Counties. Acres. Population. County Towns.
Ships. Tons. Ships. Tons. Louth,

201,906 128,240 Dundalk.

1,363,882 388,887 Castlebar. 1801 5,360 456,026 6,816 582,033 Meath,

579,899 183,828 Trim. 1802 5,820 461,328 5,540

449,350 Monaghan, 319,757 200,142 Monaghan. 1803 5,796 504,884 5,656 502,279 Queen's,

424,854 153,930 Maryborough 1804 5,613 490,455 6,148

557,279 Roscommon, 607,691 253,591 Roscommon
1805 6,306
566,790 6,875

461,753 180,886

Sligo. 1806 6,907 578,297 7,032 586,728 Tipperary, 1,061,731 435,553 Clonmel. 1807 No returns can be procured for this year.


806,640 312,956 Omagh. 1808 8,477 768,264 7,560

696,473 Waterford, 461,553 196,187 Waterford 1809 7,041 600,898 7,011 580,587 Westmeath, 453,468 141,300 Mullingar. 1810 8,403 713,087 9,121 763,488 Wexford,

576,588 202,033 Wexford 1811 9,014 789,097 8,216 703,738 Wicklow,

500,178 126,143 Wicklow. 1812

10,812 925,736 10,053 867,342 1813 8,569 718,851 9,096


20,808,271 8,175,124 1814 7,562 613,898

8,719 715,171 1815 8,462 680,333 9,602 776,313 Note.-Etymologists are at variance as to the origin of the word 1816 7,575 621,273 8,861 721,772

Ireland; some contending that the words Erin, Irene, &e sig. 1817 9,186

770,547 9,530 762,770 1818 7,969

nify sacred; others, that Eir, Erin, &c. mean simply west ; that 644,896 8,863 763,622 1819 8,575 699,885 9,751

is, Ireland or Westland from Britain. Be this as it may, the

795, 195 1820 9,229 783,750 8,451 734,716 topographical nomenclature is essentially Celtic, with a co1821 9,440 819,648 9,266 801,007 siderable admixture of modern English :-Bally, town or village; 1822 9,562 832,927 9,935 828,114 kill, church or cell ; ben, mountain; slievh, mountain ridae; 1823 9,382 786,637 9,937 814,383

ennis or innis, island; knock, hill; carrick, rock-fort; dren, 1824 7,534 615,396 10,989


bare height; garry, rough ; allen or aln, white; ard, projecting 1825 8,992

741,182 10,981 922,355 1826 6,388 632,972 11,599

height; rath, rising ground; auch or augh, field.

1,055,870 1827 7,411

737,752 11,083 1,044,093 8,790 1828 923,505 12,339 1,167,280

ANTIQUITIES, &c. 1929 8,922 906,158 13, 478 1,286,168 The antiquities of Ireland may be classed under the 1830

8,455 880,965 13,144 1,245,647 heads of the Cromleac, the Cairn, the Circle, the Pillar. 1831 9,029

921,128 13,158 1,246,742 1832 9,705 1,026,613

Stone, the Barrow, the Dun, the Lis, the Rath, the an

14,694 1,417,533 1833 9,476 1,041,882 14,947 1,378,556 cient Stone-roofed Buildings, and the lofty and beauti1834 10,026 1,100,389 14,560 1,440,617 fully-built Round Towers. The name Cromleac is com1835 10,116 1,138,147 14,608 1,473,255 pounded of Crom, which signifies Fate or Providence, 1836 9.820 1,179,062 14,725 1,490,788 1837 10,299 1,202,104 16,347

and leac, a stone, literally 'the stone or altar of God;' 1,585,624

and to what god they were dedicated sufficiently appears

by the name retained by so many of these altars. They GOVERNMENT-ADMINISTRATION.

vary in size and form, and in most instances consist of The government of the country, since the Union in three upright supporters, two at the lower, and one at 1801, is identical with that of Great Britain. It is the upper end, upon which the altar-stone was balanced; represented in the imperial parliament by 32 mem- underneath this, and between the uprights, a hollow is bers of the House of Lords, and 105 of the House of usually found, which is thought to have been for the Commons. The executive government is invested in a purpose of facilitating the passage of cattle and children Lord-Lieutenant, assisted by a Privy-Council and chief under the sacred fire-a custom which seems to be al. secretary; and the law is administered by a Lord | luded to in the Scriptures, when the Israelites are reChancellor, a Master of the Rolls, and twelve judges of proached with passing their sons and daughters through the Supreme Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Plcas, the fire to Moloch, one of the names given to the sun. and Exchequer. County, peace, and municipal matters Of the Cairn there were two kinds—the burying and are conducted much in the same way as in England, the simple cairn, or high place made of stones flattened with the exception of an armed national police force of on the top. These artificial high places were usually from 7000 to 8000 men.

