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nandale; Hermitage (Roxburghshire), which belonged celebrated), coachmaking, the weaving of shas, and to a powerful noble named Lord Soutis; Douglas, the the printing and issuing of literary proditions. The residence of the Earls of Douglas; Turnberry (Ayr- leading periodical publications are the Edinburgh and shire), the residence of the Earls of Carrick; Bothwell, North British Reviews, Blackwood and Tait's Maga. another stronghold of the Douglases; Tantallon (Had- zines, a Philosophical and Medical Journal, one e dingtonshire), the residence of the Earls of Angus, a two Ecclesiastical Magazines, besides several weekly branch of the Douglas family; Dunnottar (Kincardine sheets of extensive circulation. The town is distinshire), the seat of the Earls Mareschal; and Doune guished for its numerous banking institutions, which (Perthshire), the stronghold of Robert Earl of Fife, exert an influence on the general trade of the country. brother of Robert III., and governor of Scotland. Four Within a few miles of the city, on the Esk River, there places of strength, Edinburgh, Stirling, Dumburton, and are various paper-mills, at which vast quantities of Blackness Castles, are still kept in repair at the public paper are made, both for the home trade and for exexpense, and serve as barracks for foot soldiers. portation to London. The city is now the centre de

The mansions of the nobility and gentry of Scotland the Scottish railway traffic, having lines and telegraphs do not differ in any important respect from similar communicating with Perth, Dundee, and Aberdeen, on classes of structures in England. The 'hall' is, how- the north; with Glasgow on the west; with the west of ever, completely wanting in Scotland, and there are England via Carlisle ; and with the east of England comparatively few specimens of the Elizabethan style. via Berwick and Newcastle. The transit to London Turbulent times being more recent in Scottish than in can be made in twelve hours, and communications by English history, the chief mansions of an unfortified telegraph in less than an hour. character in the northern kingdom are not of earlier Amongst the remarkable objects in the city, the date than the reign of Charles II., and most of them most striking is the Castle, a large fortress romantically are much later. În many instances, the whole or part situated on the summit of a mass of igneous rock, beof the original castellated buildings which stood on the tween 200 and 300 feet in sheer height. It contains, same site have been retained.

besides various batteries and other fortifications, an In the reign of Charles II., mansions were for the ancient palace, in which Queen Mary was delivered of first time built in anything like pure Grecian taste. her son James I. of Great Britain, and a modern barThis was introduced by Sir William Bruce of Kinross, rack, in which a foot regiment is usually quartered. In Bart., an architect of considerable skill, and of whose a well-protected room are shown the crown, sceptre, works the modern Holyrood Palace, and his own house mace, and sword, which formed the regalia of the of Kinross, are examples. During the last century, the Scottish line of princes. The Courts of Law are sitomansions built in Scotland have partaken of all the ated in the centre of the Old Town, and are composed changes of taste passing through England, from the of a great hall, formerly the meeting-place of the heavy barrack-like structures of Sir John Vanburgh, Scottish Parliament, rooms for the two various diri. to the light and elegant Grecian style of Adam. We sions of the civil court and for the lords ordinary, a have now châteaux in the style of the middle ages; room for the High Court of Justiciary (supreme critui. Grecian structures by Adam; mansions in the Doric nal court), and other accommodations. The extensive and more sombre Grecian style since introduced, and libraries belonging respectively to the Advocates (bervery lately, a few specimens in the priory and Eliza- risters) and Writers to the Signet (solicitors) are bethan styles. (See ArchiTECTURE, Vol. I.)

adjacent; the former being a collection of upwards of

150,000 volumes. Holyroodhouse, the palace of the CHIEF CITIES, TOWNS, PORTS, &c.

