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EAST INDIES.

India, Hindoostan, or the East Indies, as it is called, | southward to the Indian Ocean. It is nearly compreto distinguish it from the West India Islands, is, as may hended between the latitudes of 8o and 35° north ; its be seen by the accompanying maps, an extensive triangu- extreme length from north to south is about 1900 miles, lar-shaped territory, pointing with its narrow extremity and from east to west about 1500; its superficial area

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measures 1,260,000 miles. The northern boundary of India ; that on the east is called the Burhampooter or this extensive region is formed by the Himalaya Moun- Brahmapoutra, and that on the west the Indus-a river tains, so called from an Indian word signifying snow, from whose name the whole country has derived its their peaks, at an elevation of 16,000 feet or thereby, present designation. Each of these streams, with its being perpetually clothed with ice and snows. From tributaries, water an inmense tract of fertile country, the extremities of this mountain-chain flow two large and afford excellent means of internal trade to the rivers, which form on either side the boundary of people situated ou the banks. From the mouths of these rivers the coast stretches both ways to the south- the large territories of Ava and the Burmese empire, ward, the eastern and western side inclining to the same lying east from the Brahmapoutra, are now attached to point, so as to meet at Cape Comorin. Beyond this, India, besides other conterminous regions. the adjacent island of Ceylon extends a little farther, It is customary to speak of the preceding provinoss and reaches to within about 6° of the equator.

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and states as British, Tributary, or Protected and Inde. This extensive country presents, as already stated, pendent, but such a distinction is upon the whole a great variety of surface, being diversified in some rather nominal than real. British influence now perplaces with wide sandy deserts; in others with fine vades the whole region, from the Himalayas to Cape undulating hill countries, well watered and fertile; a Comorin on the one hand, and from the Indus to the third portion consists of fat high-lying regions, called Ganges on the other; and as for any individual a table-lands, which, from their height above the sea, are separate power which the Protected States can exercise, cool and temperate ; and a fourth division consists of they might as well be termed British, while the really immense fertile plains, watered by the large rivers of Independent territories, as Scindia, Nepaul, and the the country, and their numerous tributaries. A con- Punjaub, are gradually being reduced under British siderable portion of the low-lying country is of a marshy sway. How little of Hindoostan, territorially speaking, shrubby character, called jungle, and unfitted for cul- does not now acknowledge the supremacy of British tivation. Each of these divisions of India presents an power, may be seen at a glance by referring to any aspect peculiar to itself, and all of them are distin- coloured map of the country. guished by natural productions, both plants and ani

Modern History. mals. Besides the Indus on the west, and the Brahmapoutra on the east, there are other large and important What was the original political condition of the past rivers descending from the outskirts of the Himalaya territory now composing the British Indian empire

, it Mountains, or from ranges of hills called Ghauts, and would be needless to detail minutely. Like other par. descending to the sea both on the east and west coasts. tions of Asia, it was early inhabited by a primitive The principal of these streams is the Ganges, which, people, more or less barbarous, professing different with its tributaries, drains a large portion of the north- pagan religions, and speaking many more different east division of the country, and enters the sea in the languages. The principal religion, however, was His. province of Bengal, along with the conjoined waters of dooism, to which we shall afterwards allude; and it has the Brahmapoutra. The valley or plain of the Ganges, been said by some historians that the early Hindoo race and the valleys of its confluents, form the fairest and of inhabitants manifested many symptoms of civilisarichest portion of Hindoostan.

tion, and even a knowledge of some of the sciences

. However this may have been, the inhabitants generally Territorial Divisions.

were in some measure an industrious, but simple race, The modern territorial and political subdivisions of and little inclined to war. Reasoning from what has India, though of little practical moment, may thus be occurred in their history, as well as from the informa specified:- First, Northern HINDOOSTAN, an extensive tion communicated regarding them, they seem, from

the earliest times, to have had little or no care with and rugged territory, comprehending

regard to who ruled over them, provided they were 1. The country between the 4. Kemaoon.

insured in the possession of their ancient religious Sutluj and Jumna.