situated on an eminence; and here, on festival days

, For civil and other purposes, the island is divided especially the 1st of May and the 1st of November, the into 4 provinces—Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Con- fires of Bel were wont to be lighted. At these times naught—which are subdivided into 32 counties, and all household fires were extinguished, to be rekindled these again into baronies, hundreds, and other minor by a brand from the sacred flame-a practice which sections. Judicially, there are 6 circuits; and eccle- continued till the time of St Patrick, who succeeded in siastically, 2 archbishoprics, 10 bishoprics, and 2532 putting an end to it. Tumuli of this description abound parishes, consolidated into 1385 benefices. The follow- in all parts of the island. ing table exhibits the counties arranged alphabetically, Closely connected with the cairn, are the circles of their area in statute acres, their population according upright stones, usually called Druidic Circles. They to the last census, and their capital or county towns :- frequently surround a cairn, as that of New Grange in

the county of Meath, where the stones are placed about Counties. Acres. Population.

one-third of the whole height above the base: frequently County Towns.

they encircle a pillar-stone. Antrim, 761,877 360,875 Carrickfergus.

The Pillar-Stone is so generally joined with the Armagh, 328,076 232,393 Armagh.

circle, cairn, cromleac, and sacred grove, that it cannot Carlow, 221,342 86,228 Carlow.

be passed over in silence. Numerous instances might Cavan, 477,360 243,158 Cavan.

be pointed out of lofty upright stones in many parts of Clare, 827,994 286,394 Ennis.

the kingdom, standing sometimes singly, but most comCork,

1,846,333 854,118 Cork. Donegal, 1,193,443 296,448 Lifford.

monly in conjunction with one or more of the aboveDown,

612,495 361,446 Downpatrick. mentioned relics of Pagan times. Tradition says that Dublin, 226,414 372,773 DUBLIN.

formerly the people collected round such stones for Fernanagh, 457,195 156,481 Enniskillen. Galway,

worship, which is confirmed by the common expression 1,566,354 440,198 Galway. Kerry, 1,186,126 293,880 Tralee.

in Irish of going to the stone,' for going to church or Kildare, 418,436 114,488 Kildare.

chapel. These stones are conceived by many to have Kilkenny, 509,732 202,420 Kilkenny.

given rise to the carved stone cross found in various King's,

493,985 146,857 Tullamore. Leitrim, 392,363

churchyards, and of which one of the finest specimens 155,997

Carrick-on-Shannon. is to be seen at Monasterboyce, in the county of Loath. Limerick, 680,842 330,029 Limerick, Londonderry, 518,595 222,174 Londonderry.

There are several kinds of tumuli remaining, of which Longford, 269,409 115,491 Longford.

the Irish names declare the original object. The Lias



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or Lis, which signifies a fortified house, was an artificial | heights, small chambers, apparently for the residence hill, sometimes approaching in shape to an ellipse, with of the clergy. A part of the building is used as the a flat top, and an earthen breastwork or rampart thrown parish church; and the old tower has borne the addiround the little plain on the summit, where was placed tion of a belfry, so excellent was the mason-work. The the dwelling, usually protected by a strong wattled beautiful and curious ruin at Cashel, called Cormack's paling, as is now customary among the Circassians. Chapel, is Norman in character, and was probably the The Duns or Doons were places of strength, always cathedral of that diocese previous to the English invaperched on a rocky, bold situation, and fenced by a sion. It is considered to have been built in the tenth broad wall of extremely large stones, which wall forms century by Cormac, who was both king and archbishop. one of the distinctions between the dun and the lis. He died about A.D. 990. It is to be observed that both The Rath signifies a village or settlement: these abound here and at St Doulagh's are crypts placed over the in all parts of the island, and are of various sizes, stand-churches - a peculiarity known in Ireland only; the ing sometimes singly, sometimes so as to form a chain crypts in all other countries being underneath. In of posts; and frequently may be seen a large head rath, this very marked Irish-Norman style, there exist a few where the chieftain lived, and its smaller dependent remains at Aghadoe near Killarney, at Clonathen in raths, on which his retainers dwelt.

