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province contains many tracts of beautiful scenery, and day; or if engaged by the year, from 6d. to 8d. In one in particular, which is allowed to be unequalled in the latter case, it is supposed that the labourer has a the kingdom-the celebrated lake district at Killarney. house, and grass for a cow, at what is called a moderate
The lakes of Killarney are situated in the bosom of rent, and which, in the estimation of the labourer, is the mountainous county of Kerry, and are annually equivalent to additional wages. The food of a great visited by travellers from all parts of the island, as part of the Munster peasantry consists of potatoes; to well as from neighbouring countries. They are three in this is usually added milk, and if they live near the number, of unequal size, and considerably varied with sea, haak or herrings. In Cork, but few of the labourrespect to surrounding scenery, though that may be ing poor have cows, because milk can be had in abunddescribed as generally of a mountainous character. ante at a moderate price at the dairies. It is, however, Lough Lane, or the Lower Lake, by far the largest of very customary to have ewes, which not only supply a the three, is skirted on one side by the level and well. tolerable quantity of milk, but furnish clothing. The cultivated country surrounding the pleasant village of women spin and dye the fleeces, and have them woven Killarney; on the other side rise the Glena and Tomies into thick frieze, and fulled at the village fulling-mill: Mountains. In this lake there are a number of wooded from this practice, the southern Munster men are reislands, one of which contains the ruins of an abbey, markably well clothed. The cottages, or rather cabins, and another the remains of an ancient castle. On the are, generally speaking, wretched; but it may be stated shore, towards the east, is the beautiful ruin of Muck- that in the dwellings and furniture of the people there ross Abbey. Divided from the Lower Lake by the fine is a growing improvement. The character of the Munwooded promontory of Muckross, but accessible by two ster peasantry may be considered as of mixed good and channels of level water, is the Middle Lake, called also evil--the evil arising from a total want of restraint in Turk Lake, from the name of the mountain at whose early childhood, bad education, or, as frequently hapfoot it reposes. Over and above the islands which stud pens, none at all. Female education is peculiarly the surface, the beauty of these two sheets of water may neglected; and it is deplorable to see marriages conbe said to consist in the irregular promontories and tracted when the wife has few or no capabilities for slopes, generally wooded, by which they are surrounded, managing a family, and rendering her husband comand above which the mountains tower in sterile gran- fortable, or his house a happy home. deur. In many nooks of the scenery, elegant mansions Generally speaking, the trade of Munster consists in look out upon the lakes; in others the mountain streams the export of provisions and agricultural produce, as are seen descending in glittering cascades. The Upper wheat, oats, and potatoes, to a large amount. There Lake, the third of the series, is 3 miles apart from the is on the Shannon an active fishery for trout, herrings, mildle one, on a higher level, and totally embosomed &c. and abundance of excellent fish are sent into Limeamidst the hills. A stream descending from the one to rick, Ennis, Kilrush, and to the county of Kerry. Along the other can be passed in a boat; and at a particular the coast of Cork there is a fishery for pilchards, herplace on the passage, it is common for tourists to have rings, and other kinds of fish, which are caught in a bugle played, in order to enjoy the oft - repeating great quantities, so that frequently the farmers manure echoes which it awakes in the neighbouring hills. The the fields with sprats. Upper Lake, having the wooded heights of Dericunighy on one side, the round-headed Purple Mountains on the other, and at the head, the bare many-coloured ridge of The leading towns of Munster are Cork, Limerick, Macgillicuddy Reeks, while the surface is broken by a and Waterford. The name Cork is derived from the variety of sylvan islets, presents a landscape of enchant- Irish word Corcah, which signifies a marsh. This city, ing loveliness. In connection with the lakes, there is which ranks as the second in Ireland with respect to a narrow rugged vale named Dunloe, which is usually population and commercial importance, stands on the taken in by a tourist in a survey of this fine scenery. River Lee, which, through several channels, pours its
Amongst other beautiful places in Munster, we can waters into the harbour, from whence the tide flows to only particularise Glengarriff, a rugged and most pic- some distance above the town. The streets are built turesque vale near the head of Bantry Bay; the banks along the river channels, which, being all quayed, give of the Blackwater, between Lismore and Youghal; the the city somewhat of a Venetian character: of late River Lee, below Cork, and the fine natural harbour years, however, the narrower have been arched over, (the Core of Cork) in which it terininates; and the and now only the main streams, in which the merchant lofty iron-bound coasts of Clare, ainidst which are vessels lie, are left open. some scenes of uncommon grandeur.
