suez to Bombay, their head and back. All processes of manufacture touching at Mocha-total length of time from London and handicraft are on the rudest possible scale, and to Bombay from thirty-five to forty days ! carried on without what we term capital. The people The circulating medium of India consists of gold and only scratch the ground instead of ploughing it; they silver coins, paper-money, and cowries. The most comnever apply any manure; their corn is thrashed by mon silver currency is the new coinage of Calcutta. setting bullocks to tread upon it; the sinith's anvil Potdars, or money-changers, are a coinmon class in is the nearest stone, his bellows a rough goat-skin; a every town, and sit generally in the open air with heaps shoeinaker tans the raw hide one day, and makes shoes of cowries placed before them. Cowries are small of it the next, sitting the whole time at the door of his shells, which, not being depreciable by imitation, form customer; the weaver's apparatus needs but the shadow a good medium for buying and selling among the lower of a tree for shelter, and it can be removed at an hour's classes. Their value varies in different places. The notice to any other tree which is more convenient. following is their value in Calcutta :-- 4 cowries 1 Even their distillery needs only an earthen kettle, some gunda; 20 gundas 1 pon; 32 pons 1 current rupee, or cold water, and a few bamboo reeds for a worm; and 2s. sterling (2560 cowries); 10 current rupees £l sterwith these they produce liquors as intoxicating and ling. The sicca rupee is 16 per cent. less in value than pernicious as any manufactured by the science of the current rupee, which is an imaginary coin. The Europe. This absence of skill in all the processes of Bombay rupee is valued at 2s. 3d.; a pagoda is 8s. industry, renders the labour of the working-man of The British government now supplies a commodious very slight value: hence he never receives more than coinage, the more common silver coin being the rupee, what is barely necessary for subsistence; and the mass of l which nearly resembles our half-crown,



This is one of the great divisions of the globe—the | irregular triangular form, with the vertex towards the second in point of size, but by far the least important south, having the Mediterranean on the north, the as regards the civilisation and progress of the human Isthmus of Suez, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean on the species. It is situated in the eastern hemisphere, to east, and the Atlantic on the west. It is thus almost the south of Europe, and the south-west of Asia, and entirely insular, the connecting isthmus being only 72 lies between latitude 37° north, and 34° 50' south, and miles across, of no great elevation above the sea-level, longitude 17° 30' west, and 51° 30' east. It is of an and even in part occupied by salt-lakes and marshes.

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The bounding coast-line is marked by few indentations 1st, That the triangular region south of the Kong, of projections; the most important gulf being that of Cameroon, and Donga ranges, is a high dry table-land, Guinea on the west; and Capes Bon, Verde, Good Hope, hemmed in by mountains on all sides, and descending and Guardafui, the extreme points respectively on the by steps to the sea-shore, which is in most parts rocky, north, west, south, and east. The greatest length of the and but partially fringed by narrow belts of sand. The continent, from north to south, is about 4985 miles; great- bounding chains on the north rise, in the Cameroons, est breadth, from east to west, 4615; and area, including to a height of 13,000 feet, and probably much higher the islands, not less than 11,854,000 square miles. in the Dongas. Nothing is known of the Lupatas, or

* Backbone of the World,' on the east, save that they

skirt, almost unbroken, the entire sea-coast; the hills Respecting the physical aspect and construction of of Cape Colony rise, from Table Mount, 3582 feet, to Africa, our information is extremely limited; all that the Snieuveldt, 7400, and thence to the Nieuveldt, is known, with any degree of accuracy, being parts of 10,000 feet, the intervening spaces being shrubby kloofs, Morocco and Algiers in the north, certain points in the or valleys, and broad grassy terraces, or karoos. Cape seaboard of Senegambia, Upper and Lower Guinea, Colony is, on the whole, an undulating country, enjoyCape Colony, the hill country of Abyssinia, the valley ing a fine climate, by no means well-watered, and often of the Nile, and certain tracks or lines across the Sa- subjected to destructive droughts. (See p. 278). Of the hara, or Great Desert. All description beyond these is west coast, we learn that it is rather arid and sandy in mere conjecture, or the not very credible reports of the Namquas region ; but, according to Dr Tams, the natives and caravans. It would appear, however, coast of Lower Guinea is generally rocky, and wooded No. 68.


to the water's edge, unless at the river embouchures, and dently primary. Gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron there it is composed of swampy impenetrable jungle. seem to be plentiful, if we can regard the ornaments of