5. Painkhandi.
usages, and their system of living in small communities

, 2. Gurwal or Serinayur.

under a simple species of local government. They 3. Sources of the Ganges. 7. Dominions of Nepaul. were reckless of what sovereign was placed over them,

or to what dynasty they were transferred, so long as Second, HINDOOSTAN PROPER, which is the most compre- the internal economy of their village districts remained hensive division. It stretches across the centre of India, the same. This species of political apathy produced and obtains the most prominent place in the history of the results which might have been expected. From the the old Mohammedan empires of India. It reaches most remote period of which any record is preserved

, south to the Nerbudda, where the Deccan commences, the inhabitants of India, including those tribes which and includes the following provinces:

possessed more decided warlike propensities, or who 1. Bengal. 5. Agra.

9. Ajmeer.

had the spirit to resist aggression, were subjected to the 2. Bahar. 6. Delhi. 10. Moultan.

government of strangers, who seized upon their terri3. Allahabad.

11. Cutch and Guzerat. tories, and made them the objects of taxation. 8. Cashmere.

Of the remoter period of Indian history little is cor

rectly known; all that may be said of it is, that both Third, THE DECCAN. — This division lies next, in a the Greeks and Romans were supplied with some of southerly direction, to the above, extending from the their articles of luxury from Hindoostan, and that for Nerbudda river on the north, which flows into the sea many centuries this Eastern clime was supposed, by the on the west coast, to the Kistna, a river flowing into ill-informed inhabitants of distant parts of Asia and the sea or Bay of Bengal on the east coast. Between Europe, to be the richest and most sumptuous country these rivers lies the Deccan, a much less fertile division on the globe. The tales related of Indian grandeur of India than the preceding; Bombay, a small island appear to have in time excited the avarice and ambion the west coast, belongs to the province of Aurunga- tion of Mohammedan or Saracen chiefs. The first of bad in this division. The Deccan comprehends the this barbarous, though intrepid race who made a suc: following provinces, a portion of which formed the once cessful inroad upon India was Mahmoud, sultan of famous Mahratta empire :

Ghuznee, or Affghanistan, a kingdom on the north-west 1. Gundwana. 4. Candeish. 7. Hyderabad.

of India. Mahmoud commenced his successful expedi5. Berar.

8. Aurungabad. tions into India about the year 1000, and he continued 3. The Northern Circars. 6. Beeder. 9. Bejapore.

them till 1024, making the destruction of pagan idolatry

more the object of his visits than the acquisition of Fourth, India, South OF THE KISTNA.—This division wealth or power

. In this period of twenty-four years forms the extreme southerly portion of the Indian pe- he had subdued a considerable number of the native ninsula, and comprehends the provinces of

princes, and notwithstanding his professions, exacted

immense tributes in gold and every kind of valuable 1. Canara. 6. Mysore.

commodity. A successor of Mahmoud, named Moham7. Coimbatoor. 8. Salem, and the Barramahal. med, after carrying on war with the Indian princes for 9. The Carnatic, in which is Hindoostan with an exceedingly large force, and bore

some time, at length, about the year 1193, entered 5. Balaghaut, ceded districts. situated Madras.

down all opposition. The king of Delhi was slain in In addition to the foregoing divisions and provinces, battle, and having advanced to that ancient capital

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6. Bootan.