the county of Wexford, and near Bannow in the same Amongst the earliest and peculiar antiquities of Ire- county, in an ancient town, which having been, time land, are the low Stone - roofed Buildings, with high out of mind, overwhelmed by the blowing sand from wedge-shaped roofs: of these a few instances still exist the coast, has only within a few years been discovered, at Kells, Kildare, Ardmore, and Killaloe. The most but, protected by the sand, is in a high state of preremarkable relics of the olden times of Ireland are the servation. The peculiar character which marks these lofty Round Towers, of which, perfect and imperfect, buildings, proves them to be examples of the Irish style 118 have been enumerated in various parts of the king- subsequent to the age of the towers, and previous to dom. They are built with a wonderful uniformity of that brought in by the British invaders. Ireland canplan. They are all circular, of small diameter, and not boast of any ecclesiastical buildings of great richgreat altitude.

In most of them the door is at some ness or beauty ; but there are some of respectable height from the ground ; small loophole windows, at appearance. The two cathedrals of the capital, St distances in the sides, give light to the spaces where Patrick's and Christ-Church, are at least elegant in the different floors once were; and generally there were the interior. The large cathedral of Galway, and that four larger-sized windows round the top, immediately of Limerick, are both handsome buildings, as is the below the roof, which is high and cone-shaped. There cathedral of Kilkenny. These are all in good order, are, however, two or three towers in which it does not and in daily use. There are numberless ruins of moappear that there ever were any windows round the nasteries, abbeys, knights’ preceptories, and churches, top. Of the excellence of the masonry, a proof was of which the chief are-Kilconnel Abbey in the county giren some years ago by the tower of Mahera, which, of Galway; Corcomroe in Clare, the finest ruin in in consequence of having been undermined, was blown Ireland; Holy Cross in Tipperary; the Old Cathedral down, and lay, at length and entire upon the ground, on the Rock of Cashel; Dunbrody and Tintern Abbeys like a huge gun, without breaking to pieces, so wonder- in Wexford ; Jerpoint in Kilkenny; and Lusk in the fully hard and binding was the cement with which it county of Dublin. Kilconnel and Lusk are remarkable had been constructed. Various theories have been for rude bas-relievos in stone, which bear a degree of offered as to the purpose for which these mysterious resemblance to the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Many of buildings were erected; the only clear point seems to these still retain fragments of their former ornaments be, that they were connected with the religious rites of fretted stone-work—Holy Cross in particular. of the early inhabitants, as they are always placed Military Antiquities.—The traveller in Ireland must near churches. They vary in height from 35 to 120 be struck with the vast number of small castles which feet; the internal diameter from 10 to 16 feet, and the stud the whole country. They chiefly bear date about outer circumference from 46 to 56 feet. Their tapering the reign of Elizabeth, by whose orders they were shape forms one of their most marked characteristics. raised, as strongholds to overawe the wild Irish. They

Ancient weapons and golden ornaments are from are usually high and square, with towers at each time to time dug up in all parts of Ireland, as bronze corner. Besides these fortalices, there are ruins of swords, exactly like those discovered at Carthage and on very large castles, so customarily attributed to King the field of Marathon. Multitudes, also, of spear- John, as to show that they were built in the early heads of all sizes, made of the same mixed metal, and times. Of these, the extensive ruin at Trim, in the curiously-shaped bronze rings, have from time to time county of Meath, affords a fair example, as being one been discovered, the use of which had long been a of the largest, and often formerly the residence of the desideratum to antiquaries, when a recent event unex- viceroy or chief governor. Parliaments were held pectedly threw light upon the subject, and confirmed within its walls, and money minted there and sent the conjecture of Sir William Betham as to their hav- into circulation. A few of the ancient castles belonging been current money. A variety of golden articles ing to the old nobility still continue to be inhabited, have been discovered in many parts of the country, as Malahide, Lord Talbot's de Mal ide; and Howth, such as semi-lunar shaped disks, formed of thin plates the Earl of Howth’s, both in the county of Dublin; of

pure gold ; torques, or large twisted collars for the Shanes Castle, the residence of Earl O'Neil; Portumna neck; armlets, brooches, rings, pieces of gold, bell- Castle on the Shannon, that of Lord Clanrickard ; and shaped, but solid and fastened together, the use of Kilkenny Castle, the seat of the Marquis of Ormond. which has not been made out; and some rings of the same shape as those of bronze, which have been proved by Sir William Betham to have been used as money. This is the largest province of Ireland, and contains