2d, North of the Kong and Donga mountains, on the natives as evidence; indeed we have recent testiwards to the frontiers of Morocco and Algiers, extend mony, from an accredited explorer of the Russian gothe great deserts of Sahara and Libya-constituting vernment, that in the interior of Guinea auriferous one vast plain, but little interrupted by undulations. sands are abundant, and apparently richer in produce This region presents three distinct series of aspects— than the deposits of Siberia. Natron has been long namely, tracts of loose drifting sand, unrelieved by a known to the inhabitants of the deserts, and salt, appasingle shrub; districts covered less or more with gravel rently collected from salt-lakes, forms an important and shingle, and bearing dry prickly shrubs, and a article of commerce in the interior. scanty herbage; and oases of light pulverulent soil, The islands connected with Africa are, with one ex. watered by springs, and studded with clumps of ception, small, and generally far removed from the mainpalms, dates, pomegranates, and other tropical trees. land. In the Indian Ocean are—Madagascar, separated

Instead of a torrid region,' says a writer in the Edin- from the continent by the channel of Mozambique, burgh Review, 'where boundless steppes of burning having an area of 230,000 square miles, or more than sand are abandoned to the roving horsemen of the that of France, rich in mineral and vegetable produce, Desert, and to beasts of prey, and where the last ves- and with a population of 4,500,000; the important tiges of Moorish civilisation expire long before the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius, each having an area traveller arrives at Negroland and the savage commu- between 800 and 900 square miles, with populations nities of the interior, the Sahara is now ascertained to respectively 92,000 and 106,000, and fertile in every consist of a vast archipelago of oases; each of them species of tropical produce; the minor groups of Comoro, peopled by a tribe of the Moorish race or its offsets, Amerante, and Seychelles, north of Madagascar; and more civilised, and more capable of receiving the lessons Socotra off Cape Guardafui, with an area of 1000 square of civilisation, than the houseless Arabs of the Tell miles, and a population of about 4400. In the Atlantic [the mountainous tract lying between the Great Desert are--the volcanic group of Tristan da Cunha, occupied and the sea]-cultivating the date-tree with applica- | by a few British squatters; Ichaboe and other islets, tion and ingenuity, inhabiting walled towns, living along the south-west coast, recently ransacked for under a regular government, for the most part of a guano; the rocky islet of St Helena, 28 miles in cir. popular origin--carrying to some perfection certain cumference, and from 600 to 1200 feet high; the equally branches of native manufactures, and keeping up an solitary volcanic rock of Ascension, recently garrisoned extensive system of commercial intercourse with the as a station for the slave cruisers; the densely-wooded northern and central parts of the African continent, isles of Annobon, St Thomas, and Fernando Po, in the and from Mogador to Mecca, by the enterprise and Gulf of Guinea—the last rising in Clarence Peak to an activity of their caravans.'

altitude of 10,600 feet; the Cape Verdes, a rugged 3d, The mountainous district of the Tell, lying be- group of volcanic origin, rising in the still smouldering tween the Desert and the Mediterranean—a region crater of Fogo to 7840 feet; the Canaries, consisting of wholly composed of the Atlas chain, and its subordi- seven principal islands, with an area of 136,000 square nate ridges. Where the hills fall towards the Atlantic miles, and a population of 240,000, also of igneous in Morocco, the country becomes somewhat flat; but, origin, and rising in Teneriffe to an altitude of 12,182 eastward, it is hilly, and diversified only by narrow feet; Madeira, 46 miles by 7, with a population of valleys and ravines. On the Mediterranean side of the 113,000, composed of volcanic traps, which attain an elevation, the climate, produce, and aspect are some- elevation of 4400 feet, and celebrated for its delightful what similar to those of Southern Europe ; but the climate and wines; and lastly, the Azores, a numerous other side is hot and arid, and insensibly passes into cluster, likewise of igneous birth, and rising in the the Sahara. Mount Atlas attains an elevation of Peak of Pico to 7000 feet, rich in tropical fruits and 11,400 feet, but some peaks in the chain rise much wines, with a population of 250,000. higher, and, according to recent accounts, seem to be Respecting the hydrographical features of the contipermanently covered with snow-a fact which would nent, little is known beyond the Nile and Niger; the seem to indicate an altitude above 15,000 feet.