The Episcopal ecclesiastical buildings of Cork conThe soil in the southern parts of Limerick and Tip- sist of seven parish churches, the Cathedral of St Fin perary is perhaps not inferior in fertility to any portion Barry, St Luke's Chapel of Ease and Free Church, the of Europe. The Corkass lands of the former, and the Chapel of the Foundling Hospital, and the Church of Golden Vale of the latter, are celebrated for their St Michael's at Blackrock: two other churches are in extraordinary richness. These districts are chiefly ap- progress. There are four Roman Catholic chapels, propriated to the feeding of black cattle. Wheat hus- three new ones nearly completed, and four friaries. bandry is cultivated throughout the limestone districts There are numerous dissenting chapels—two meetingof Tipperary, Clare, and Limerick, while dairy-farm- houses for Wesleyan Methodists, one for the Primitive ing is followed in the mountain districts of Kerry and Wesleyans, one for Anabaptists, two for Presbyterians, Waterford. The potato culture necessary to supply the one for the Society of Friends, and two for two other wants of an over-dense population, is eagerly pursued small bodies of dissenters. A new Scotch church is in throughout the whole province; and it is a deplorable progress. The principal public buildings are-the fact, that a large portion of that population have no Bishop's Palace, which stands on a height overlooking other food during the greater part of the year. The the town; a new jail, a little to the west of the city; grass farms let in large divisions of from 150 to 400 the Customhouse, large and handsome barracks, the acres, at from £2 to £3 per acre. In the dairies of the City Library, the Reading-Rooms, the infirmaries, the county of Cork, the great butter country of Munster, Chamber of Commerce, the Steam-Packet Office, and a it is no uncommon thing to have from one to two hun-well-built and spacious court-house, having in front a dred cows in profit; the advantage of which is, that a pediment supported on six Corinthian columns, and cask is filled at once by butter all of the same churning. surmounted by an emblematic group of colossal figures. The sweet thick cream only is churned, and that every There is now in progress a new savings' bank, an exmorning. The pastures of these dairy-farms are highly tensive and ornamental building, but not more than manured, and are never broken up for tillage, expe- half erected; also a new banking-house of cut stone for a rience having taught the dairy-farmers that the older branch Bank of Ireland; a new and showy corn-market the sward the richer is the milk.
house; and an extensive workhouse for the Poor-Law Daily labourers are usually paid from 81. to 10d. per Union, about three-quarters of a mile from the
Cork hoasts of many schools-the Blue-Coat Hospi- , name, and a large seaport, is situated on the Suir, a tal, for twenty-two sons of reduced Protestants; the few miles from its junction with the sea. Native proGreen-Coat Hospital, for twenty children of each sex, duce, to the value of £2,000,000, is annually exported to be brought up Protestants; the Cove Street Infant, from this city; but the imports are comparatively unDiocesan, Lancastrian, and Female Orphan Schools; important. There is here a fine cathedral, founded the diocesan schools for the united diocese of Cork by the Ostmen, and endowed with lands by King John, and Ross, a free school founded by Archdeacon Pome- and several churches, meeting-houses for the Presbyroy, and one of the national colleges.