Ecclesiastical Antiquities. — Under this head rank the twelve counties of Louth, Meath, Dublin, Wicklow, those buildings which may be considered as the most Wexford, Carlow, Kilkenny, Kildare, Queen's County, ancient, after the Pagan remains, and which bear a King's County, Westmeath, and Longford, the whole peculiar character, differing from that of any extant forming a large tract of country on the east side of the elsewhere. Of these but few are now in existence. The island, and having Dublin at a central point on the stone-roofed church of St Doulagh’s, near Dublin, be- coast. The scenery of Leinster is much varied. The longs to the earliest date; its plan and style are equally county most remarkable for picturesque beauty is that uncommon. The latter seems to have been a rude ap- of Wicklow, a short way south of Dublin; the hills, proach to the oldest Norman; it is low, and of great glens, and valleys are here rich natural wood, and, strength; the church, divided' by a low-browed arch, bounded by an extensive prospect of the ocean, can seems to have had a small choir and a somewhat larger hardly be exceeded in beauty. The principal points There are also, strangely disposed, at various of attraction for tourists are Lough Bray; a woody



ravine called the Dargle; and the Vale of Avoca, which | excellence. The prosperity of the trade is noticed in is one continuous piece of sylvan pleasure - ground. an act of Elizabeth; and so flourishing was it in the Wexford, still farther south, may also, to a consider- time of Sir William Temple, that he became appreable extent, be described as a picturesque and fertile hensive lest it should interfere with that of the Engcounty; and though the county of Meath is for the lish. In 1688, the woollen manufacture was established most part flat and tame, except along the banks of to a considerable extent in the liberties of Dublin. the Boyne and Blackwater, it can boast there of some But this prosperity was soon interrupted by the English spots of redeeming beauty; as an example of which presenting a petition for the imposition of such heavy Beau Parc, the beautiful demesne of Gustavus Lam- duties on the exportation of wool, as greatly injured bert, Esq., may well be mentioned ; and in a large the trade. It never, however, became extinct in the portion of the county, the quantity of wood and the liberties, though it now extends only to the manufacrich hedgerows give an almost English character to the ture of coarse fabrics. In 1773, the Dublin Society, landscape. Westmeath is remarkable for expansive anxious for its revival, procured an order that the lakes, and for the dry gravelly hills which give variety army should be clothed with Irish cloth. This einto its surface. The Queen’s County, though a good ployment, however, became soon monopolised by one deal disfigured by bog, yet boasts, at Abbeleix and or two great houses which had parliamentary interest : Dunmore, of a great stretch of magniticent natural one of these failed in 1810, and the failure was followed oak wood. The remaining part of Leinster cannot be by the bankruptcy of almost the entire woollen trade considered interesting or peculiar in its general fea- of Dublin; for the general credit was so much affected, tures. The King's County contains the greatest portion that the banks refused to discount the bills of the of the flat flow-bog, on the eastern side of the Shannon; manufacturers, and consequently the crash became towards Roscrea, where the Slievh Bloom mountains general. The trade is now almost confined to the city terminate, there is some interesting scenery, especially of Dublin and its environs, where good hearth-rugs and about the ancient castle of Leap.

carpeting are still manufactured. Leinster may be considered as much superior to the The silk trade was introduced by the French refuother provinces with respect to agriculture ; and some gees, and about 1693 fully established by them in the parts of Carlow, Kildare, and Wexford, are cultivated liberties of Dublin. In 1774 an act was passed, placing in a manner approaching in skill to that of the agri- it under the direction of the Dublin Society, for the cultural districts of England and Scotland. In stock, extent of two miles and a half round the castle; and implements, rotation of crops, and the industry with that society was empowered to make regulations for its which manure is collected and composts manufactured, management, which it accordingly did, and also opened there is a great and increasing improvement. Farm- a silk warehouse, and paid a premium of 5 per cent. ing societies, ploughing- matches, and premiums for on all sales made therein. But this warehouse was new and better breeds of cattle, have greatly tended ruined by an act passed about the year 1786, prohibitto this increasing prosperity; and they only who have ing any of the funds of the Dublin Society from being witnessed what these districts were previous to the applied to support any house selling Irish goods either Union, can appreciate the amelioration which has since wholesale or retail. This act gave to the manufacture taken place. Near Dublin are some extensive paper a check by which hundreds of people were thrown out inanufactories, and in the county of Meath is a large of employment. According to a return made in 1809, flax-spinning mill. Generally speaking, however, there there were still 3760 hands engaged in it, who, after are but few manufactures in Leinster.