7. Lahore.

4. Oude.

12. Malwa.

2. Orissa.

2. Mala bar.
3. Cochin.
4. Travancore.

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Mohammed there left a viceroy to maintain his autho- became animated with a desire to open a commercial rity. In this manner a Mohammedan dominion was intercourse with India as early as the reign of Edward for the first time established in the heart of India, and VI.(1553); but their expeditions failed in reaching the in one of its greatest cities; and thus commenced the desired country, from their want of geographical knowAffghan or Patan sovereigns and their dynasty. ledge: and it was not till the shutting of Lisbon against

The dynasty so planted continued in existence for the Dutch, that they were so far excited as to persevere rather more than 300 years, when, in 1525 or 1526, it in their maritime attempts till they were successful. was subverted by Baber, who was considered one of They at length learned which was the true course to the most adventurous wa ors of his time, and who, steer for India; whereupon, in 1600, a company of like his prototype Mohammed, was of the Moslem merchants was formed in London to prosecute the faith. Baber was either descended from a Mogul or traffic with the East; being empowered to do so by a Tartar chief, or in some way, not clearly explained by charter from Queen Elizabeth, which was to last fifteen historians, connected with a race called Moguls, who years. The first expedition of these adventurers cost assisted him in his attempts upon India; and from £69,091, and consisted of five ships, the largest of causes of this nature, the empire which he founded in which was 600, and the smallest 130 tons burthen. The Hindoostan has ever since been called the Mogul em- articles which they took were principally bullion, iron, pire. From the year 1526, a series of Mohammedan tin, broadcloths, cutlery, and glass. This expedition emperors, whose seat of authority was at Delhi, ruled proved remarkably successful, and led immediately to the largest and finest portions of India. By them the a repetition of annual voyages of the same nature. country was in many places newly subdivided into This early trade was nevertheless considerably hamprovinces, and put under the government of tributary pered by the Portuguese; and it was found necessary kings or nabobs, who superseded the Hindoo rajahs or to try to secure the favour of the Mogul emperor. In petty princes. One of the greatest of these Mogul 1607, therefore, Captain William Hawkins was sent out emperons was Akbar, who flourished between the years by the Company, to endeavour, if possible, to open a 1556 and 1605. By his daring and judicious manage-commercial intercourse with the dominions of the ment the central provinces were preserved in complete Mogul. Hawkins, after surmounting great difficulties, tranquillity, and Guzerat, Bengal, and part of the Dec- placed in his way by the Portuguese, reached the court can, were added to his already extensive empire. of the Mogul emperor Jehangire, son of the famous