terians and the Society of Friends, a French church Among the charitable institutions in this city are for the Huguenots, and several abbeys and friaries, Bertridge's Charity, where are maintained seven old The principal buildings are the Bishop's Palace, the Protestant soldiers; Skiddy's Almshouse, where twelve Exchange, and the City Jail. Amongst its schools are aged women receive .£29 yearly; Deane's Schools, where the Latin Free School, and the Blue Boys' Free School, forty poor children are clothed and taught gratis. There in which seventy-five are instructed and partly clothed is, besides, a inasonic female orphan asylum, and several gratis, and the boys apprenticed to different trades. almshouses. Indeed, in proportion to its size, Cork | The population in 1831 was 28,820; in 184), 29,288, bears a peculiarly high character for benevolence. In 1845 there belonged to the port 186 sailing vessels,
There are five societies here, whose objects are almost whose tonnage amounted to 23,000; 4 steamers, with
The chief exports of Cork are grain, butter, cattle, Derry, Belfast, and Armagh. In the county of Antrim, and provisions; its chief imports, wine, tea, sugar, and the country from Glenarm to Bengore Head presents coals. Steam-vessels communicate between Cork and a succession of striking and romantic views. The most Dublin, Bristol and Liverpool; and steamboats also remarkable feature of this scenery is the peculiar conply daily between Cork and Cove. The population of formation of the basaltic columns with which it abounds, Cork, according to the census of 1831, was 107,016; in and of which the arrangement is strikingly displayed in 1841, 106,055. In 1845 there were 384 vessels belong. Fairhead and the Giants' Causeway, Bengore, one of ing to the port, with an aggregate tonnage of 40,000; the promontories of the Causeway, lies about 7 miles 14 steamers, with a tonnage of 2900; and the custoins' west of the little town of Ballycastle: though geneduties exceeded £302,000.
rally described as a single headland, it is composed Limerick, the chief city of the west of Ireland, is of many small capes and bays, each bearing its own situated on the Shannon, near the place where that proper name, and of these capes the most perfect is noble river expands into an estuary. It consists of the Pleaskin. The summit of Pleaskin is covered with a Old and New Town, respectively situated on the north thin grassy sod, which lies upon the rock, the surface and south sides of the river, and connected by an ele- of which is cracked and shivered. About 10 or 12 feet yant modern bridge. The new city contains many good from the top, the rock begins to assume a columnar streets, filled with handsome shops; but the Old Town character, and standing perpendicularly to the horizon, is confined, dirty, decayed, and inhabited by a very presents the appearance of a magnificent colonnade, miserable population. Limerick contains a handsome supported on a foundation of rock nearly 60 feet in cathedral of some antiquity, situated in the old part of height. About 8 miles from Pleaskin is Pairhead, the city, six Episcopal churches and a chapel of ease, the easternmost head of the Causeway, which presents meeting-houses belonging to the Presbyterians, Inde- a huge mass of columnar stones, of coarse texture, but pendents, and the Society of Friends, with five Roman | many of them more than 200 feet in height. Some of Catholic chapels, three friaries, and one nunnery. The these gigantic stones seem to have fallen from the top, principal public buildings are the Exchange, the City and now present to the eye of the spectator the appearCourthouse, the City and County Jail, the Police Bar- ance of groups of artificial ruins. The part which may rack, the Customhouse, the Commercial Buildings, the more properly be called the Giants' Causeway is a kind Linen-Hall, the Market, and two banks. Though Lime- of quay, projecting from the base of a steep promourick is not a particularly literary city, it has an excel. tory some hundred feet into the sea : it is composed of lent library and some very good booksellers' shops. the heads of pillars of basalt, which are placed in close The principal school at Limerick is the Diocesan, but contact with each other, forming a sort of polygonal there are many private day and boarding schools. parement, somewhat like the appearance of a solid There are many charitable institutions, as the County honeycomb. The pillars are jointed, and their artiIlospital; the House of Industry for the aged and culation curiously exact, the convex termination of infirm, widows, orphans, young females, and deserted one joint always fitting with precision into a concave children; the Corporation Almshouse; Dr Ilallis and socket in the next. Within about 2 miles of the Giants' Mrs Villiers's Alinshouses.