Scottish kings, is situated at the lower extremity of Edinburgh, the capital, is situated in the county of the principal street of the Old Town. The oldest part the same name, on a cluster of eminences, distant is a mass of building erected by James V., containing between 14 and 3 miles from the Firth of Forth. the presence-chamber, bedroom, and other apartments, The city is composed of two principal parts, the Old used by Queen Mary, with some of the original furniand New Towns; the former being built on a long nar- ture; as also a gallery, furnished with (generally row eminence gently rising towards the west, where it imaginary) portraits of the kings of Scotland. The terminates in a lofty and abrupt rock, on which the apartments of the queen are to be regarded with no castle is situated; while the latter occupies lower ground ordinary interest, both as furnishing a curious and towards the north. The town is universally built of a faithful memorial of the domestic accommodations of a fair sandstone, which retains its original colour in the princess of the sixteenth century, and on account of newer parts of the town and in the best public build- that extraordinary incident, the murder of Darid ings, and forms one of the most important features of Rizzio, which took place within them. Another part Edinburgh. The New Town is laid out on a regular of the building, erected in the reign of Charles II, plan of rectangular streets and squares, exhibiting in contains the apartments used by George IV. for his general much architectural elegance. Between the levée in 1822, and a suite of rooms which furnished Old and New Towns, and between various sections of accommodation to Charles X. of France and his family, the New Town itself, as well as in the centres of the during the years 1831-2-3. Closely adjoining to the principal squares, there are gardens laid out in the palace are the ruins of a Gothic church, originally that modern landscape style, forming delightful places of of the Abbey of Holyrood, and latterly a chapel-royal

. recreation. It is chiefly owing to the unequal ground The College is a large modern quadrangular buildon which Edinburgh is situated, the massive elegance ing, in the southern quarter of the city. It contains and regularity of its buildings, the intermixture of class-rooms for the professors (33 in number), a library ornamental pleasure-ground, and the picturesque hills of splendid proportions and decoration, and an extenimmediately adjacent, whence distant and extensive sive museum of natural history. The university is prospects are commanded, that this city makes so great chiefly distinguished as a school of medicine; but it is an impression on most strangers.

also the means of preparing a great number of the Formerly the seat of the government of the country, native youth for the professions of law and divinity. Edinburgh is still that of the supreme law-courts and The Register-House is a beautiful building, planned by of a flourishing university. It is also to a great extent Adam, in a conspicuous part of the New Town; it cona city of residence, not only for affluent persons con- tains the records connected with the legal business of nected with the country, but for strangers desirous of the country. The Royal Institution is the general enjoying a society of moderate habits, and the benefits appellation of an elegant building facing the centre of of education for their children. Its leading classes are Princes Street, and containing halls for various public thus composed of legal practitioners, learned persons, bodies, as the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Antiand families in independent circumstances. It is only quarian Society of Scotland, the Scottish Academy of in a small degree a manufacturing town, the principal Painting and Sculpture, and an academy for instructrades being the brewing of ale (for which the town is' tion in drawing. Of places of Worship, the most re

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markable are St Giles's Church in the Old Town (once | burgh, 397 from London, and 196 from Dublin. The
the cathedral), a Gothic building of the fifteenth cen- external appearance of this great city is elegant and
tury, lately renovated; St George's, St Stephen's, and impressive. The streets are regular in arrangement,
St Andrew's, modern churches of the establishment; and substantially built of smooth stone. The public
and St Paul's and St John's, elegant Gothio chapels of buildings are in general handsome, and in most in-
the Episcopalian body. There are two Roman Catholic stances disposed in such a manner as to be seen to
chapels, and many dissenting places of worship. Of advantage. The more ancient part of the city extends
the other public buildings, the most remarkable are along the line of the High Street, between the Cathe-
the Infirmary; the hospitals for the maintenance and dral and the river; the more modern and elegant part
education of poor children, of which Heriot's and stretches towards the north-west. On the left bank of
Donaldson's are the most elegant; the Surgeons' and the river, and connected by three bridges, is situated
Physicians' Halls; and the offices of the Bank of Scot- the populous barony of Gorbals, bearing the same re-
land, of the Royal, Commercial, and other banks. On ference to Glasgow which Southwark bears to London.
the Calton Hill are situated some other public struc-Westward from the lowest of the bridges, both sides of
tures, as the County Jail and Bridewell; monuments to the river are formed into quays, which, owing to recent
Nelson, Dugald Stewart, Burns, and Professor Playfair; operations for deepening the channel, are now ap-
an astronomical observatory, and a small portion of a proached by vessels drawing about fourteen or fifteen
building designed as a national monument to the feet water. The quay on the north bank is denomi-
Scotsmen who perished in the last war, but which will nated the Broomielaw: it was recently extended to 3340
probably never be completed. In Princes Street Gar- feet in length, while that on the south bank is 1260
dens stands the monument erected in honour of Sir feet; and is still, along with the entire navigation of
Walter Scott-a superb structure of Gothic design, the river, undergoing important improvements.
and undoubtedly one of the leading ornaments of the Glasgow took its rise as a dependency of the cathe.
city. The population of Edinburgh and Leith in 1821 dral of the bishops (latterly archbishops) of the sec
Fas 138,235; in 1831, 162,403; and in 1841, 166,450. bearing its name. It was not, however, till long after

