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of the west of England. It still possesses considerable these it is intimately connected by means of the river, trade, and has further of late years become the seat of railways, or otherwise. At Shields and Sunderland are some active and thriving manufactures. In 1837, 386 the great depôts of shipping in the coal and other ships, of 76,957 tons burthen, entered the harbour from trades. Besides its remarkable manufacturing and foreign ports, besides 632 from Ireland; and in the commercial industry, Newcastle is distinguished for its same year, the customs duties collected were £1,153,109. philosophical and literary institutions, no other town Sugar, rum, and tea, are the chief foreign imports; while of its kind possessing so many inhabitants of cultivated the chief exports are the native manufactures, and taste. In 1831, including the population of Gateshead, cotton, woollen, and linen goods. The chief native which was 15,177, Newcastle and its suburbs had a manufactures are soap, glass bottles, various metallic population of 68,790; in 1841, the population of Gateswares, drugs, dyes, and soda. It is honourable to head was 19,843; of Newcastle, 69,430-total, 89,273. Bristol that, as in its ancient days of supereminency as Hull (properly Kingston-upon-Hull) is situated at a port, it sent out the first English vessel across the the confluence of the River Hull with the estuary of Atlantic (that of Cabot, which discovered North Ame- the Humber, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, of which rica), so in these days it was the first to establish a district it is the principal town. It commands an excommunication by steam with the same continent. traordinary amount of inland navigation, not only by This was done in 1838, when the Great Western per- means of the Trent, Ouse, Derwent, and other branches formed its first voyage. The population of Bristol in of the Humber, but by means of canals connecting with 1831 was 117,016; in 1841, 123,188.
those streams, and penetrating to the very heart of Bristol is a well-built town, containing many spacious England. It is the principal outlet for the manufacstreets and squares, and extending into several beau. tures of York and Lancashire towards the continent of tiful suburban villages, as Clifton, Kingsdown, and Europe, the chief seat of the northern whale-fishery, St Michael's, where the residences of the wealthiest and one of the most important stations for steam-navicitizens are placed. The city coutains many public gation in the island, having packets of that kind structures of an interesting character. The cathedral voyaging not only to London, Newcastle, Leith, and is a fine old specimen of the Gothic architecture, and Aberdeen, besides many inland places in its own disthe church of St Mary Redcliffe is considered one of trict, but to Rotterdam, Hamburg, and occasionally to the most beautiful in England. The floating harbour, some of the ports in what is more particularly called formed out of the ancient beds of the two rivers, and the north of Europe. Hull was a noted port so early surrounded by an immense extent of quay, is a most as the reign of Edward I.; and in the seventeenth impressive object: the cost of its construction was not century it was a great state depôt for arms, on which much less than £700,000. The Guildhall, Jail, Com- account the possession of it in the time of the civil mercial Rooms, and Institution (which contains a li- war became an object of much importance. The rebrary, hall for lectures, &c.), are other public buildings fusal of its governor, Sir John Hothain, to give it up at of an elegant appearance. Clifton, well known for its that time to Charles I., or even to adınit his majesty hot springs, contains a suite of baths and pump-rooms. within the gates, is a conspicuous incident in English
Newcastle-on-Tyne. - This ancient and prosperous history. For some years, owing to various circumseat of commerce occupies a somewhat incommodious stances, some branches of the commerce of the port situation on the left or north bank of the Tyne, at the have experienced a decline rather than an advance; distance of about ten miles from the sea. It is locally but it is still a town of large trade. In 1829, 579 in the county of Northumberland, and by means of a vessels, of 72,248 aggregate tonnage, belonged to Hull. bridge across the Tyne, is connected with the populous For the accommodation of the shipping there is a splenborough of Gateshead, in the county of Durham. It did range of docks, with all the accommodations suitowes the origin of its name to Robert, the eldest son of able for