Causeway stands Dunluce Castle, situated on the sum. With regard to the trade of Limerick, it has been mit of a rock whose base is washed by the ocean, by observed, that though it has increased with the exten- the ravages of which great part of the building was sion of the city, it has done so by no means in an suddenly swept from its foundation. The mansion adequate proportion when its peculiar advantages are and offices stand upon the mainland, divided from the considered; the Shannon, which connects it with Clare, fortress by a deep cut which separates the rock on Kerry, Waterford, and Tipperary, affording it innu- which the castle is placed. Over this chasm lies the merable commercial facilities. The quays of Limerick only approach to the building, along what was one of are nevertheless a scene of considerable bustle, though the walls of the drawbridge: should the passenger chiefly frequented by vessels for the export of the native miss bis footing on this narrow path, there is not the produce. Provisions to the amount of 75,000 tons are slightest protection on either side to save him from here shipped annually. In 1845 the port had 114 the abyss beneath. vessels, with a burthen of 15,000 tons; and the gross The soil of Ulster varies much. In the counties of receipt of the customis amounted to £177,000. The Armagh, Down, Antrim, Derry, and Monaghan, it population of Limerick in 1831 was estimated to be passes from a deep rich fertile clay to a dry sandy or 66,555, and in 1841, 65,296.
gravelly loam; while in Donegal, 'Tyrone, Fermanagh, Waterford, the chief town of the county bearing its land Cavan, a great proportion of it is cold, wet, and
spoday: Tillage is, in general, in an improved state of Ireland, are sent for sale; and from hence large throughout this province; and though the old Irish quantities are exported to foreign countries. The linen plough and the slide car are still occasionaily used in trade prospers at Castlewellan, Rathfriland, and Banthe remoter parts, many of the modern impleinents of bridge, in the county of Down, and also at Lurgan in husbandry bave been introduced, especially in Down the county of Armagh, where the weavers are at once and Londonderry. The English spade has nearly dis- weavers and manufacturers. At Dungannon, in the placed the long or one-sided spade; the angular har- neighbouring county of Tyrone, it has greatly declined, row and the thrashing-machine are much in use; and and is in Donegal chiefiy confined to those who work the Scotch plough has almost superseded the heavy for farmers or market sale. Irish one. The corn crops most general are oats, bere, The province of Ulster was also the seat of the first barley, and a small proportion of wheat. Barley is in cotton manufactory introduced into Ireland. In 1777 Derry said to pay the summer's rent, and flax the the manufactures were in the lowest state of depression. winter's. Potatoes are largely planted by rich and To give them some stimulus, Mr Joy conceived the plan poor, and gentlemen - farmers cultivate turnips and of introducing cotton machinery from Scotland; and a mangel-wurzel. Lime and peat are the most usual firm for this charitable purpose was formed, of Joy, ingredients of the manure employed in the inland dis- M'Cabe, and M'Craken; and a mill for spinning twist tricts; while in the maritime counties, sea-sand, sea- by water was erected by them at Belfast in 1784, at weed of different sorts, and various kinds of shells pul- which time the manufacture may be said to have been verised, are used in addition. From the wetness of the established; and so rapidly did it spread, that in 1800, soil, in some of the northern parts of Monaghan, the in a circuit of ten miles, comprehending Belfast and manure is usually carried to the fields in baskets, Lisburn, it gave employment to 27,000 individuals. called bardocks, which are slung over asses' backs or But from want of assistance at home to protect it, and the shoulders of the poor women. A small but hardy the embargo laid on American goods, which inundated race of horses is reared in the island of Rathlin, or Ireland with English manufactures, the trade has deRaghery; and the old Irish sheep still prevails in and clined, and the cotton manufacture is now almost altonear Carey, in the county of Antrim. Pigs, goats, and gether confined to the county of Antrim. Through the donkeys, are numerous, the latter being inuch used in early part of the present century, it was carried on to the counties of Cavan and Monaghan. A good deal of a considerable extent in Drogheda, Collon, Strafford, butter is sent to the markets of Belfast, Antrim, and Mountmellick, Limerick, and Bandon.