Leith, the seaport of Edinburgh, but an indendepent the Reformation that it became a seat of considerable
parliamentary burgh, is situated at the efflux of the population. About the middle of the eighteenth cen-
rivulet of the same name, which originally constituted tury, it had acquired a considerable share of the import
its harbour. The older part of the town is crowded colonial trade, which it still retains; but during the
and mean, but in the outskirts there are some good last seventy years, it has chiefly been distinguished as
streets. The town is connected with Edinburgh by a a seat of manufactures. The weaving of lawns, cam-
broad and beautiful road, above a mile in length, de- brics, and similar articles, commenced in Glasgow in
nominated Leith Walk. Besides the quays skirting 1725. The advantages enjoyed by the city for the im-
the embouchure of the river, there is a range of wet- portation of cotton, in time gave a greater impulse to
docks, and extensive operations are now in progress that species of manufacture. In 1834, out of 134 cot-
for the improvement of the harbour, which labours ton-factories existing in Scotland, 100 belonged to
under several heavy natural disqualifications. During Glasgow and its neighbourhood; and the importation
spring-tides, the utmost depth of water on the bar of cotton into that port amounted to 95,703 bales. In
at the mouth of the river is 17 feet – during neap- the weaving of this material, upwards of 15,000 power-
tides, 14 feet; and it is rarely that a vessel of 400 looms, and 32,000 handloom weavers, were at the same
tons can gain admission. The want of deep water time employed by the manufacturers of Glasgow. In
at Leith is partly supplied by a small harbour at New- 1845 there were in Glasgow and neighbourhood, 784,756
haren, an extensive and substantial stone-pier at spindles, and 7847 workers; 17,620 power-looms, and
Granton, and a chain-pier at Trinity, which serve as 11,200 workers. The value of the spinning-factories
places of embarkation and debarkation for steamers was estimated at £784,756 ; of the power-loom or
and other vessels devoted chiefly to passengers. The weaving factories, at £264,300. The calico-printing
chief foreign trade of Leith is with the ports in the establishments, connected with the chief manufacture,
Baltic and north of Europe; next to this in importance are between 40 and 50 in number. It would be vain
ranks its intercourse with the West Indies. But the to attempt an exact enumeration of the less pro-
imports of Leith are chiefly for local consumption, and minent features of the business carried on in Glas-
bear little reference to the great manufacturing busi- gow. The chief articles of importation besides cotton
ness of the country. For the coasting trade there are are sugar, rum, tea, tobacco, and timber. The chief
various companies, each of which has several vessels in articles manufactured or prepared besides cotton goods
employment. Amongst the ports with which regular are sugar, soap, glass, iron, ropes, leather, chemical
intercourse is carried on by steam, may be mentioned stuffs, and machinery. There were recently seven na-
London, Hull, Newcastle, Dundee, Aberdeen, Hamburg, tive banks, and several branches of other banks. Dur-
and Rotterdam. The tonnage belonging to Leith is ing a year, extending from a certain period in 1839 to
somewhat stationary: it was, in 1826, 25,674; in 1832, a certain period in 1840, 5484 vessels, of 296,302 ton.
23,094; in 1835, 22,073; and in 1845, 22,258 ----of nage, arrived at the Glasgow harbour; the customhouse
which 2,750 belonged to vessels under 50 tons burthen, revenue of 1839 was £468,975, and the harbour dues
and 19,508 to vessels upwards of 50 tons. In the same of the twelvemonth ending August 31 of that year were
year the number of sailing vessels under 50 tons was £45,826. In 1845, 438 vessels belonged to Glasgow,
100; above 50 tons, 118. Besides the above there with an aggregate burthen of 117,000 tons; and in the
were & steamers under 50 tons, having an aggregate same year the gross receipts at the customhouse were
tonnage of 199; and 9 steamers above 50 tons, having £551,851. It is worthy of remark, that the Clyde was
an aggregate tonnage of 1,972. In 1844 the nett the first river in the elder hemisphere on which steam
receipt of customs duties was £500,924 ; in 1845 it navigation was exemplified. A steam-vessel of three-
was £606,407. In Leith there are several breweries, horse power was set afloat on the river in January 1812,
a sugar-refining establishment, and several manufac- by Mr Henry Bell of Helensburgh; and there were
tories of soap, candles, ropes, and glass. The Custom- twenty such vessels on the Clyde before one had dis-
bouse, an elegant modern building, is the seat of the turbed the waters of the Thames. In 1845 there were
Board of Customs for Scotland. In 1831 the popula-sixty-seven steam-vessels, of 11,100 aggregate tonnage,
tion of Leith was 25,855; in 1841, 33,473. The town, connected with Glasgow, eighteen of which plied to
in union with Newhaven, Portobello, and Musselburgh, Liverpool, Belfast, Dublin, and Londonderry. Within
returns a member to parliament.