existence of lakes Tchad and Dibbie in Soudan, Dembea 4th, The region skirting the Red Sea, which com- in Abyssinia, and the salt-lakes of Tunis. All that can prises the hilly and not unfertile countries of the Galles be said of the rivers Zaire, Congo, Zambeze, Gaboon, and Abyssinians; Nubia, which, with the exception of &c. or of the lake Maravi, and so forth, is little better the valley of the Nile, here comparatively narrow, is than conjecture. The Nile is valuable principally as the also hilly, and somewhat dry and arid; and Egypt, fertiliser of Egypt, as described in a subsequent section which consists of the alluvial valley and delta of the of the present sheet. By means of a recently-cut canal, Nile, fenced on the west by low hills and desert, and it is open to flat-bottomed boats from the sea at Alexon the east partly by the hills which skirt the Red andria to Cairo, and from this to the cataracts by the Sea, and partly by the sandy desert which forms the rude shallops of the country. The Niger discharges Isthmus of Suez, and stretches onward into Arabia. itself, by upwards of twenty mouths, through a low

accumulating delta, which greatly impairs its utility as

a means of communication with the interior; neverRespecting the lithology of Africa we know little, and theless, during the late unfortunate expedition, the that little only from observations made cursorily and at Albert steamer ascended with little difficulty to Egga distant intervals. We know that the deltas of the -a distance of 350 miles from the sea. Nile and Niger are formations recent and still in progress; and that the deserts of Sahara, Libya, and Egypt consist of sands, gravel, silicified woods, and other The climate, as might be expected from the position petrifactions, which indicate a sea-bottom, upheaved of the continent, is wholly that of the torrid zone, with at no very distant date. Granite, syenite, and por. the exception of a belt on the north and the extreme phyry abound in Abyssinia and Upper Egypt, and in southern projection. It may even be said that the Lower Egypt the nummulite limestone is the prevailing influence of this tropical climate is felt over a great formation. Rocks of volcanic origin are abundant on part of those countries which their northern situation the Red Sea, which seems still to be the seat of igneous should exempt from it; for it is really only that strip forces. The Atlas range are chiefly granitic and pri- of Barbary which the Atlas protects from the hot winds mary; and sandstones of transition date were observed of the Desert, and that part of Hottentot-land protected on the banks of the Niger during the model-farm ex- by the Nieuveldt, and other mountains near the Cape, pedition of 1841. In Cape Colony sandstones prevail, that enjoy the advantages of countries situate within which seem to be transition or older secondary; and the temperate zones. With the exception, therefore, of some specimens now before us, from Caffraria, are evi- | these small and narrow tracts, of those regions in the




interior to which their elevation imparts the coolness that of semi-civilisation, while all the other native of higher latitudes, and the borders of the great lakes tribes are little in advance of the lowest barbarism. and rivers, every part of Africa is burnt up by conti- The arts are exercised only on the northern coasts, nual heat, and the continent generally may be regarded where the Moors manufacture silk, cotton, leather, and as the warmest region of the globe. Nothing mode- linen. An active commerce is carried on by them rates the heat and the dryness but the annual rains, the with the maritime nations of Europe; and by means sea winds, and the elevation of the soil; while in the of caravans, a traffic, fully as important, with the inwell-watered regions, the moisture, combined with the terior, to which they convey their own products and heat, though productive of the most luxuriant vegeta- those of Europe. The wants of the savage races are tion, are extremely deleterious to man.'

exceedingly simple, and most of the articles used by The vegetation of Africa, without raising any ques- them are prepared by themselves. Commerce, howtion as to what may have been introduced from other ever, with Europeans has taught them new wants, continents, is decidedly less varied, and more unique, and increased their list of necessaries ; among which than that of Europe or Asia. Along the Mediterranean may now be reckoned firearms, powder, brandy, tobacco, seaboard it greatly resembles that of Southern Europe; different kinds of cloth, glass-beads, coral, &c.; for and wheat, barley, maize, rice, the grape, orange, fig, which they barter slaves, ivory, gold, gums, palm-oil, olive, and date, thrive to perfection. In Upper Egypt, dates, and other raw produce. Nubia, and Abyssinia, the characteristic plants are gum-yielding acacias, the cassia or senna-shrub, coffee, ginger, turmeric, cardamoms, the lotus or jujub, and the The foreign powers having possessions in Africa are nelumbium or water-lily. Cape Colony is distinguished --Britain, occupying Cape Colony, which was taken for its heaths, proteas, pelargoniums, mesenbryanthe- from the Dutch in 1806; the Mauritius, with the minor mums, stapelias, crassulas, euphorbias, aloes, cactuses, islet-groups of Amerante and Seychelles, taken from thorn-apple, mimosa, and other prickly shrubs; and the French in 1810; the islets of St Helena and Ascenyields also luxuriantly such plants as have been intro- sion; Fernando Po, all but abandoned; and the settleduced by the colonists-namely, vines, currant-grape, ments of Sierra Leone and Cape Coast: France, possessoranges, peaches, apricots, pears, apples, and other ing the island of Bourbon, the settlement of Senegambia, garden fruits kuown in the warmer parts of Europe, and, since 1830, the somewhat dubious and expensive with tobacco, pine-apples, and tea, attempted by the colony of Algeria :* Portugal, occupying some settleDutch. In the other known parts of the continent, the ments on the Mozambique coast, the coast of Lower vegetation is strictly tropical, and often peculiar. Here Guinea, and the west coast, the Cape Verde Islands, flourish palms and dates, the banyan, gigantic adansonia, Madeira, and the Azores : Spain, to whom belongs the the dragon-tree, banana, papaw, tamarind, anona, sugar- Canaries, and the forts or districts of Ceuta and Mecane, cotton-tree, cassava, tallow-tree, maize, manioc, lilah, near the Straits of Gibraltar: the Imaum of Musyam, ground-nut, melon, pine-apple, and other forms cat, who claims Socotra, and some portions of Zanzibar: native to warm regions, while in the islands are cultivated and Turkey, who holds merely a nominal superiority chiefly the vine, orange, melon, coffee, and sugar-cane. over Tripoli, Tunis, and Egypt.