the passing of this cruel act, struggled to support the The counties of Wicklow and Wexford contain an trade; but when the protecting duties were taken oft industrious and thriving population; and because in- in 1821, and steam communication opened with Eng. dustrious, the people are able to pay, from soils not land, the Irish market was inundated with goods at a superior to those of other districts, rents which would smaller price than that at which her native fabric could be intolerable in other parts of Ireland. The Wicklow be produced, and thus the ruin of the trade was compeasantry are reckoned the finest in the world, and pleted. The tabinet fabric of silk and worsted (See re proverbial for their handsoine features and fine No. 22), for which Dublin has long been famous, is the Roman profiles, and still more so as being a respectful, only branch of the silk business which has not matequiet, and well-conducted people. The county of Meath rially suffered from these discouragements. is remarkably fertile; but being less subdivided, is therefore less populous than any other part of Ireland,

Chief Towns. considering the richness of its soil. The same prosperity The chief towns in Leinster arc Dublin, Kilkenny, as that in Wicklow and Wexford, though perhaps in a Drogheda, Wecford, Maryborough, Mullingar, Carlou, smaller degree, prevails in Kildare, Carlow, and the Birr, or Parsonstown, and Trim.. Queen's County. One of the chief causes of this pro- Dublin, the principal town in Leinster, and the sperity is, that a large portion of the population receive capital of Ireland, is situated at the margin of a money payments for their daily labour, and another, beautiful bay, on a generally flat piece of country, that the coltier and con or corn-acre systems are here through which flows the River Liffey, and is therefore less resorted to. The wages of Leinster are usually agreeably placed both for commerce and the accom1s. a day in summer, and in winter from 8d. to 10d., modation of a large population. In point of size, Dub. without diet. The average rent for arable land is lin occupies a place between Edinburgh and London, from £l to £1, 10s., and for pasture land from £2 to and its appearance never fails to surprise and delight £3 per acre. The general diet of the pensantry is pota- the stranger. In external aspect it is essentially an toes, milk, stirabout, eggs, butter, bacon, and herrings. English town, being built of brick in a neat and regular Their dwellings are confessedly superior to those of manner, but abounding in a class of elegant public Munster or Connaught. The resident gentry are more structures of stone, which resemble the more substannumerous, and take a great interest in the wellbeing tial embellishments of Paris and other continental of their tenantry. Leinster, therefore, may altogether cities. The river, flowing from west to cast, divides be pronounced a much improved part of the country. the city into two nearly equal portions, and is a strik

As the woollen and silk manufactures are still car-ing feature in the general plan. The leading thoroughried on in Dublin and other parts of Leinster, a slight fares of the city are easily comprehended. First, from sketch of their history may not be out of place in the east to west, there is the double line of houses and account of that province. So early as the reign of quays bordering upon the river, the lower part of which llenry III. Irish woollen manufactures were imported forms a harbour, and is crowded with vessels. Crossfrom Ireland to England, duty free; and so excellent ing this line at right angles, is the great line formed was their quality, that, from 1327 to 1357, they were by Sackville, Westmoreland, and Grafton Streets, the exported to Italy, at a time when the woollen fabrics first and second of which are connected by Carlisle of the latter country had attained a high degree of Bridge, the lowest in a range of eight or nine which

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i the river at various distances from each other. I the place of assembly of the Irish Houses of Parliament. ullel to the quays, on the south side of the river, The deep colonnaded front of this building is one of * is a shorter arterial line of great importance, the most beautiful pieces of architecture, not only in the ed by College Green, Dame Street, Castle Street, British dominions, but in the world: it carries a charm Thomas Street, being terminated to the east by the like a fine picture. The hall where once the Commons ings of the University. Though the ancient part of Ireland assembled-where the eloquence of a Grat

city occupies the south bank of the river, there tan, a Curran, and a Flood, was once heard—is now ortion of the niean and elegant on both sides; the altered to suit the purposes of a telling-room; but the * and squares of the wealthy being here, contrary House of Peers remains exactly as it was left by that usual rule, in the north-east and south-east dis- assembly, being only occasionally used for meetings of