the last few years the city has become a great centre Glasgow, the most populous city in Scotland, occupies of the iron trade, this metal being produced in the a highly advantageous situation on the banks of the neighbourhood to an annual amount of not less than Clyde, in Lanarkshire, a few miles from the place where 200,000 tons. As a necessary consequence of the comthe river expands into an estuary, 42 miles from Edin- I merce and manufactures which flourish in Glasgow,

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the city has a vast retail trade in all the articles of is isolated, the other sides are also of decorative archi. luxury and necessity which are used by human beings. tecture. Altogether this building, supported by a set But no circumstance connected with Glasgow could of very elegant domestic structures of similarly august give so impressive an idea of the height to which busi- proportions, impresses the mind of a stranger as some. ness has been carried in it, as the rapid advance and thing signally worthy of a great city. present great amount of its population. By the census Since the Reform Act of 1832, Glasgow has the pri, of 1791, the inhabitants were 66,578; and by the first vilege of returning two members to parliament. The government census in 1801, they were 77,385. But places of Worship, charitable and educational institu

. these numbers have been increased in 1811 to 110,749; tions, and associations of various kinds for public ek. in 1821 to 147,043; in 1831 to 202,426; and in 1841 jects, are very numerous. A laudable zeal for the in. to 274,533—a mass of population which, at the time of provement of education marks the city; and a nortna! the Union, could not have been dreamt of as likely school, or seminary for the rearing of teachers—the ever to exist in any Scottish city.

first in the empire-has been erected under the auspices The Cathedral, or High Church, is situated in the of a private society. northern outskirts of the city, near the upper extremity The means of communication in connection with of the High Street. The bulk of the existing building Glasgow, are suitable to the character of the city as was constructed at the close of the twelfth century, in one of the greatest emporia of commerce and manufae. place of another which had been consecrated in 1136, ture in the world. Besides a river, navigable by tes. but was destroyed by fire. It consists of a long nave sels drawing fifteen feet of water, and which gives the and choir, a chapter-house projecting from the north- means of a ready communication with the westen east angle, a tower and spire in the centre, and a crypt shores of Britain, with Ireland, and with America, the extending beneath the choir or eastern portion of the Forth and Clyde Canal, of which a branch comes to building. In the nave, termed the Outer High Kirk, Port-Dundas, in the northern suburbs, serves to con was held the celebrated General Assembly of the vey goods and passengers to the eastern shores of the Church, November 1638, by which Episcopacy was island, while canals of less note connect the city with abolished and pure Presbytery replaced - the first Paisley and Johnstone in one direction, and with the great movement in the civil war.

great coal-fields of Monkland in the other. There is als The elevated ground near the east end of the Cathe- railway communication connecting it with Edinburgh dral has been formed into an ornamental place of and the north of Scotland on the one hand, and with sepulture, under the appellation of the Necropolis. the south of Scotland and England on the other. The Since 1831, the Society of Merchants, its proprietors, steam communication between Glasgow and Liverpool, have expended the sum of £6000 in laying out about Dublin and other Irish ports, is conducted on a seale twenty-four acres of ground in walks and shrubberies, which may be called grand. The vessels are superb in and in connecting the spot with the opposite slope by magnitude, decoration, and power; and they sail fremeans of a bridge across the intermediate rivulet. quently and rapidly. The steam intercourse between The taste manifested in the whole scheme and in its Glasgow and various places in Scotland, both for pas. execution is extremely creditable to the city. The sengers and objects of traffic, is also conducted on a walks, several miles in extent, command an extensive great scale: among the places touched at in the Clyde view of the neighbouring country. They are skirted and to the south are Greenock, Dumbarton, Dunoon

, by numberless sepulchral plots and excavations, where Rothesay, Arran, Gourock, Troon, and Ayr. Among the already affection has been busy in erecting its frail places to the north to which vessels sail regularly are memorials,' all of which, it may be mentioned, are Inverary, Campbeltown, Obon, Staffa and Iona, Mull, fashioned according to certain regulations, with a view Arisaig, Skye, Stornoway, and Inverness. In opening to general keeping and effect.