Belfast was, Derry, from the various dairies scattered through Ulster. however, the place where most skill and capital were
Whatever were the manufactures of Ireland before expended; as the trade increased there, it declined in the time of James I., they were swept away in the other parts of the kingdom; and though large manufaclong series of wars between government and the local tories have formerly been established at Clonmel, Portchieftains in the days of the Tudors; and the Scottish land, and Limerick, it may for all practical purposes settlers in the north of Ireland, and those English be considered as extinct in the other parts of Ireland. whom Boyle, Earl of Cork, brought into Munster, Wherever the linen trade is in operation, the people may be considered the introducers of nearly all the have constant employment, in consequence of being manufactures that now exist in Ireland. During the able to fall back upon their looms when agricultural reigns of Charles I. and II. much attention was paid work is not in demand. They may be said, in common to them; and the exertions of Lord Stratford, Sir years, to enjoy a competency—that is, a sufficiency of Williain Temple, and the Duke of Ormond, caused food, raiment, and fuel. But in the western parts of the establishment of the linen trade to be attributed Ulster-as, for example, the mountainous districts of successively to each. The Duke of Ormond not only Tyrone, Donegal, and Derry, where the linen manuprocured several acts for its encouragement, but sent facture does not exist to any extent—the labouringIrishmen to Flanders to be instructed in the details of classes are not much better off than in the three other the flax manufacture; and also established a linen fac- provinces. However, speaking of Ulster generally, it tory both at Chapelziod, near Dublin, and at Carrick may be said the lower classes have more self-respect, on-Suir. In the reign of William III., the linen busi. more industry, more desire for advancement in life, ness rose to still greater importance, from the compact than in other parts of Ireland. In fact, they are a between the English and Irish merchants to discourage better educated, and therefore a more improving people. the woollen and promote the linen trade ; for which | As may be expected, their taste for comfort operates in purpose they procured a statute to be passed, levying the cconomy of their houses and farms; and except additional duty on Irish woollen goods, from a jealous in the mountainous districts above alluded to, where fear that the prosperity of the Irish woollen trade was old habits still maintain their ground, the Ulster peainconsistent with the welfare of that of England. An- santry may be considered as a respectable class in other impetus was given to the linen trade by the emi- society. The average rent of arable land is from £2 gration of the French manufacturers, after the Edict of to £3 per acre, usually rising in the immediate neighNantes, of whom a large number took refuge in Ireland; bourhood of towns to £5 or £6. The wages in Ulster and Mr Louis Cromelin, a leading manufacturer, ob- vary from 6d. to 9d. a day in winter, and in summer tained a patent for improving and carrying it on, and from 10d. to 1s. a day, without diet. The food of the his efforts were crowned with considerable success. In peasantry is chiefly potatoes, oatmeal porridge, oaten the 9th year of Queen Anne, a board of linen and hempen bread, milk, and fish, which those who live near the sea manufactures was established, and linen allowed to be vary with that species of sea-weed called the edible alga. exported, duty free. In the 8th of George I., & grant The salt-water fisheries of Ireland cannot be said to was given to build a linen-hall,and another to encourage have ever thriven. Under the former system of the the growth of flax and hemp. Previous to 1778, bleached Irish Parliament, of giving bounties, large sums were linen was sold in the fairs, the manufacturer being the at different times voted for their encouragement; but bleacher; but when the manufacture extended, bleach-by this there was no real strength given, and on the ing became a separate business. Considerable sums withdrawal of these bounties, things fell below their had been from time to time voted by parliament for its natural level, and the sea-fisheries became altogether support; and during the eighteenth century the trade inefficient for any purpose but that of supplying the continued to advance, until the check it received during localities surrounding the fisherman's dwelling. The
On the re-establishment of peace fishery laws are now enforced with regard to both the it revived, and was at its greatest height from 1792 to sea and river-fishing, and therefore there is reason to 1796. Since this period it has considerably increased, believe that this branch
of industry is on the increase, and though deprived of all artificial props, in the form and, if properly managed, will become one of the chief of bounties, is now a flourishing department of industry. means of benefiting the island. The river-fisheries, Belfast is the great centre to which the linens, not only though less productive than under better management of Ulster, but also of the weaving districts in the west they might have been, yet form in several parts of
the American war.