While the emperors of India were thus establishing Akbar, already mentioned. This visit was unfortu. their power, multifarious schemes were formed in nately of no avail, from the pernicious interference of Europe for getting possession of some of the wealth, if the Portuguese Jesuits; and another English mission, not some portions of the territory, of Hindoostan. The on a greater scale, and from the king, was sent forth commodities of Indian manufacture or produce were in 1615. This embassy, which was conducted by Sir hitherto imported into the European states only by Thomas Roe, proved more successful in securing the means of tedious overland journeys, or partly by the favour of the Mogul, but did not lead to any important Red Sea, and were endangered in their passage by the results. The affairs of the Company, nevertheless, attacks of ferocious Tartar and Turkish tribes. The continued prosperous, and factories were in many places discovery of a new and safe road to India thus became planted on the coasts of India. These factories were a matter of very great consequence. A route by sea warehouses for the reception of native produce, and the round the Cape of Good Hope was at last found by the storing of imported goods from England, and were no Portuguese, who, under the command of Vasco de doubt of considerable use in the objects of their estabGama, in 1498, landed in Hindoostan, on the coast of lishment. From the real or pretended dread of being Malabar, where they at once established themselves. attacked by marauders, the keepers, merchants, and The whole commerce of the East Indies was now in the servants at these places, at length began to strengthen hands of the Portuguese for nearly a century-and this the defences; and so, from being mere mercantile was the golden age of Portugal. Lisbon became the warehouses, the factories shortly partook of the decided great depôt of Indian spices and other commodities, character of armed garrisons. greatly to the envy of the Dutch and other nations. It does not appear that the native powers of India Portugal was united to Spain in 1580; the Spaniards | took any active measures to prevent this insidious prooppressed Holland, and caused it to revolt; this revolt cess of planting settlements. The natives were fond of was followed by the capture of the Dutch ships trading dealing with foreigners, and the princes were so eaten to Lisbon; and this capture compelled the Dutch to up with jealousy of each other, that the British always engage in a direct trade to India. The English soon contrived to gain the friendship of one by taking part followed their example. The political and spiritual against another, and in the end getting the advantage tyranny of the Portuguese in India, as well as the of both. Besides, it was not for some time that the abuses which they permitted in commerce, gradually British disclosed any intention of securing the jurisdicsubverted their power, and divested them of respect. tion of provinces, or a property in the soil. A watchThe Dutch and English, therefore, found everything in ful hypocrisy led them to yield on all occasions a that state of division which is favourable to the estab- reverence towards the political sway of the native lishment of a third party. The Dutch established an emperors, rajahs, and nabobs. The original East India East India Company in 1602, and a prosperous trade Company, with its charters at different times disputed was thereafter carried on. The Dutch adopted quite a and renewed, continued throughout the seventeenth different line of policy from that of the Portuguese in century to carry on a profitable traffic with the East. their transactions with India. They cared nothing Its factories were extended to Java, Sumatra, Borneo, about the religion of the Hindoos, and set up no inqui- the Banda Islands, Celebes, Malacca, Siam, the coasts sition to force Christianity on those they dealt with: of Malabar and Coromandel. In 1640, the native all they wanted was commercial intercourse, and their authorities gave permission for the building of Fort St excellent management soon secured them a large share George at Madras; and in 1645, a factory was estabof the Indian traffic. They possessed themselves of lished on the banks of the Hoogly, a branch of the Batavia, in the island of Java; in 1641 they acquired Ganges near its mouth, which formed the foundation Malacca, the capital of the Portuguese East Indies; of Calcutta. The island of Bombay was also procured they subsequently acquired the Cape of Good Hope for as a settlement in 1664-5, after a struggle with its a settlement; and these colonies were a great assistance Portuguese possessors. The affairs of the Company to the intercourse between Europe and India. The were not, however, in a prosperous state ; and soon Dutch subsequently acquired a number of other pos- after the Revolution of 1688, the question of the valisessions in the East; but most of these came afterwards dity of the old royal charter was started. The conseinto the possession of the British.

quence followed of the Company not being able to We now enter upon the history of the rise and pro- perform its obligations, on account of losses occasioned gress of the British power in India. The English | by wars, infidelity of officers, extravagance, &c.; and

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parliament in 1698 granted a charter to a new East | who had trusted them. In 1749, the robberies of the
India Company, on condition of a loan of £2,000,000 Company began with the protection of the pretender of
sterling to the state, and which was required to carry Tanjore, & fine province of the Carnatic. Under pre-
on King William's wars. But the great contentions tence of illegitimacy, the nabob of this district was
between the two Companies soon made it necessary to driven out for the purpose of obtaining some cessiors
unite them, and a union was effected in 1702, when an of territory, and then restored on making further con.
act of parliament was passed, establishing the conjoined cessions. The rapid progress of the Company in the
association under the title of the United Company of | art of extending their possessions, appears from their
Merchants trading to the East Indies. Stock was treaties with Surajee - Dowlah, the nabob of Bengal,
raised by the sale of shares, and the shareholders to a whom they contrived to depose in 1757, when large and
certain amount were entitled to elect directors. rich provinces were the reward of their faithless policy.