All the great lines are formed by houses of the Bank directorate. The latter is a small, but handad elegant proportions, chiefly devoted to com- some hall, adorned with tapestry representing transac

and perhaps no city can present a more tions in the subjugation of Ireland by King William1 series of shops and warehouses. Sackville the Battle of the Boyne, the Breaking of the Boom, and 100 perches in length and 6 in width, with a so forth, as also a few appropriate inscriptions. onumental pillar in the centre, and some of the In Kildare Street, at no great distance from the

public buildings in the world lending it their College and Bank, the halls of the Royal Society of effect, must impress every one as something worthy of Dublin present a powerful claim to the attention of a great city. The spaciousness of several of the squares strangers, in the great variety of curiosities, pictures, in the aristocratic districts is equally impressive. and models with which they are filled. In a peramMerrion Square is half, and St Stephen's Green nearly bulation of the city, the Castle is the next object worthy a whole mile, in circumference; the latter containing of notice. This ancient seat of the viceregal governseventeen acres of pleasure-ground in the centre, ment, to which rumours of plots and insurrections

On first walking into the streets of Dublin, the have been so often brought by terror-struck spies or stranger is apt to see, in the throng of carriages and remorseful participators, is placed on slightly-elevated foot-passengers, nothing more than what he expects to ground, in the midst of the old or southern division of find in all large cities. He soon observes, however, the city. It consists of two courts, containing certain that, besides the luxurious class who occupy the better public offices, and the apartments of state used by the kind of vehicles, and the busy, well-dressed crowd who Lord-Lieutenant. In the lower court is the Castle move along the foot-ways, there is a great multitude Chapel, a beautifully-constructed and beautifully-surof mean and mendicant figures, such as are only to be nished modern Gothic place of worship, the whole found in a small proportion in other cities. This is the materials of which are of Irish production, and which very first peculiar feature which the stranger detects in cost above £40,000. The service performed here Dublin, and it is an unfortunate one. It is explained every Sunday forenoon, graced, as it is, by the finest when we learn, that of the large population of Dublin vocal and instrumental music, while a rich 'religious ---supposed to approach 300,000-- fully three-fourths light' streams through stained windows, and is reare beneath what is recognised in Britain as the middle fiected from the gorgeous stalls of civil and ecclesiasrank. Thus the most respectable streets in Dublin, and tical dignitaries, is one of the most attractive things in the most elegant figures which appear in them, seem Dublin. The state-apartments of the Viceroy are in isolated in the midst of penury and meanness.