storing a vast quantity of merchandise. The William the Conqueror, who erected a fortress on the population of the town in 1841 was 65,670. high bluff which here overhangs the river, and gave it Chester is one of the less important and less populous the name of Newcastle. For ages the town was sur- of the commercial towns of England. Such importance, rounded by strong walls, as a protection against invad- however, as it possesses as a commercial town, is ening Scottish armies: these, however, have disappeared, hanced by its being a county town and cathedral city, and in modern times the town has spread over the and the residence of a considerable number of persons irregular acclivities and upland which border the river. in independent circumstances. It is also remarkable The old fort or castle still exists, also the ancient Gothic for its antiquity and its historical associations, as well church of St Nicholas, whose elegant turret is conspi- as for some local features of an unusual kind. cuous at a considerable distance. The main cause of It is situated within a bend of the Dee, a few miles the increasing importance of Newcastle is its fortunate from the point where that river joins an estuary branchsituation in the midst of the great coal-field of North- ing from the Irish Channel. The two principal streets umberland and Durham, the produce of which finds a cross each other at right angles, and the town is still ready outlet by the Tyne. The plentifulness of coal surrounded by the massive walls which were originally has led to the establishment of numerous manufactures, designed to protect it from warlike aggression, but are among which are numbered cast and wrought iron, now only useful as an agreeable promenade, from which machinery, lead, glass, chemical productions, pottery, some pleasant views of the surrounding country may soap, and glue. The gross receipts at the customhouse, be obtaiued. The streets are formed in hollows dug which includes also the port of Shields, for the year out of rock, so that the lowest floor of each house is 1848, was £456,956. The older parts of the town near under the level of the ground behind, though looking the river exhibit a busy scene of industry; here are out upon the carriage-way in front. The paths for pascrowded together ship and boat-building yards, wharfs sengers are not here, as is usually the case, formed in for vessels, iron foundries and machine manufactories, lateral lines along the streets, but in a piazza running and all the usual works connected with a great seaport. along the front of what in England is called the first, The streets in this quarter are dirty and smoky, but other and in Scotland more correctly the second floor, of the parts of the town are of great elegance. Since 1834, by houses. These piazzas, called in Chester the Rows, are the extraordinary energy and taste of Mr Richard accessible from the street by stairs at convenient disGrainger, a speculating architect, a large portion of the tances. There are numerous shops entered from them, town has been taken down and rebuilt with handsome and they in some places still retain the massive wooden stone houses, amidst which are various public buildings, balustrades with which all were originally furnished, including a theatre, an Exchange, extensive markets, but for which, in other places, light iron railings have &c. Newcastle must be considered the metropolis of been substituted. Where the houses and balustrades a rich and populous district, including Tynemouth, are old, the effect is very curious and striking, and apt North and South Shields (all at the mouth of the to awaken ideas of ancient usages and habits long passed Tyne), Sunderland, Durham, and Gateshead; and with away. The cathedral of Chester contains some curious
ancient architecture. The castle is a splendid modern mean, Oxford appears to a stranger as beautiful exter. building, on the site of the powerful fortress which was nally as its historic character renders it venerable. once of such importance as a check upon the Welsh: The High Street, in which several colleges are situ. it contains the county court-house, jail, &c. The prin- ated, is generally acknowledged to be one of the finest cipal other buildings are the Halls built by the mer- streets in the world. The origin of the university is chants to serve as marts, of which there are three, be- usually attributed, but upon no certain authority, to sides the Exchange. The bridge across the Dee is a King Alfred. Oxford has certainly, however, been a remarkable object, being of one arch, with a span of famed seat of learning since the twelfth century. Each 200 feet; it cost £40,000.