The progress of the Company's settlements in India The French, who, in a similar manner, had acquired
was on several occasions about this period caused by considerable territorial possessions in the Carnatic, now
the superior skill of the British in medicine. In 1715, came into collision with the British merchants, and a
an embassy being sent on a commercial commission to hot war was carried on in India between these con.
Delhi, it happened that a medical gentleman named tending Europeans. The indecency of this conflict, as
Hamilton, who accompanied the factors, had the good to which party should be the greatest robber, seems to
fortune to cure the Emperor Feroksere of a severe ill- have shamed both France and England, and commis-
ness, which could not be overcome by the ignorant sioners were mutually sent to India to reconcile the
native physicians. In gratitude for this important ser- differences which existed, as well as to check the ac.
vice-though, it is likely, some very valuable presents quisition of territory either by the English or French
from the Company had an equally liberalising effect--- | Companies. As a matter of course, this affectation of
the emperor graated liberty to the Company to pur- justice ended in nothing. After the commissioners had
chase in Bengal thirty-seven townships in addition to agreed that each should restore its acquired territories,
that of Calcutta; he also conferred upon them some and after a 'solemn' treaty to that effect had been ar-
important commercial privileges, which soon rendered ranged, hostilities commenced as before. It would be
Calcutta a flourishing settlement. The charter of the needless to recount the particulars of this struggle for
East India Company was from time to time renewed power; it will suffice to state that the French ultimately
during the eighteenth century, though (but not with were deprived by the British of their possessions.
out great difficulty) against a powerful opposition. But By the defeat of the French forces in 1761, the Bri.
loans to government carried them always through these tish were left at liberty to pursue their schemes on
embarrassments. In 1744 they advanced £1,000,000 India, being in no small degree favoured by the un-
at 3 per cent., in consideration of an extension of their happy political condition of the Mogul empire. This
privileges till 1780. Hitherto we have seen this como large empire came under the rule of Aurungzebe, a
pany of English merchants acting only for the arowed descendant of Akbar, in 1658, and his reign lasted till
object of commercial intercourse with India; we now his death in 1707. Under this celebrated Mohammedan
enter upon a new page in their history, and show the emperor, the empire of the Moguls came to the height
origin of their political power.

of its glory, and attained its largest extent. After
The East India Company assumed the qualifications Aurungzebe had added to it the kingdoms of the Deccan,
of a military and political power in the year 1748. But it included nearly the whole peninsula of Hindoostan,
their advances towards territorial dominion were re- with the neighbouring regions of Cabool and Assam. The
tarded by a rival, which gave them no small trouble. revenues extorted from this populous and wealthy ter-
This competitor was France, which had in the mean- ritory amounted to £32,000,000 sterling. During the
time hastened to share in the commerce and spoils of reign of Aurungzebe, it was attacked by the Persians
India. In 1746, a French battalion had destroyed the under the bold Prince Nadir, and also by a growing
army of the nabob of the Carnatic, and soon after the nation called Mahrattas, whose kingdom comprehended
French officers succeeded in disciplining Indian troops large portions of the provinces of Malwa, Candeish,
according to the European method. The inferiority Aurungabad, and Bejapore, in the Deccan. By Nadir,
of the native Indian troops opposed to European sol- and his successor, Ahmed Abdallah, the Mogul empire,
diers, and the facility of instructing Indian soldiers, after the death of Aurungzebe, was almost entirely sub-
known by the name of Sepoys, in the European tactics, verted to the character of a tributary to the Persians.
was thus proved. Ambition and avarice, political and Under these circumstances, there was scarcely a native
mercantile cunning, could now act on a larger scale; power that did not consider itself entitled to trample
and the independence of the Indian princes was gone on the feeble authority of the throne of the Mogul;
whenever this trading Company, which was already and between the Affghans, whose kingdom lay to the
encroaching upon all the rights both of the rulers and north-west, and the Mahrattas, the empire was dis-
the people of these countries, should establish a per- tracted, and made the object of greedy contest. The
manent military force. Thus far the military organisa- Affghans were at length victorious over their enemy;
tion of the Company had been merely on the defensive; and in 1753 they placed a descendant of the old
it now became able to act offensively; and the entire dynasty on the throne, and in the possession of the
difference of the European and Indian notions of law empty, but still venerated title of Great Mogul, to
could never fail to furnish opportunities to put this be the tool or the captive of the first daring power
new means of power into action. The rights of succes which should seize the capital.
sion, and all the rights of princes, subjects, and fami. From this period the dignity of the empire was at an
lies, were so much disputed on the different principles end, and a favourable opportunity was offered to the
of the Indian, Mohammedan, and British laws, that various dependent princes to throw off their allegiance,
the Company, which often interfered as arbitrator, as well as to enterprising chiefs to take advantage of
easily succeeded in extending their legal jurisdiction. the unsettled state of things, and establish new king-
If called to account in England for any of its under- doms for themselves. In this state of general revolu-
takings, it was easy to uphold the correctness of its tion, a bold Mohammedan adventurer arose from an
conduct, politically, on the ground of self-defence, which, obscure rank, named Hyder Ali, who, by summoning
at the distance of several thousand miles, could not be round him bold and predatory bands, and waging war
called in question; and in legal matters, by taking with considerable address, established his power as a
advantage of the impenetrable labyrinth of the law. sovereign in the Mysore, a territory forming one of the
Edmund Burke, who experienced, in the case of Warren most remarkable of those elevated table-lands that
Hastings, the head of the Company's affairs in the East, diversify the southern provinces. Hyder was succeeded
this impregnability of the association, accused them in 1782 by his son Tippoo, a person equally bold, though
justly of having sold every monarch, prince, and state less prudent and fortunate. Against both these powerful
in India, broken every contract, and ruined every state rulers the British for a nuinber of years waged war, with