up markets for West Highland produce, and intro. The College buildings are situated on the east side ducing luxuries in return, these vessels have also been of the High Street, about half-way between the Cathe- of marked service, insomuch that the value of property dral and the Trongate. They consist in a sort of in those hitherto secluded districts has experienced a double court; the front which adjoins to the street very considerable rise. being 330 feet in length, and three storeys in height. The country around Glasgow, particularly towards The whole edifice has a dignified and venerable ap- the south, abounds in busy towns and villages

, of the pearance. A large piece of ground behind the Col. former of which the most remarkable is Paisley, situ. lege is formed into a park or green, interspersed with ated in Renfrewshire, on the banks of the small river trees and hedges, and always kept in grass, to be used Cart, 7 miles from the city above described. The by the students as a place of exercise or amusement. external appearance of this town is pleasing, and the In the College there are appointed professors or teachers streets are in general composed of substantial build. of about thirty branches of science, theology, and polite ings. It originated from an abbey founded in 1160 by literature. At the back of the interior court stands Walter, the first of the Stewarts, and of which can

. the modern Grecian building which contains the Hun- siderable remains still exist. Paisley is a noted seat terian Museum. This is a large collection of singular of the manufacture of shawls, and also of cotton thread, natural objects, coins, medals, rare manuscripts, paint gauzes, and velvets. In the town and Abbey parish, ings, and relics of antiquity, originally formed by Dr exclusive of the large village of Johnstone, there were William Hunter, the celebrated anatomist, and be- lately three cotton spinning-mills, and seven or eight queathed by him to this university, at which he received thread-mills; two steam-loom factories; six flour-mills

; his education. While the College confers professional a calico-printing work; many bleaching-works and dye

. education, popular instruction is attainable, under houses ; three breweries and two distilleries ; several unusually advantageous circumstances, through the timber yards; and several iron and brass foundries

; an medium of the Andersonian Institution, an extensive alum and coperas work, a soap work, and a tan-yard

. school of science founded at the close of the last cen- An idea of the present extent of manufactures

, in tury, and connected with which there is a general comparison with what it was in the last age, may be museum, containing many curious objects, and con- obtained from the fact, that while the whole of the stantly open to the public.

manufactures in 1760 amounted to £15,000, the annual The most attractive modern building in Glasgow is computed value of the goods made in and around the the Royal Exchange in Queen Street, à most superb town a few years ago was £2,000,000. structure, erected in 1829, as a point of assemblage for Paisley has been changed by the Reform Acts from the merchants in the western part of the city. The a burgh of barony into a parliamentary burgh of the principal room is a large hall, supported by a double first class, returning one member, divided into wards row of columns, and used as a reading-room. The for municipal purposes, and managed by sixteen counfront of the Exchange consists of a magnificent por- cillors, including a provost, four bailies, and a treasurer, tico, surmounted by a cupola ; and as the building Being, though not the county town, the seat of the

sheriff court, it is adorned by a large modern castellated | bank of the Don. The aggregate population, according building, containing a jail, bridewell, and series of to census 1841, was 64,767. court-rooms; but unfortunately the edifice is placed in Aberdeen is a city of great antiquity. It became the a low situation, without reference to salubrity or exter- seat of a university by the erection of King's College nal influences. Devoted as the inhabitants of Paisley in Old Aberdeen in 1495; Mareschal College, in New are to the pursuits of business, they have long been Aberdeen, was added in 1593. By the recent Reform honourably remarkable for a spirit of inquiry and a Acts it is a royal burgh of the first class, divided into desire for intellectual improvement. The population districts for municipal purposes, and returning one of Paisley, like that of Glasgow, has experienced a very member to parliament. *Aberdeen is at once a seat rapid advance: the inhabitants of the town and sur- of manufactures and a seaport. There are several rounding parochial district, in 1821, amounted to 47,003; houses engaged in the cotton manufacture, a few in in 1831 to 57,466; and in 1841 to 60,487.