The Fauna, as might be expected from the insulated Respecting the native states and governments, we nature of the continent, is in many instances peculiar; know little or nothing; and what little is known is of several of its forms being found in no other region. no civilised interest. In fact, with the exception of Among the more characteristic may be mentioned nu- Egypt, which lays claim to high historical interest (see merous apes and monkeys; the lion, panther, leopard, HISTORY OF ANCIENT Nations), as well as to some reand other felinæ; the hyena, jackal, racoon, &c.; nume- cent progressive movement under Mehemet Ali, and rous species of antelopes and gazelles in the south; the our own colony at Cape Good Hope, there is no region buffalo, camel, dromedary, and giraffe ; the horse, within the limits of the continent to which we need zebra, quagga; the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, direct particular attention. To these two countries, and masked-boar; seals, dolphins, and other cetacea. however-the former as now forming the overland key Of birds - eagles, griffons, vultures, and numerous to our Indian territories, and the latter as an emigrabirds of prey; the ostrich, bustard, and guinea-fowl; tion field of some importance—we may appropriately the parrot family in great abundance; the flamingo, devote a few pages of description. pelican, secretary-bird, and crane; the cuckoo, swallow, nightingale, and quail, which are only summer visi.

EGYPT tants in Europe. Of reptiles -crocodiles, alligators, monitors, &c.; serpents in great variety, many of which In point of local situation Egypt possesses various are poisonous ; lizards and chameleons ; and various advantages. It lies in the north-east corner of Africa, species of turtle. Pish are abundant in all the rivers in a salubrious part of that vast continent, presenting and seas, and present forms unknown to Europe; crus- its northern base to the Mediterranean Sea, and bounded tacea and shellfish are equally abundant. Africa pos- on the east by the Red Sea, which separates it from sesses no useful insects, but has instead the locust, Asia. Through the whole land from north to south, a scorpion, termite, and scarabæus of ancient Egypt. length of 900 miles, flows the Nile, a fine large stream

rising in the inland kingdom of Abyssinia, and, from

certain periodic floods, of great use in irrigating and The inhabitants, vaguely estimated at 100,000,000, fertilising the country. A large portion of Egypt conbelong wholly to the Ethiopic and Caucasian varieties sists of an alluvial plain, similar to our fertile meadow of our species: the former including all the dark- grounds, formed by the deposits of the river, and bounded coloured native tribes, by whatever name they are by ranges of mountains on either side. The greatest called, from the Sahara and Abyssinia on the north to breadth of the land is 150 miles, but generally it is the southernmost extremity; the latter, the Egyptians much less, the mountain-ranges on either side often or Copts, the Abyssinians, Arabs, Berbers, Moors, and being not more than five to ten miles from the river. other families arising from admixture of these. The re- Anciently this territory was divided into three prin. ligion of the negroes is Feticism, or the worship of natu- cipal parts-Upper Egypt, which was in the inner or ral objects, animate or inanimate; the Arabs, Moors, &c.

*' The conquest of Algiers,' says Russel, in his account of the are Mohammedans; the Copts and Abyssinians observe Barbary States, 'has relieved the Mediterrancan from tho dread a corrupted form of Christianity; and the European of piracy, though it will be long before any other advantage can settlers are Roman Catholic or Protestant, according be derived from this achievement by France. The climate is to the mother-country from which they come.

indeed good, and the soil rich ; but the inhabitants of the adjaCivilisation is only to be met with in the settlements cent country are regardless of treaties, strangers to the enjoy. of the Europeans; the condition of the Moors, Arabs, ment of social life, addicted to plunder, and accustomed to conand Egyptians, is scarcely entitled to rank higher than sider war as their hereditary profession.'



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