REVENUE SYSTEM OF INDIA,

various success. In 1792, Seringapatam, the capital of The relations which subsist betwixt the Company the Mysore, was besieged by the Marquis Cornwallis, and the tributary and dependent states may thus be with a strong British army, and after some show of re- described :— The Company undertake the defence of sistance, Tippoo was fain to offer terms of surrender. the dependent prince's territories against all enemies, He agreed to give up half of his dominions, and pay domestic or foreign. He is bound, on the other hand, £3,500,000 in bullion. For the fulfilment of the treaty, to enter into no alliances with other sovereigns or states he was under the necessity of giving up two of his sons without the Company's consent; and he pays them a as hostages. Having fulfilled his engagement, these certain annual subsidy out of his revenues for their young princes were returned in 1794; but after this he protection, while he generally keeps up an army at the again commenced hostilities, and in 1799 the British same time for the maintenance of internal tranquillity. forces, under General Baird, once more attacked, and in some cases, instead of paying a subsidy, the prince now captured, Seringapatam. In the general slaughter cedes a portion of his territories, of which the Company which occurred in entering this strongly-fortified place, draw the entire taxes. The Company keep a resident Tippoo was shot, and his body was afterwards found at the prince's court, who is entitled to demand an among a heap of the slain. Thus terminated a dynasty audience at any time; and by this agent the Company which, though short, and limited in respect of territo- do in fact interfere pretty regularly in the internal rial dominion, was undoubtedly the most vigorous and concerns of the state, particularly in settling the suc. best organised of any that had sprung out of the wreck cession to the throne. The princes are in reality mere of the Mogul empire. The principal war in which the viceroys, or rather tax - collectors for the Company; East India Company was engaged after this successful and when in any state gross mismanagement or breach contest was that with the Pindarees, roving tribes of of engagement repeatedly occurs, these pageants are Mahrattas, who, without any territory, carried on pre- dethroned and pensioned off, and the Company take the datory warfare against all whom they could rob with government of the country into their own hands. The impunity. The war with the Pindarees was one of Company's protection is often found to shelter internal great difficulty, and it cost the British a number of misgovernment; for the prince, being secured by the years before they finally quelled them. The Pindaree British army against the resentment of his own subFar terminated in 1817, and it was followed by a con- jects, is tempted to indulge the more freely in extortest betwixt the British and the Birman empire, which tion and oppression. was successfully closed in 1826, and by which the Company gained a considerable territory along the Bay of Bengal, east of the Brahmapoutra river. By the fore- To sustain not only the above military force, but the going, and other less conspicuous contests with native civil management of India, a revenue of £18,000,000 princes

, among which may be reckoned the war against requires to be levied. About two-thirds of this large the Nepaulese in 1814, and also by means of purchases, sum is derived from a tax on land; and as the mode negotiations, and voluntary or involuntary renditions of of collecting, imposing, and administering it, enters territory, including the capture, cession by treaty, or deeply into the system of Indian policy, and has a purchase of the French and Dutch settlements, the powerful influence on the social condition of the British power was at length established as supreme people, we shall here attempt its explanation. ofer nearly the whole of India.