the woollen trade, and three or four in flax-spinning Notwithstanding the inland situation of Paisley, its and the weaving of linen. Ship-building, iron-foundmeans of communication are unusually facile and ing, comb-making, rope - making, and paper - making ample. The White Cart, navigable from its efflux into are also carried on to a great extent. The fisheries of the Clyde to the Sneddon in the outskirts of Paisley, the River Dee, and the export of granite, are sources presents all the advantages of a canal. A canal leaves of considerable income. Of the exports for the year the southern suburbs of Glasgow, and passing Paisley, 1836, we may notice, as indicating at once the extent terminates at Johnstone. Paisley is also benefited by and nature of the agricultural and manufacturing prothe Glasgow and Ayr Railway, which passes it, as well ducts of the district, the following items:-Flax manuas by the other lines which centre in Glasgow, factures, 30,482 barrel bulk; cotton manufactures,

In Renfrewshire also is situated Greenock, till re- 16,336 do.; woollen manufactures, 20,043 do.; oats, cently the greatest seaport of the kingdom as far as 69,239 quarters; meal, 13,375 bolls; sheep and lambs, customhouse receipts form a criterion, these having 1407; pigs, 3034; butter, 9261 cwts.; eggs, 8120 barrel been, in 1834, £482,138 in gross amount. Of late, the bulk; pork, 6006 cwts.; salmon, 7757 do.; granite stones, port of Greenock has been on the decline, in conse- 1738 tons. The chief imports are—coal, of which there quence of the improvement of the river to Glasgow: in was unloaded, during the same year, 371,914 bolls; 1845 the gross customhouse receipts were less than lime, cotton, flax, wool, wood, wheat, flour, salt, iron, £348,000; while Glasgow was £498,000; and Leith, whale-blubber, and miscellaneous goods, consisting of £628,000. This town occupies a strip of sloping ground groceries, &c. There were in 1836 belonging to the facing towards the Firth of Clyde, at the distance of 24 port of Aberdeen 360 vessels, tonnage 42,080, employmiles from Glasgow. In the seventeenth century it ing 3110 men; in 1845 there were 322 sailing vessels, was a mere hamlet; now it is a handsome town of with a tonnage of 48,559; and 14 steamers, with a about 40,000 inhabitants; its population in 1841 being tonnage of 3951. The gross receipts of the custom36,936; containing harbours and quays of 2200 feet in house in 1845 was £76,259. extent, to which belonged, in the same year, 422 ves- Aberdeen is entered from the south by Union Street, sels, of 82,200 tonnage. It is now, moreover, by virtue an elegant double line of buildings, 1 mile in length and of the recent Reform Acts, a parliamentary burgh of 70 feet wide, in the centre of which a ravine, pervaded the first class, returning one member to parliament. by a rivulet, is crossed by a noble arch of 132 feet in The principal branches of commerce conducted in span, upon a rise of 22. King Street, which opens Greenock have reference to the East and West Indies, up the city from the north, is 60 feet wide, and conthe United States, and British America, to which last tains many splendid edifices. Besides these two main it yearly sends out great numbers of emigrants. Sugar- streets, there is a considerable number of modern baking and ship-building are other branches of industry squares and terraces. The public buildings are much carried on here to a great extent. The Customhouse, scattered, but are generally of an elegant appearance. fronting to the Firth of Clyde, is a beautiful Grecian The Public Rooms, erected by the gentlenien of the building, erected in 1818 at an expense of £30,000. counties of Banff, Aberdeen, Kincardine, and Forfar, The Tontine Hotel-situated in one of the principal for meetings, dancing assemblies, &c., and partly occustreets, and containing a large public room, 12 sitting- pied as a reading-room, constitute a handsome Grecian rooms, and 30 bedrooms — was built in 1801 by 400 structure, fronting to Union Street. On the north subscribers of £25 each, the whole expense being thus side of Castle Street stands the Town-House, and in £10,000. There is also an elegant building, in the the centre is the Cross, a curious structure re-erected in character of an Exchange, which cost £7000, and con- 1822, and containing sculptures of eight Scottish sovetains, besides two spacious assembly rooms, á reading. reigns between James I. and James VII. Mareschal room, to which strangers are admitted gratuitously for College, formerly a plain old structure, has lately been six weeks. In Greenock there are two native banks, re-edified in handsome style, chiefly at the expense of besides branches of several others.

the nation. King's College consists of a handsome but James Watt, the improver of the steam-engine, was ill-assorted quadrangle, surmounted by a fine tower born in Greenock in 1736; and an institution for lite- and spire. The two colleges are attended by about 500 rary and scientific purposes, designed to serve as a students, nearly equally divided between them. In monument to him, and termed the Watt Institution, Old Aberdeen are also to be seen the remains of the was completed several years ago. The situation of the Cathedral, consisting of the nave of the original buildtown, on the shore of a land-locked basin of the Firth ing, with two towers at the west end. The ceiling is of Clyde, with the mountains of Argyleshire and Dum- composed of oak, cut out into forty-eight compartbartonshire rising on the opposite side, is very fine. ments, each displaying in strong colours the armorial