college and hall has its own students and teachers, reChester was an important station of the Romans, venues and regulations; yet they are all united under from whom it derived the cross form of its two prin- the government of one university. The officers by cipal streets, and of whom many relics have from time whom the university is immediately governed, are the to time been dug up. It retained its importance dur-chancellor, high steward, vice-chancellor, and two procing Saxon and Norman times, and in the thirteenth and tors. In addition to the private officers in each college fourteenth centuries was a flourishing city, with a large and hall, who see that due order and discipline are maritime trade. It then declined, in consequence of preserved, and all the liberal sciences taught, there natural obstructions to the navigation of the river. are twenty-three public professors of the several arts From the year 1328 downwards, it was remarkable for and sciences. In 1844, there were 5026 members on the annual performance of a peculiar class of theatrical the books, one-third of whom, in their capacities as representations, similar to those performed at Coventry, fellows, &c. were maintained by the revenues. The and termed Mysteries. To modern taste these would students wear a peculiar dress, varied according to seem the most gross burlesque of sacred subjects; but their status in the college. They all live within the 80 convinced were the clergy of those days of their edi- precincts of their respective colleges. fying qualities, that a thousand days of pardon from Cambridge is the chief town in Cambridgeshire, and the pope, and forty from the bishop of Chester, were is situated on the Cam, at the distance of 50 miles granted to all who attended them. After a long period from London. It is also an elegant city, though less of declension, the trade of Chester was revived by the so than Oxford. The university has no certain date cutting of a new channel for the river, whereby vessels before 1229: it comprehends seventeen colleges, which of 600 tons burthen were enabled to come to the quays in most respects are similar to those of Oxford. near the town. The commerce, with the exception of King's College Chapel, built in the reign of Henry VI., a few ships which visit Spain, Portugal, the Mediterra- is considered the most beautiful structure in either nean, and the Baltic, is chiefly confined to Ireland, of the two university towns. whence an immense quantity of linen, hemp, flax, skins, and provisions, is imported. The exports of Chester
Naval Stations. are cheese (the staple production of the county), lead, Portsmouth, the principal rendezvous of the British coal, calamine, copper-plates, and cast - iron. Ship- navy, is situated on the west side of the Isle of Portsea building is carried on to a considerable extent, and in Hampshire. To the west of the island is the bay there are some manufactures of inferior consequence. called Portsmouth Harbour, excelling every other on The population in 1831 was 21,363; in 1841, 22,961. the coast of England for its spaciousness, depth, and
Southampton is an ancient, but considerably modern-security. The obvious utility of this harbour in such ised town, the capital of Hampshire, and, next to Ports- a situation caused it to be used at an early period as a mouth and Plymouth, may be considered the chief out station for shipping, and hence the rise of the town of port on the south coast. It enjoys a situation at once Portsmouth on the narrow inlet by which it communipleasant and convenient, in a Fale adjoining to the cates with the English Channel. It is also to be obbay bearing its own name. In modern times, the town. served that the strait between the mouth of this harhas been greatly improved and increased by the erec- bour and the Isle of Wight, forms the celebrated roadtion of lines of handsome streets in the environs, the stead of Spithead, which is capable of containing a residence of a respectable and leisurely population, thousand sail at anchor in the greatest security. The Among the attractions of the neighbourhood are those original or old town of Portsmouth, surrounded by of the New Forest, which almost adjoins the town, and ancient walls; the modern suburban towns of Portsea a beach forming a pleasant bathingplace in summer: and Southsea, respectively situated to the north and few sea-side towns are more salubrious or agreeable. south of the original town; and the town of Gosport, With the Isle of Wight, at a few miles' distance, there on the opposite side of the inlet to the harbour, may is a constant communication by steamboats. The South- all be said to form one cluster of population, probably Western Railway, which terminates near the shore of numbering not less than 70,000. "The beach opposite the bay, has greatly advanced the interests of the Southsea being well adapted for sea-bathing, has been town, by making it a depot of traffic in connection the cause of that suburb or village becoming a wateringwith the metropolis; and there are now constructing, place of considerable note. at a great cost, large wet-docks and wharfs for ship
The docks, arsenal, building-yards, and all the vaping. A considerable trade is already carried on with rious establishments concerned in the fitting-out and foreign countries, and the port is a main point of com- safe keeping of the national shipping, render Portsmunication between England and Guernsey, Jersey, mouth an object of wonder to all who see it for the first and Havre, in which, and some other respects, it is a time. The Dockyard includes the great area of 100 rising rival of the neighbouring town of Portsmouth. acres. The Smithery is a vast building, where anchors The population in 1831 was 19,324; in 1841, 27,490. are wrought, weighing from 70 to 90 hundredweight
each. On the Anchor-Wharf hundreds of these useful University Cities.