Under the old Mogul empire, the sovereign was Hitherto the Company have governed their Indian considered the universal proprietor of the soil; but the territories by means of the presidencies of Calcutta, ryots, or cultivators, or actual owners, were held to Madras, and Bombay, each of these places being the have a perpetual right of occupancy, so long as they headquarters of a local military and civil government. paid the fixed annual tribute or rent demanded by the In future there will be another presidency, that of Agra, sovereign. The rent was fixed at a third, and somea place of note in the interior. The whole are under times at a half, of the value of the produce, and the the supreme control of a governor-general appointed functionaries appointed to ascertain the amount leviable, by the British court; these governors-general seldom and to collect it, were called zemindars. In 1793, Lord retain their situations above å few years. Mr Pitt, in Cornwallis, governor-general, with a view to establish 1784, passed an act establishing a Board of Control, a better system for all parties, changed the zemindars composed of six privy-councillors, to superintend the from the character of hereditary tax-collectors to that territorial concerns of the Company, which check is of proprietors of the soil, though still accountable to still continued, and reappointed under the act of 1833. government for the rent. This created a vast deal of To retain possession of so large a territory as India, misery at the time; thousands of poor ryots were the Company require to keep up a numerous and well- ejected from their ancient possessions; but ultimately appointed armed force, which is composed chiefly of the country at large was benefited. It was arranged natives or sepoys, with British officers, and partly of that the sum payable by the ryot for several years troops raised in Great Britain. The Company further should be fixed as the permanent rent; one-tenth of ereploy a number of Queen's regiments, who have double this was allowed as the zemindar's share, and the other pey allowed them. The army maintained in India nine-tenths the proportion payable to the government consisted, in 1837, of 26,582 British, 157,753 native, or Company. The rent paid to the Company being and 111,500 contingent or subsidiary native--making fixed, great quantities of land which had been conan aggregate force of 295,840 men ! The annual ex- cealed--that is, left out of the rough and partial returns pense of the Anglo- Indian army is little short of formerly made, and which had lain in a wild state, or 220,000,000. In 1830, according to Reports laid before in pasture—were now put under crop: The practice is, Parliament, it was £9,374,000; and, since then, a very to allow the ryot to occupy waste lands rent-free for considerable increase has taken place, partly on account three years, and to charge only a moderate rent for å of the increasing extent of territory, and partly on few years more. In this way a considerable extension account of the wars in Sinde, Affghanistan, and the of cultivation has taken place; and some of the zemin. Panjaub. Some idea of the nature and composition of dars have acquired wealth.

From their improvident this immense force may be formed from the following habits, however, such wealth seldom lasts more than one items of expenditure in the year above-named :-En generation; and no progress has been made towards the gineer corps, £83,874; artillery, £606,463 ; cavalry, institution of a rural aristocracy. The Company have 31,070,834 ; infantry, £4,124,079; staff, £481,490; begun very recently to retrace their steps. When medical staff, £132,490; pioneers, £74,511

; commis- zemindaries fall into their hands, as they are always sariat

, £614,327; sundries, £2,178,887. The army, doing from time to time, by the inability of the holders native and European, is distributed throughout the to fulfil their engagements, the Company replace the country, at appointed stations, forming a chain of mili- ryots as nearly as they are able in their original situatary posts

, and keeping up a continual communication tion, allowing them to hold their lands under payment with the seats of the various presidencies.

of a rent which remains fixed, either permanently or

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