Amongst Scottish towns, Aberdeen ranks next to bearings of some eminent person, whose name is given Edinburgh and Glasgow. It is situated in the county below in Latin, and in the old Gothic character. named from it, on a level piece of ground between the Dundee, situated in Forfarshire, on the shore of the efluxes of the rivers Dee and Don, 110 miles from Firth of Tay, may be considered as the fourth town in Edinburgh. Its external appearance produces a favour- Scotland, whether in population or in the importance able impression; the principal streets are straight and conferred by wealth. It is a busy seaport, and the regular, and the buildings at once substantial and ele- chief seat of the linen manufacture in Scotland, and gant, the chief material used in constructing them being indeed in Great Britain. A series of docks, the erec& gray granite found here in great abundance. New tion of which cost about £400,000, extend along the Aberdeen, or what is now generally called Aberdeen, shore, where, a century ago, there was only a small is close to the efflux of the Dee, the mouth of which quay in the form of a crooked wall. In 1845 Dundee forms its harbour; and Old Aberdeen, where the an- had 44 vessels under 50 tons, giving 1599 tonnage; 265 cient Cathedral and King's College are situated, is a above 50 tons, giving 46,376 tonnage ; and 8 steamers comparatively small town, about a mile distant, on the of 1560 tonnage. The gross receipts at the customhouse amounted in the same year to £42,737. In 1815 rons, besides a lunatic asylum, there is the General the harbour dues amounted to £4,411 only; but in 1846 Penitentiary for Scotland, under the improved Prisons they exceeded £25,000. In 1745,' says Mr M‘Cul. Act of 1841. The beauty and salubrity of Perth are loch, only 74 tons of flax were imported. From that much enhanced by two beautiful pieces of adjacent period to 1791 the progress of the manufacture was public ground, respectively, entitled the North lock more rapid : in the latter year 2444 tons of flax and and South Inch. In the midst of a highly cultivated 299 tons of hemp being imported, and about 8,000,000 vale, pervaded by a great river, and with lofty moun. yards of linen, sail-cloth, &c. exported. Previously to tains in the distance, Perth, especially when its own this period all the yarn used in the manufacture was neat appearance is considered, may be said eminently spun upon the common hand-wheel, partly in the town, to deserve its appellation of the fair city. It is der and partly in the adjacent country; but the spinning connected by railway with Dundee and the north en of yarn by machinery began soon after to be introduced, the one hand, and with Glasgow, Edinburgh, and the and the increased facility of production, consequent to south, on the other. the erection of flax-mills, has been such, that the cost Dumfries, the principal town of Dumfriesshire (71 of the yarn, including of course the raw material, is miles from Edinburgh, and 34 from Carlisle), enjoys a now less than the mere expense of spinning amounted beautiful situation on the Nith, which is navigable to to 40 years ago! In 1811, 4 spinning-mills had been nearly this point for small vessels. The population constructed in Dundee: in 1831 the number was in- has varied little since 1821, being in that year 11,052; creased to 31; and in 1846 there were 50! The imports in 1831, 11,606; and in 1841, 11,069. Dumfries has of flax in 1845 amounted to 19,865 tons; flax codilla, a few small manufactures, but its chief importance 9198 tons; hemp, 1200; jute, 9298. The exports in the rests in its character as a kind of provincial capital same year were 77,000 pieces Osnaburgs; 282,000 pieces and seat of the county courts, and as an entrepót fer sheetings; 952 cotton bagging; 28,000 sundries; 160,000 the transmission of cattle and pork to the English sail-cloth; 133,000 sacking; 73 dowlas; and 30 sun- market. Eighty-four vessels belong to the port, with dries. The entire annual value of the linen goods an aggregate tonnage of 5783; and steam-vessels sal manufactured in Dundee are estimated at £1,600,000! regularly to Liverpool. The town has a neat and clean Besides the factories connected with the linen trade, appearance, has some handsome public buildings, and there are several extensive machine-factories, candle is the seat of considerable refinement. In St Michael's factories, sugar-refineries, and establishments for rope- Churchyard repose the remains of Burns, over whick making and ship-building. This great hive of industry his admirers have reared a handsome mausoleum, contained in 1831 a population of 45,355, which in Inverness (155 miles from Edinburgh) is the principal 1841 had increased to 62,794, of whom about one-fifth seat of population in the northern counties of Scotland. part are engaged in the linen manufacture. The town It is an ancient royal burgh, a seaport for the experi is represented in parliament by one member.