the taste of the middle of the last century, and are The public buildings of Dublin boast an elegance elegant, but not remarkable for grandeur. In one is much above what might be expected from the general a bust of Chesterfield, who was Lord-Lieutenant in character of the city. In sailing up the river, the eye 1745. The most remarkable room is the ball-room, is first attracted by the Customhouse, a large and denominated St Patrick's Hall, which is spacious and splendid edifice in the well-known taste of the Adams, lofty, and among other attractions, has a ceiling ornasurmounted by a dome, and very happily situated upon mented with pictures, emblematical of transactions in the north quay. The Post-Office, in Sackville Street, the history of Ireland. is in that graver form of the Grecian style which has In Ireland, old ecclesiastical structures are usually more recently come into favour, extending above 200 more curious for their antiquity than their beauty. feet in front, with a noble portico surmounted by a Accordingly, the exterior of St Patrick's and Christpediment. The simultaneous starting of the mail. Church, the two cathedrals of Dublin, is apt to appear coaches, at a certain hour every evening, from the ungainly to an eye fresh from Westminster or Melrose. court of this building, is one of the sights of Dublin. In the former building, nevertheless, the interior of Opposite to it is a pillar in honour of Nelson, sur- the choir in which service is usually performed, will mounted by a figure of that hero. At the upper ex. impress every mind by its lofty proportions, its pomtremity of Sackville Street is the Lying-in Hospital, a pous monuments, and the dark stalls and niches, surbeautiful building, with which is closely connected the mounted with the helmets and banners of the knights more celebrated Rotunda, together with an extensive of the order of St Patrick. In visiting this ancient plot of ornamental ground. The Four Courts-also a church, the predominant thought is-Swift. We look most superb structure-overlooks the river at a point for his dwelling as we approach, and for his tomb when considerably removed to the west, and completes the we enter-such is the power which genius has of fixing list of remarkable buildings in the northern division of the feelings of men for all time upon every external the city. To the south of the river, the objects worthy thing connected with it! The deanery still exists in of especial notice are more numerous. The buildings St Kevin Street, containing the portrait of Swift from of the University (founded by Queen Elizabeth in which all the engraved likenesses have been derived. 1592) occupy a conspicuous situation on the great The streets immediately surrounding St Patrick's Catransverse line of streets which has already been men-thedral are the meanest and vilest in the city. The tioned. Beneath an elegant Grecian front, 300 feet in houses have a ruinous and forlorn look, and the pavelength, an archway gives admission to a succession of ments are crowded with a population of the most spacious squares, chiefly composed of brick domestic wretched order. These streets are filled with shops, buildings, and containing a theatre for examinations, but the trades to which they are devoted serve rather a museum, a chapel, a refectory, a library, and other to betray the misery than to manifest the comfort of apartments necessary for the business of the institu- the people. Here dealers in old clothes, pawnbrokers, tion. In the museum is preserved an ancient harp, spirit-dealers, and persons trading in ofials, almost the generally represented as that of Brian Boroimhe, a only kinds of animal food indulged in by the lower famous Irish king of the tenth century. There are orders of the people, abound. usually about two thousand students in attendance at At the western extremity of Dublin, on the north the University. Divided from this building only by the side of the river, is the celebrated public promenade breadth of a street, is the Bank of Ireland, formerly | denominated the Phænix Park, said to consist of about

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a thousand acres. Not only does this park greatly I were seven theatres well supported; at present the exceed those of London in extent, but it is questionable only one which remains is frequently thinly attended. if even the Regent's Park, after all the expense in- Club- houses and gaming-tables are nearly deserted curred in ornamenting it, will ever match this domain and even among the lower classes vice of every kind in beauty. The ground is of an undulating character, has visibly diminished.' In 1831 the population of and is covered with groups of fine old timber and Dublin was 204,155; and in 1841, 232,726. shrubbery, amidst which are the domestic residences Kilkenny, the capital of the county of the same name, of the Lord - Lieutenant and his principal officers, situated on the River Nore, was formerly a town of besides some other public buildings, and a tall obelisk great consequence, as its ancient castle, the ruins of its in honour of the Duke of Wellington's victories. A embattled walls, and churches, testify. Till lately, it zoological garden has lately been added to the other carried on a considerable trade in the manufacture of attractions of the park.

woollen cloths and blankets; but these branches have Dublin was formerly a busy literary mart, in conse- in a great degree fallen off, and the business is now quence of the state of the copyright law, which allowed confined to the retail of necessaries for its inhabitants, of cheap reprints of British books being here issued. and the sale of the agricultural produce of the disAfter a long interval, the activity of its publishers has trict. The city contains several good streets, which lately revived, and there are now several houses which are respectably inhabited, both by private families and afford considerable encouragement to native talent. tradesmen; but the suburbs are miserable. The most Dublin possesses a number of charitable institutions, conspicuous ornament of the city is the fine baronial conducted on a scale of great liberality; also several castle of the Marquis of Ormond, full of historical asreligious and educational societies, whose operations sociations, rising boldly over the Nore. The Cathedral are extended over the whole kingdom. The trade car- of St Canice, built in 1202, is not excelled by any of ried on in the town refers chietly to home consump- the ancient ecclesiastical buildings in the kingdom, tion; and excepting tabinets or poplins, it is not dis except St Patrick's and Christ Church in Dublin. The tinguished as the seat of any manufacture. There is town possesses a number of respectable schools, and very little foreign export from Dublin. Its principal various asylums and other beneficiary institutions. imports are- --- timber from the Baltic; tallow, hemp, Near the town, as already noticed, there is a marble and tar from Russia ; wine and fruits from France, quarry of considerable local importance. Population Spain, and Portugal ; tobacco, bark, and spices from in 1831, 23,741; in 1841, 23,625. Holland; and sugar from the West India islands. Drogheda, in the county of Louth, and situated on