Ulster a lucrative source of property. The lakes and use and exportation. In commerce, its exports and rivers abound with trout, pike, perch, eels, and char; imports are extensive; the amount of duties paid and on the Bann, the Foyle, and the Ballyshannon in at the customhouse of late years averaging nearly Donegal, are established very successful salmon-fisheries. £370,000. The number of vessels lately belonging to Formerly, whales were not unfrequently, and still are, the port was 386, the aggregate burthen of which was though but seldom, taken at the coast-fisheries in this 53,500 tons. Latterly, great improvements have been province. The salmon-fisheries of the Foyle and the effected for the accommodation of the shipping, by Bann were early celebrated. In Phillips's manuscript deepening and contracting the harbour, and furnishing they are stated to have been let from 1609 to 1612 handsome and substantial quays, wharfs, and dochi at £666, 13s. 4d. a year; for three years at £860; for The port usually exhibits a busy scene of industry, eleven years at £1060; and for twelve years, ending at the daily sailing and arrival of ships and steam-Fesseli Easter 1639, at £800. The right of fishing the river Ten steamers sail regularly-four to Glasgow, three to Foyle, so far as Lifford, is vested in the Irish Society Liverpool, two to London, and one to Dublin. In the by the charter of Londonderry, granted by James I. in retail trade, the numerous branches are carried on in 1613. The increase of the quantity of fish taken since a spirited and tradesmen-like manner; and the various the introduction of stake-nets is very considerable. markets for the sale of the rural produce, which is The salmon for exportation to London and to Liverpool brought in large quantities to town, are well conducted; are packed with ice in boxes, fifteen salmon, weighing in a word, the whole system of trade and industry is ca together about 90 lbs., being put into each case. In a an efficient scale, and equals that of any town of simi. report made to Sir William Petty about 1682, it is lar size in England or Scotland. The prosperity of the stated that the fishing for salmon in the Bann River, town is likely to be augmented by a railway Intely and so in all the salmon-fisheries, begins with the 1st opened, which is designed to proceed to Armagh.* of May, and ends on the last of July. But by the pre- Belfast abounds in Presbyterian and other Dissent law, the season now begins on the 1st of February, senters. The Episcopal places of worship are only two and ends on the 1st of September, seven months being (some authorities say three) in number; but there are open and five close. The Bann fishery has of late ten Presbyterian meeting-houses; there are also ito years been much neglected; but under the spirited and meeting houses of Independents; the Methodists
, four; judicious management of Charles Atkinson, Esq., it has the Society of Friends, one; and the Roman Catholics
, been much improved during the last year.
two. The town possesses some excellent charitable and
humane institutions: the principal are--a poor-house Chief Towng.