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and import trade of the district, and the seat of the Dundee contains one handsome place, denominated county courts. The situation on the river Ness, near the High Street, in the centre of the town, and several its junction with the sea, with some picturesque emi. other good streets; but the most elegant and commo- nences in the neighbourhood, is one of great beauty, dious private dwellings take the form of suburban and the town itself is well-built and remarkably clean. villas. There is a handsome modern building, serving Inverness is often called the Highland capital, being the purposes of an Exchange and reading-room, besides within the line of the Grampians, and the residence of which the most conspicuous public buildings are the many persons connected with that district. In 1845 Town-House and a building comprehensively called there were 144 vessels belonging to the port under 50 the Seminaries, containing an academy and grammar- tons, whose tonnage was 3737; and 80 vessels above school. The High Church of Dundee was an interest. 50 tons, whose tonnage was 6481. The custombouse ing building of the thirteenth century, with a massive dues amounted in the gross to £5082. The poputower 156 feet high; but the whole structure, except lation of the town and parish in 1831 was 14,324; in ing the steeple, was destroyed by fire in January 1841; 1841 it was 15,418. Amongst objects of interest may it has since been rebuilt after an equally elegant and be enumerated—the remains of a fort built by Crom. more commodious style. Dundee is now connected by well; Craig-Phadric, an eminence crowned by a vitrirailways with all the principal towns, and through fied fort; and the moor of Culloden (distant 5 miles), them with England. It also carries on a regular steam the scene of the fatal battle which extinguished the intercourse with London.

hopes of the House of Stuart. Perth, the chief town of the county of the same The principal towns in Scotland, next to those abore name, is celebrated on account of its elegant appear- enumerated, are—in Ayrshire, Kilmarnock, a prosperous ance, and the beautiful situation which it enjoys on the seat of the coarser woollen manufacture-population banks of the Tay, here a broad and majestic stream. in 1841, 19,956 ; Ayr, the capital of the county, a Umbrella-cloths, ginghams, handkerchiefs, and shawls thriving market-town, and in a small degree a seapert are manufactured in Perth in considerable quantities, ---population, 8264; in Stirlingshire, Stirling, the county the number of weavers employed being 1600; and there town, remarkable chiefly for its castle, a favourite sest are a flax spinning-mill and an extensive bleachfield. of the Scottish monarchs, and from which the most The river being navigable to this place for small ves- splendid views are commanded — population, 9095; sels, there is a harbour, chiefly for coasting trade. In Falkirk, a busy market-town, and the centre of a dis1845 there were 89 vessels belonging to the place, the trict remarkable for its iron-foundries, particularly the tonnage of which amounted to 8828; the gross receipt celebrated one of Carron-population, 15,621; in Fifeof customhouse dues was £12,572. The salmon fisheries shire, Dunfermline, the principal seat of the manufacon the river are a source of considerable income: the ture of damasks, diapers, and similar fabrics, and an fish are sent to London in boxes, the number of which ancient seat of royalty, celebrated for the remains of in 1845 was 6000, amounting to 300 tons. Perth had its Abbey, which contain the tomb of King Robert the in 1831 a population of 20,016; and in 1841, 19,293. Bruce-population, 20,217; Cupar, the county town, It is represented by one member in parliament. population, 6400; Kirkaldy, a busy manufacturing and

The streets of Perth are generally rectangular, and seaport town—with a population (including suburbs), well built of stone. The river is spanned by a substan- of 18,000, and a commercial shipping amounting to tial bridge, connecting the town with a small suburb 10,000 tons burthen; St Andrews, the seat of an ancient on the other side, and forming part of the great north university: in Forfarshire, Montrose and Arbroath, active road. The town contains most of the public buildings seats of the linen trade, celebrated for their pavement found in places of similar character and magnitude : quarries, and likewise seaports—the former having a the ancient Church of St John, an elegant suite of population of 15,000, and a tonnage of 15,200, the county buildings, an academy, and Town-Hall, are those latter a population of 8700, and a tonnage of 6500: in most entitled to notice within the town. In the envi. Morayshire, Elgin, a royal burgh and county town.

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