implements are piled up, ready for immediate service. Oxford, the chief of this limited class of cities, is The Ropery, where the cordage for the vessels is prethe principal town in Oxfordshire, and is situated in a pared, is three storeys high, 54 feet broad, and 1094 feet valley at the confluence of the Isis and Cherwell, at long. The Gun-Wharf is an immense arsenal, consistthe distance of 58 miles from London. Besides being ing of various ranges of buildings for the reception of the seat of the celebrated university named from it, it naval and military stores, artillery, &c. The Small is the seat of an episcopal see. Containing twenty | Armoury is capable of containing 25,000 stand of arms. colleges and five balls, a cathedral, and thirteen There is a naval college, where å hundred scholars in elegant parish churches, besides the Radcliffe Library, time of war, and seventy in time of peace, are taught; the University Theatre, and several other elegant thirty, who are the children of officers, being mainpublic buildings, all condensed into a small space, tained and educated at the public expense. During amidst streets some of which are straight and elegant, war, the number of persons employed in the various while none, except a few of an obscure character, are establishments connected with the public service at
Portsmouth has amounted to 5000. The principal | Mechanics’ Institute, &c. Of the two parish churches, buildings connected with the arsenal and dockyards, the most ancient is that of St Andrew, built previously are the commissioner's house, the government house, to 1291, a handsome building of the Gothic order ; the victualling office, the port-admiral's house, and Charles's Church is also a Gothic structure. Among the naval and military barracks. The promenade along the charitable institutions, which are about 30, are a the fortifications forms one of the most agreeable fea- workhouse, a public dispensary, an eye-infirmary, a tures of the town. Amongst objects of curiosity we lying-in charity, a public subscription school, almsmay specify the Victory, Nelson's flag-ship at Trafalgar; houses, Bible societies, &c. the Semaphore Telegraph; and the house (No. 110 High Street) in which the Duke of Buckingham was tempo
Towns of Residence and Recreation. rarily residing, when in front of it he was stabbed to Bath. - This is reckoned the best - built town in death by Lieutenant Felton in 1628. The church of England, and is a favourite residence of the higher Portsmouth is a spacious Gothic structure, with a classes, either for recreation or in pursuit of health. comparatively modern tower, useful as a landmark to It is situated in Somersetshire, at the distance of about seamen. There are various charitable, literary, and 108 miles west from London, and lies in a valley discientific institutions connected with the town. vided by the River Avon. Though of great antiquity,
Plymouth is another important naval station, besides the place came into notice and rose to importance in being a thriving commercial town. It is situated at comparatively modern times, in consequence of posthe head of the capacious haven of Plymouth Sound sessing certain hot mineral springs, considered to be in Devonshire, on the east side of a tongue of land efficacious in the cure of different complaints. The formed by the estuaries of the rivers Plym and Tamar, water issues from the ground at temperature of from which here empty themselves into the sea. Essentially 109° to 117° of Fahrenheit, and the quantity discharged connected with Plymouth is Devonport, situated in the daily from the various outlets is 184,320 gallons. The immediate neighbourhood, and properly an appendage water has been analysed, and is found to contain sulof Plymouth, though of late years distinguished by a phate of lime, with considerably lesser proportions of separate name. The united population in 1841 was muriate of soda, sulphate of soda, carbonic acid, and 75,599. Plymouth having gradually risen from the carbonate of lime, also a minute portion of silica and condition of a small fishing-town to its present size, oxide of iron. It is stimulating in its properties, and most of the streets are irregular, and by no means is said to be most successful in cases of palsy, rheumaelegant or commodious; but the new parts of the town tism, gout, and cutaneous diseases. Over the springs are handsome, and are spreading rapidly.