The most important branch of its commerce is that the Boyne, in the line of road from Dublin to Belfast, carried on with England, chiefly in connection with is a town of respectable appearance, and the seat of an Liverpool, to whose market there are now large ex- industrious population. From the time the English ports of native produce. Though the Liffey forms the settled in Ireland, this town was called Tredagh, and harbour of the port, vessels of large burthen, and steam- considered of such importance, that parliaments were boats, have an opportunity of preferring the harbour at formerly held in it. In 1649 it was stormed by CromKingston (formerly called Dunleary), at the mouth of well, and the inhabitants put to the sword, except a few the bay, on its southern side. This harbour, which is who were transported to America. Five steamers ply constructed on a magnificent scale, with the neat town regularly between Drogheda and Liverpool or Glasgow, adjacent, may at all times be readily reached by rail- carrying out corn, cattle, sheep, pigs, and fowl, and way from Dublin, which proves a great convenience to bringing back cotton cloth, timber, leather, tobacco, salt, the inhabitants. At the opposite side of the bay from and iron. Drogheda contains three Episcopal churches Kingston is Howth, whose celebrated 'hill’ forms a -St Peter's, St Mary's, and St Mark's, which is a chapel distinguishing land-mark. In 1845 there were 260 of ease to St Peter's; four Roman Catholic chapels, sailing vessels under, and 218 above, 50 tons burthen, two convents, and a friary. The chief civic buildings making an aggregate tonnage of 28,500 ; 35 steamers, are a handsome tholsel, customhouse, mayoralty-house, with an aggregate burtben of 8650 tons; and the cus- jail, and linen-hall. The town does not bear a literary toms' receipts exceeded £1,043,000.

character: it has, however, four tolerably good bookThe number of light private vehicles in Dublin is sellers' shops and a reading-room: there is also a meone of its most remarkable distinctive features. These chanics' society in Drogheda. Its principal manufacare generally of the kind called cars, drawn by one tories are a flax-mill, two foundries, salt-works, a dishorse, and having a seat on each side, admitting of two tillery, and three breweries. There are, besides, several or more persons sitting with their faces outwards. To large flour-mills, and a soap and candle manufactory. keep a car is one of the highest aims of the ambition of There is a salmon - fishery on the Boyne, close to the a Dublin tradesman. Previous to the Union,' says town ; and cod, haddock, plaice, soles, and gurnet, are an intelligent writer, who has been consulted with abundantly caught along the coast. The linen trade advantage, Dublin was the constant residence of 271 is still carried on in Drogheda, though it is at present temporal and spiritual peers, and 300 members of the in a very depressed condition. The time of its greatest House of Commons. At present, about half-a-dozen prosperity was from 1814 to 1820, during which period peers, and 15 or 20 members of the House of Com- 4000 pieces of linen were averaged to be the weekly mons, have a settled dwelling within its precincts. product. There was also a temporary revival of the Other persons of this exalted class of society, whom cotton trade in this town; but in the commercial panic business or amusement may draw to the capital occa- of 1825–6, many of the Drogheda weavers passed over sionally, take up their residence at the hotels, which are to Manchester and Oldham, others went to France, and numerous in the city. The resident gentry of Dublin a large body emigrated to America, in consequence of now amount to about 2000 families, including clergy, which the cotton business ceased. The population in men and physicians, besides nearly an equal number 1831 was 17,366; and in 1841, 19,260. În 1845 there of lawyers and attorneys, who occasionally reside there. belonged to the port 41 sailing vessels, with a tonnage The families engaged in trade and commerce are cal- of 3814 ; 5 steamers, with a tonnage of 2775; and culated at about 5500, and the whole may yield a popu- the customs in the same year amounted to £9,372. lation of 60,000 or 70,000 in the higher and middle ranks of society. The change which has taken place,

MUNSTER. though injurious to commercial prosperity, has per- MUNSTER contains six counties, Clare, Cork, Kerry, haps in an equal proportion proved beneficial to public Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterford, and may be conmorals; the general character of the inhabitants, which sidered as that part of Ireland in which the national was once gay and dissipated, has now become more character and the national habits of all kinds are serious and religious, and those sums formerly lavished maintained in their greatest purity. Some of the largest on expensive pleasures are now happily converted to seats of population in the island, as the cities of Cork, purposes of a more exalted nature. Formerly there Waterford, and Limerick, are situated in Munster. The

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