for the aged and infirm, a house of industry, a lunatic The chief towns in Ulster are Belfast and Antrim, asylum, an institution for the blind and for deaf mutes, in the county of Antrim; Londonderry or Derry, and This institution is on the same plan as that of LiterColeraine, in the county of Londonderry; Donegal, in pool. The blind are employed in weaving and basketthe county of the same name; Strabane, in Tyrone; making, and lately, by the introduction of raised Armagh, in Armagh; and Newry, Lisburn, and Down- letters, they have been instructed in reading. In 1824, patrick, in the counties of Antrim or Down. Without there were in the town and parish sixty-three schools reference to counties, Belfast, Lisburn, Newry, Armagh, of all kinds, at which 2152 males and 1666 females and some places of smaller note, may be said to form a were educated, exclusive of the Royal Academical Incluster of towns chiefly devoted to the linen manufacture, stitution, which in 1825 contained 462 boys in its and all occupied by a population who, for generations, various classes. This institution originated in 1807, in have been noted for their industry and peaceful habits. a voluntary subscription of the inhabitants, by whern a
Belfast is esteemed the principal town and seaport fund was raised of above £25,000, to which the late in this province of Ireland. It is advantageously situ- Marquis of Hastings added £5000 for its erection and ated on the west side of the Lagan, where that river the endowment of its teachers and professors. It conswells into an estuary called the Bay of Belfast: dis- sists of two departments-one elementary, the other fer tance from Dublin 85 miles. The ground on which the the higher branches of science and literature. This town stands is flat, while the beautiful and fertile en establishment is directed by a president, four vicevirons on the western side of the vale are bounded by presidents, twenty managers, and eight visitors, chosen a picturesque range of mountains. Within the town, by the proprietary. The chairs in the collegiate de the opposite shore of the Lagan is reached by a long partment are eight, embracing Divinity, Moral and stone bridge, which also forms the egress from Belfast Natural Philosophy, Logic, Mathematics, Greek, Latin, towards Donaghadee. Although this portion of Ireland Hebrew, and a lectureship on Irish. The object of is inhabited chiefly by Scotch, or their descendants, this academy was to give cheap home education to Belfast, like Dublin, is essentially an English town those who had heretofore frequented the Scottish col
. in external aspect, being built of brick, and having leges. The Synod of Ulster receives the general certithroughout a neat and regular appearance, with many ficate of this institution as a qualification for ordinahandsome shops. The prosperity of Belfast is dated tion, and it may therefore be now considered the great from the revolution of 1688, when religious and political seminary for the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The tranquillity settled upon that part of Ireland. Belfast Belfast Academy had been founded some time preis in Ireland what Glasgow is to Scotland, and Liver- viously by private subscription. pool to England. In manufactures, it is now the great Of literary societies, Belfast possesses the Society fer depôt of the linen business, and the seat of the cotton Promoting Knowledge, founded 1788; the Literary Sotrade, having within itself all the various branches ciety for Improvement in Literature, Science, and Antinecessary for producing and finishing these fabrics, quities, founded 1801; and the Natural History Society, from the finest cambric to the coarsest canvas. There founded 1821. The town has lately received the valuare in Belfast and its suburbs fifteen steam-power able addition of a botanic garden, on a large scale, and mills, for the spinning of linen yarns. Among these, laid out in an exceedingly tasteful manner. It was the factory of Mulholland and Company, employing established and is wholly supported by the inhabitants 800 persons, spins 720 tons of flax annually, the yarn of Belfast, and affords a pleasing proof of their spirit of which is worth £80,000. The hand-spun yarn sold and liberality. The population in 1821 was 37,277; on commission in the Linen-Hall (a cluster of buildings in 1831, 53,287; and in 1841, 75,308. devoted to the use of linen factors), produces about Londonderry ranks next to Belfast. Besides being a £100,000 a year. The cotton trade is declining, seve- seaport of considerable importance, it is the seat of a ral of the mills being employed in spinning flax; and bishop's see. It is situated on the west bank of the there are now only six cotton-mills in the town. There are also extensive corn-mills, breweries, distilleries, * We have been indebted for a number of these particulars to and tan-yards, with manufactories of machinery, cord- The Tourist's Guide to Ireland,' a highly creditable worš, age, glass, iron, soap, candles, tobacco, &c. for home published by Mossrs W. Curry, Jun. and Co., Dublin.
Foyle, a few miles above the point where that river handsome buildings have been erected, with cut stone
. For nearly twenty years after its plantation, CONNAUGHT, the smallest of the four provinces, conDerry was without a proper place of worship, part of tains but five counties, those of Leitrim, Roscommon, the ruined church of St Augustine being employed Mayo, Sligo, and Galway. There are in this province for that purpose. At length a royal commission of large tracts of mountainous and sterile land, especially inquiry was appointed, which, in 1628, reported that in the western parts of the counties of Galway and the corporation of London had begun to build a fair Mayo. The peninsula formed by the western part of church in Derry, and in 1633 its erection was com- the first of these counties is named Connemara, and is pleted. This event is recorded in a tablet, which was famed for its scenery, which somewhat resembles that originally placed over the door of the porch of the old of Argyleshire. It may be described as a vast tract cathedral, but is now over that of the belfry, bearing of mingled bog, lake, rocky moorland, and mountain, the following couplet :
bounded and partially penetrated by deep inlets of the * Ii stones could speak, then London's praise should sound,
sea, resembling the fiords of Norway. The principal Who built this church and city from the ground.-A.D. 1633.'