there are elegant pump-rooms and baths. The modern Plymouth carries on a considerable trade in timber parts of the town are built as streets, crescents, and with North America and the Baltic, and an intercourse squares, the houses being of polished sandstone, and in has been established with the West Indies. The coast- some instances constructed with much taste. Living ing-trade is chiefly with London, Newcastle, Newport is expensive in the town during the fashionable season. (in Wales), and Bristol. The chief imports are coal, The population in 1831 was 38,063; in 1841, 52,346. culm, corn, wine, and timber. It is as a naval and Chelienham competes with Bath as a fashionable remilitary station that the town is chiefly distinguished. sort for valetudinarians, real or imaginary. It is situSituated upon a capacious and secure natural harbour, ated in Gloucestershire, 88 miles west from London, near the mouth of the English Channel, it is well and 39} north-east of Bath. The situation is exceedadapted for this purpose, fleets having a ready exit ingly delightful, being remarkably well sheltered by the from it upon any expedition towards the Mediterra- range of Coteswold Hills on the north-east, and having nean, the Indies, or America. The dock, which is an exposure to the south and west; it is on this account situated at Devonport (formerly on that account called preferred to all other towns in England by persons from Plymouth Dock), extends along the bank of the Ta- India and other hot climates. Besides being attractive mar, in a curve 3500 feet in length, with a width at the from the salubrity and mildness of its climate, Cheltenmiddle, where it is greatest, of 1600 feet, and at each ham, like Bath, possesses mineral springs reckoned of extremity 1000, thus including an area of 96 acres. value for medical purposes, but particularly for invalids Of the fortifications connected with Plymouth, the with diseased livers. There are several springs, some most remarkable is the citadel, which was erected in of which are chalybeate, but their properties and the reign of Charles II. It is placed in a most com- strength are liable to variation. Cheltenham is laid manding situation on the east end of the height called out, in a very ornamental manner, with walks and the Hoe, which shelters the town from the sea. It is pleasure-grounds, and may be described as perhaps the esceedingly well fortified, and is constantly garrisoned. prettiest town of a small size in England. As in Bath, It contains the residence of the governor of Plymouth, the expense of living is very great. The population of and barracks for 500 or 600 troops. The Victualling the parish in 1831 was 22,942, about one-half of whom Office, an important establishment, containing store belonged to the town; in 1841, it was 31,207. houses, granaries, baking-houses, and cellars for supply- Brighton, on the coast of Sussex, has risen into iming the meat, bread, and liquors required to provision portance within the last sixty years, partly in consethe vessels of the Royal Navy, occupies a splendid quence of a beach remarkably well adapted for seabuilding in the adjacent township of East Stonehouse. bathing, and partly from its attracting the regard of The port of Plymouth is distinguished for its capacity, George Prince of Wales, who reared a marine palace and the security which it affords in its several parts. here in a Chinese style. The population in 1831 was It is capable of containing 2000 sail, and is one of the 40,634; in 1841, 48,567. Brighton is an elegant and finest barbours in the world. It consists of three divi. airy town, with much to render it agreeable as a place sions or harbours-Sutton Pool, immediately adjoin- of residence for persons in affluent circumstances. The ing the town; Catwater, an extensive sheet, formed by Steyne, a spacious and beautiful lawn, nearly surthe estuary of the Plym; and the harbour or bay of rounded by houses, the Marine Parade, and several Hamoaze. At the mouth of these harbours, the great terraces overlooking the sea, furnish delightful walks; bay of Plymouth Sound forms an excellent roadstead, while the Baths, Theatre, Assembly Rooms, &c. form which is now completely secure by the erection of the additional attractions. There is a regular intercourse breakwater across its entrance. [For an account of this with Dieppe by steam-vessels. The Chain-Pier is a immense structure, see Breakwaters, p. 432, Vol. I.] remarkable object: it was erected in 1823 at an expense The Eddystone Lighthouse is also an important ap- of £30,000, is 1134 feet long, 13 feet in breadth, and pendage to the harbour, the entrance of which would, is supported on four clusters of piles. without this beacon, be extremely dangerous.
Amongst other towns of this class, we can only notice The public buildings of Plymouth are—the Custom- Herne Bay, Margate, and Ramsgate, situated on the house, the Exchange, the Athenæum, the Public Library, coast of Kent, and which may be considered as the the Theatre, the Classical and Mathematical School, the chief places of summer recreation for the inhabitants of
London, to and from which steamers ply daily. Herne | in 1841, 30,152. York, whatever its first rise might Bay is a place of recent date, rising into notice, and be, was a city of the Romans, and occupied by Roman possessing a pleasant open beach, with space for pro- citizens as a colony. It was successively the seat of inenading. Margate is a town of a much earlier date, Adrian, Severus, and other emperors: Severus died here situated in an open part of a bold line of chalky cliffs, in the year 210. At the time of the Norman Conquest, and consists of a confused cluster of streets, with some it was a city of considerable consequence and size. This lines of building of a more airy description in the en- eminence it retained for several centuries, but latterly virons. The town is well supplied with shops, bazaars, it has sunk into a mere county and cathedral town; and places of amusement during the bathing-season; it that is to say, a place where a considerable number of also possesses numerous respectable boarding houses, legal and ecclesiastical functionaries reside, and from where, on moderate terms, a person may reside for a which articles of necessity and luxury are diffused orer short time in a very agreeable manner. At these houses, a neighbouring rural district. parties of pleasure are made up for the day, the ex- It is entered by four principal gates or bars, bas sir pense of cars and refreshments during the excursion bridges, a cathedral, twenty-three churches, besides being defrayed by general contribution. Within a mile places of worship for various dissenting bodies;
a guild. or two along the coast is another summer retreat called hall, county-hall, and other public buildings. The most Broadstairs; and beyond it, at an equal distance, is remarkable object by many degrees is the Cathedral, or Ramsgate. The chalk cliffs here, which are bold and Minster, a most superb specimen of the Gothic archi. precipitous, afford a high and salubrious position for tecture, measuring in length 5247 feet; in breadth actosa the chief part of the town, and beneath there is a fine the transepts, 222 feet; the nave being in height 9a, tract of sandy beach for the use of bathers. The har- and the grand tower 213 feet. The various parts were bour at Ramsgate is one of the best in England, and built at different times between 1227 and 1377. The affords shelter to all kinds of vessels in the Downs. parts most admired are the east window, and the screen
dividing the choir from the body of the church. This
window consists of upwards of 200 compartments of Of this class of towns, besides those which have been stained glass, containing representations of the Supreme already noticed under other heads, we can here only Being, saints, and events recorded in Scripture. The advert to three of more than usual importance:- screen is a piece of carved wood-work in a highly-oma
Canterbury, the capital of Kent, is a city of great mental style. The chapter-house is also much admired: antiquity, having formed the seat of an ecclesiastical it is a magnificent structure, of an octagonal form, 63 establishment to St Augustine, the apostle of Christi- feet in diameter, and 68 feet in height. York Minster anity to Britain in the sixth century. In the tenth and has within the last ten years twice suffered severely eleventh centuries, the town derived great importance from fire. The damage produced on the first occasion from the erection or extension of a cathedral, on a most-namely, the destruction of the wooden work in the extensive scale, and of the purest Gothic architecture. choir—was completely and successfully repaired; that In 1162, the archiepiscopal see was bestowed on the which took place on the second occasion, and which famous Becket, who enjoyed it eight years, till the consisted of the destruction of the interior of one of the period of his murder in 1170, when his shrine became smaller towers and the roof of the nare, has also been an object of extraordinary reverence, and brought pil. repaired. York was at one time a commercial towa griins in thousands from all parts of the kingdom. The of some importance, conducting trade by means of the cathedral, which thus became celebrated, still exists, river Ouse, which is navigable for vessels of 120 tons in a slightly-altered and improved condition. Its form burthen. It still possesses a few small manufactures. is that of a cross, with a central tower of unrivalled Winchester, a town of great antiquity in Hampshire, workmanship, reaching