lake is Lough Corrib, which is 20 miles long, full of
islands, and surrounded by an extensive rocky desert, The other principal places of worship are-a chapel of bearing no small resemblance to those of Arabia. BeCase, a free church, several Presbyterian meeting-houses, tween this lake and the western extremity of Conne3 Wesleyan chapel, a Primitive Wesleyan Methodist mara, there is a range of tall gwelling green hills, called chapel
, also Reformed Presbyterian, Seceding, and In- the Twelve Pins of Bunabola; and to the north of these dependent chapels, and a Roman Catholic chapel, is an estuary famed for its wild scenery, named the which can accommodate 2000 persons. The principal Killery, many miles in length, and connected with the buildings in the city are the Bishop's Palace, the Pub. Atlantic by a passage only 30 feet wide. Connemara lic Library and News-room, the Lunatic Asylum, the contains a small, scattered, and primitive population, Jail
, and the Corporation Hall. Of its various manu- unusually full of superstitious and old feudal feelings. factories
, the chief are two great distilleries, and two Besides Clifden, a modern fishing - village on the west coin-mills, one worked by a steam-engine of eighteen, coast, there is scarcely any such seat of population in the other by one of twenty horse-power. The public the district. There are, however, a few homely inns schools in Derry are the Diocesan, the Parochial, the for the accommodation of the numerous tourists who Presbyterian, the Meeting-house, St Columb’s, the flock thither during summer. Barracks, the Infant School; and besides these are From the high grounds near Westport is obtained a many others, public and private. There is here a view of Clew Bay, a magnificent sheet of almost enclosed branch of the London Bible Society, the Londonderry water, full of islands, and bounded by lofty mounLiterary Society, and one for promoting religious, tains, amongst which the most conspicuous are Croagh moral, and historical knowledge. There are also the Patrick and Nephin. The islands of Clare and Achill Londonderry Farmers' Society, and the Mechanics" bound the scene towards the west. In some states of Institution. The port carries on a considerable traffic, the weather, and particularly when a summer sun is both with respect to imports of foreign and British calmly descending on Clare, the view of Clew Bay is produce, and exports. The estimated value of the ex- one of extraordinary beauty. The islands are said by ports of Irish produce is above £1,000,000 sterling per the common people to be as numerous as the days in annum. The population of Londonderry in 1831 was a year, but in reality are only about a hundred. Croagh 16,130; and in 1841, 15,196. In 1845 the shipping Patrick is regarded with superstitious feelings by the belonging to the port exceeded 6200 tons; and the peasantry, as the spot where their tutelary saint was gross customs duties £105,800.
accustomed to preach. The city of Armagh, situated in an inland part of the
Amidst the great tracts of wild ground in Connaught, country, is of considerable local importance. It is there are a few other spots of an unusually attractive placed in the midst of a rich and beautiful district, character. The scenery round Lough Allen, out of the face of which is singularly varied by detached hills, which the Shannon flows, is extremely pretty, as is some of which are more than 1000 feet in height also that near Boyle, at the foot of the Curlew MounThis character of country stretches from Lough Neagh tains. At Lough Gill, near Sligo, a lake bearing a in the north to the north-western part of the county strong resemblance to the upper lake of Killarney, of Meath in the south, and is well watered
by lakes and the little Bay of Ardnaglass, into which falls the and streams, and, generally speaking, richly furnished cataract of Ballysedare, are scenes of peculiar beauty. by the old cathedral, around which the town has twenty miles together
, a succession of narrow limestone gradually arisen. Within these few years, several rocks, like parapet walls of three feet high, placed in