to a height of 236 feet. The at the distance of 62 miles from London, is situated in size of the building is immense: the length inside, the bottom of a rich grassy vale, through which flows from east to west, being 514 feet; height of the vaulted the Itchin, a small river which issues into the sea at roof, 80 feet; breadth of the nave and side aisles, 71 Southampton. There was a town here before the Chrisfeet; and breadth of the cross aisles, from north to tian era, and it afterwards became the principal city south, 124 feet. The interior exhibits a number of of the Danish, Saxon, and Norman dynasties." It was interesting monuments of distinguished individuals. the scene of Alfred and Canute's glories; and here, Altogether, the cathedral is a work of exceeding gran- with innumerable princes, bishops, and abbots, they lie deur, and, with exquisite beauty of form, possesses a interred. Till the revolution, it continued a chief place profound historical interest. The town of Canterbury of residence of the royal family; a palace built by the is old, and, like most cathedral towns, is a dull and Stuarts is now used as a barrack for soldiers. In the formal place of residence, with a proportion of genteel reign of Edward III. (1366), Winchester became the inhabitants. It is, however, neat and clean, and is episcopal see of the celebrated William of Wykeham, surrounded by a fertile and pleasant tract of country. who greatly improved the cathedral, and instituted : It has a number of large hotels and posting-houses, to college for the education of youth. The cathedral has accommodate the numerous travellers passing between undergone various mutations; but being lately repaired the metropolis and Dover, the chief out-port for France. and cleaned, is now one of the finest structures of the The distance from London is fifty-six miles, and from kind in Britain. The splendid mausoleum of William Dover sixteen. The only object of attraction in the of Wykeham, in one of its aisles, is an object of great town besides the cathedral, is a pleasure-ground called interest. At a short distance from the cathedral are the Danejohn, a corruption of the word donjon, such a placed the venerable buildings composing the College building having once occupied the spot in connection of Wykeham, at which a number of young gentlemen with the city walls. The area of the field is laid out are educated and prepared for the university. Another with an avenue of trees, and is principally otherwise a highly-interesting object of antiquity is the Hospital grassy esplanade, open freely to all the inhabitants. In of St Cross, situated about a mile down the Itchin. 1790, the field was presented by Mr Alderman James Founded by Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, Simmonds for the use and recreation of the inhabitants and brother of King Stephen, in 1136, St Cross is the in all time coming—an act of generosity deserving the most perfect specimen remaining in England of the highest commendation. The population of Canterbury conventual establishments of the middle ages, and in 1831 was 14,463; in 1841, 15,422.
affords a residence and means of subsistence to thirteen York is considered as the second city in the kingdom indigent old men. Winchester is composed of a variety in point of dignity—the chief town of the county, and of old streets, and seems among the least improved the cathedral city of the archiepiscopal diocese bearing towns in England. Latterly it has been inspired with its name—is situated at the confluence of the rivers a little animation, by becoming a station on the line Foss and Ouse, in one of the richest and most extensive of the London and Southampton Railway. Population plains in England. Its population in 1831 was 25,359; | in 1831, 9212; in 1841, 9370.
Ben More, Ben Wyvis, and Ben Attow—the last 4000 feet. 2. The Grampians, a well-defined, but branching range running across the country--the highest peaks of which are Ben Cruachan, Ben Nevis, Ben Avon, Cairn
gorum, Cairntoul, and Ben Macdhui—the last 4390 DELITI
feet. 3. The Central or Lowland Group, the component Oxkney Islands
chains of which are the Ochil, Sidlaw, Campsie, Lo
mond, Pentland, and Lammermuir Hills—the highest kitovat Pertandin Firth
point being Ben Clach in Clackmannan, 2359 feet. 4.
The Cheriots, with their continuation the Lowthers, Thurso o Wick
&c. that form the great water-shed of Southern ScotGERMAN
land, none of which exceed 2700 feet. All these chains
or groups cross the country, and preserve a wonderful Banff
degree of parallelism : indeed, taking the Forth as the OCEAN
central depression of a vast trough, the edges of which Aberdeca
are formed respectively by the Grampians and Che. viots, all the other hill-ranges, both geologically and
in point of altitude, may be looked upon as so many E Tay Dundee
descending steps to the centre.
There are no great plains in Scotland, a feature not
to be expected from the limited extent and peculiar Elizburgh
configuration of the country. There are, however, a Ager
number of considerable valleys, known as carses, straths, Hawk
haughs, and dales, intermediate between the mountainDumfri
Newcastle ranges; and these form, as it were, the granaries of the Lenidory
country. The principal of these are, Strathmore--that is, 'Great Valley'-lying between the Grampians and Ochils, and extending through part of Perth, Forfar,
and Kincardine; the Carse of Gowrie on the north of SCOTLAND, one of the component parts of Great Bri- the Tay; Strathearn, lying along the course of the Earn tain, occupies the northern, the smaller, and less fertile to where it joins the Tay; the Carse of Stirling and portion of that island. It lies between lat. 54° 38' and Falkirk, in the valley of the Forth; the Howe of Fife, 58° 40' north, and between long. 1° 46' and 6° 4' west, lying along the Eden; Clydesdale; and the Merse of 0T, including the Hebrides, 7° 44' west. It is thus Berwick. The cultivated grounds, which form scarcely washed on the west and north by the Atlantic, and on a third of the whole surface, chiefly lie in tracts sloping the east by the German Ocean; and on the south is to the sea-coast, and in the lower parts of these vales. bounded by England, the Solway Firth, and part of the less precipitous hilly districts are chiefly occupied the Irish Sea. Its coast-line presents the most fantas- as pastoral ground for sheep and cattle. Wood, which tic irregularities : here jutting into the ocean in high once covered a large portion of the surface, is now narrow peninsulas, there receding far inland, in lake- chiefly confined to the neighbourhood of gentlemen's like gulfs, and again suddenly starting seaward, and seats, and to plantations which have been raised within breaking into a number of bold rocky headlands. Its the last sixty years for the protection of arable lands greatest length, from the Mull of Galloway on the from the cold easterly and north-easterly winds. south to Dunnet Head on the north, is about 280 miles; its breadth is variable, being about 146 miles between
GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE. Buchan Ness in Aberdeenshire and the extreme point The rock formations of the country commence with of Ross - shire on the west, but diminishing to little the earliest primaries, and if we except a few insignimore than 30 miles between the Firths of Forth and ficant and dubious patches, terminate with the coal. Clyde. The entire surface is estimated at 30,094 square measures, or the immediately overlying new red sandmiles, of which 26,014 are mainland, and 4080 insular. stone. The Highlands constitute one of the best
examples of a primary country, whose strata are conSUPERFICIAL FEATURES,
torted and disrupted into a thousand irregularities by Superficially, the country may be described as moun- effusions of granite, greenstone, and other early igneous tainous and rugged—its central and southern districts, rocks; and with the exception of a small secondary however, exhibit less of this character; hence the com- basin in the plain of the Tweed and along the Solway mon distinction of Highlands and Lowlands. A line Firth, the same remark is applicable to all the southern drawn from Aberdeen to Glasgow may be regarded as mountainous part of the country. The secondary forthe boundary between the two regions—the former a mations-old red sandstone, carboniferous limestone, country full of romantic scenery, savage precipitous and coal-measures, with their associated traps and mountains, lakes, dreary moorlands, rushing streams, basalts-occupy the central portions of the country, deep glens, and wild hanging woods; the latter being forming a broad band, which is bounded on the north Jess elevated and irregular, but still presenting several by a line drawn from Stonehaven to the mouth of the considerable mountain-ranges. A more correct division, Clyde, and on the south by one drawn from Dunbar to perhaps, would be into northern, central, and southern Girvan in Ayrshire. In this band or trough, which regions: the first comprising the Highlands proper; the slopes from both sides to the Forth and Clyde, occur second that triangular space enclosed by the line drawn the coal, limestone, and ironstone, which, within the from Aberdeen to Glasgow, and another line formed last thirty years, have so much contributed to the by the courses of the Clyde and Tweed; and the third commercial advancement of Scotland. region all the counties to the south-west of these rivers. The chief mineral produce of the country consists of
The principal mountain-ranges and groups are:-1. excellent granite, as that of Aberdeen and KirkcudThose north of the Caledonian Canal, an irregular and bright; marble, as that from Assynt; slate from Ballarugged conformation, of which the highest points are hulish, &c.; limestone in almost every county; building No, 65,