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SWEDEN.

few attain perfection. The main harvest is hay-tho rearing of | The cultivated products consist chiefly of rye, barley, cattle forming, with fishing, the principal occupation of the oats, wheat, potatoes, peas, hemp and flax, buckwheat, people. There are no regular manufactures: stockings and mit-madder, bops, and woad in the south; but as we protens, however, knitted by the women, form articles of export; ceed northward, most of these disappear, and oats, as do also wool, skins, dried fish, oil, cider-down, &c. The Faroe Islands, also in the Northern Ocean, lie between barley, maslin (a mixture of barley and oats), and po

tatoes are alone cultivated--oats ripening so far as 639 lat. 61° 30 and 62° 20' north, and long. 69 and 8° west; about 185 miles north-west of the Shetland Islands, and 320 south-east of north, and a coarse variety of barley even to the limits Iceland. The group consists of 22 bold rocky isles, 16 of wbich

of the pine-woods in 69° 30'. The principal wild ani. are inhabited ; have an aggregate area of 495 square miles, and mals are the bear, wolf, wolverine, fox, lynx, badger, a Scandinavian population of 7000. The surface of the land con- otter, squirrel, lemming, and other small rodents ; sists of a succession of hills (the highest 2940 feet), with inter with a few scattered members of the beaver family! vening stripes of valley, covered with a thin soil, on which is Game-birds are everywhere rife, from the partridge to grown potatoes, turnips, and occasional patches of barley ; hay, the capercailzie; rapacious species, as the golden-eagle, as in Iceland, being the principal crop. There are no trees, sea-eagle, horned and snowy owl, are also frequent; but there is abundance of peat for fuel, as well as coal. The and aquatic birds, as the swan, geese, and a variety of wealth of the population arises chiefly from sheep-rearing, fish- ducks, appear in great abundance, either permanently ing, and fowling.

or migrant. Seals and porpoises are found in the Baltic, whose waters also furnish plentiful supplies

of cod, sole, turbot, pilchard, herring, stremming, This country occupies the eastern and more import- mackerel, oysters, &c.; while in the rivers and lakes ant section of the Scandinavian peninsula, and is are sturgeon, salmon, trout, pike, and perch. situated between lat. 55° 20' and 69° north, and long. The inhabitants, with the exception of a few Finns 11° 10' and 24° 12' east. Its extreme length is about and Laplanders, are wholly of Gothic descent, speaking 965 miles, and its average breadth 188 : the area, a variety or dialect of the old Norse—the common root including islands, is computed at 170,220 square miles. of the Danish, Norwegian, and other tongues. The

Physically, the country presents several districts of religion of the state, and that to which almost the very different aspect; the whole, however, declining whole population adhere, is the Lutheran, admini. from the Kölen and Dofrine ranges towards the basin stered by 1 archbishop, 11 bishops, and about 3000 of the Baltic. Starting with these, which have the inferior clergy. All other creeds are tolerated, but character of an irregular table-land, about 20 or 25 none but Lutherans are eligible to any employment iniles across, and only at intervals studded with moun- under the state. The educational institutions of the tains of more than 5000 feet high, we find the gene- country are of a superior description, and, like the ral elevation between 2000 and 2800 feet, covered with church, are upheld and supervised by the state. There straggling forests of pine and birch, and intersected are upwards of 3000 elementary schools; high-schools by narrow valleys, whose depressions are occupied by or gymnasia in all the provincial capitals; and two lakes and torrents. From this tract the country de- universities-namely, that of Upsala and Lund. Atscends by steps or plateaux-the first being of no great tendance at the primary schools is not compulsory; breadth, and from 700 to 800 feet above the sea; the but every adult must give proof of ability to read the second about 280 feet high, and more than 40 miles in Scriptures before he can exercise any act of majority. breadth; the third from 90 to 110 feet; and lastly, a Industrially, the Swedes are a busy, hardy, clearfringe of inconsiderable elevation above the Baltic headed, and progressive people. Of late years governThroughout the whole of these, the rivers which rise ment has given great encouragement to agriculture, and in the mountain plateau hold on their course, present the spirit being participated by the landholders, a very ing numerous rapids and waterfalls; only a few of perceptible improvement has taken place—so much so, them, as the Angermans, being navigable during the indeed, that from requiring imports of corn in 1826, two last stages of their descent. Such is the superficial | Sweden is now a corn-exporting country. The fisheries character of Nordland and part of Sweden Proper. As --principally in herring, stremming, salmon, white fish, we travel southwards through the latter territory, the and lobster-are extensively and profitably conducted; face of the country becomes flat, or only diversified by and mining, especially in iron and copper, employs a the insignificant ridges which enclose the great lakes considerable number of hands-about 90,000 tons of Wener, Wetter, &c. South of the lakes, the greater bar-iron being produced annually, and not less than part of Gothland presents the same low and sandy 800 tons of copper. The manufactures are chiefly character as the opposite coast of Denmark, and evi- domestic, the peasantry supplying themselves, as windently belongs to the same recent marine formation. ter employment, with nearly all the coarse woollens, The most important mineral products are--iron (the best linens, and cottons they require. There are, howerer, in Europe), copper, and lead in abundance ; cobalt, some cloth factories, sugar refineries, distilleries, leather, zinc, antimony, gold and silver in minor quantities; paper, soap, and glass-works in the larger towns. marble, porphyry, limestone, and potters' clay.

The government is a limited monarchy, hereditary in Respecting climate, Nordland, part of which lies within the male line, and restricted to the Lutheran creed. the Arctic Circle, bas from five to six months of winter; The legislative power is vested in the king and represnow and ice then covering the mountains and rivers, sentative Diet, consisting of four chambers--namely, and locking up the waters of the Gulf of Bothnia. On nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasantry. The esethe other hand, the summer is sudden and short, but cutive is managed by the king and a state council. excessively warm; at midsummer, the sun never falls beneath the horizon north of Tornea; and the crops of oats and barley come to maturity in six or eight weeks, Norway occupies the western section of the Scan. In the central parts, winter lasts only about four dinavian peninsula; extends from lat. 58° to 71° 10 months, but is severe enough in most seasons to lock north, and from long. 5° to 31° east; and is bounded up the Baltic; and in the southern level tracts, the on the west and north by the Northern Ocean, east by climate is very similar to that of northern Germany. Russian Lapland and Sweden, and south by the Skager

The vegetable productions, as might be expected from Rack. Its greatest length is upwards of 1100 miles, the high"latitude and natural poverty of the soil, are and average breadth 50; area 134,300 sq. miles. by no means abundant. In the forests, which cover The general aspect of the country is bleak, rugged, about 98,000 square miles, pines, firs, alders, and ) and sterile; the shores are rocky and precipitous, and birches are prevalent in the north; these, with oak, on the west fenced by numerous small islands, and inelm, and ash in the central districts; and the beech, dented by fiords. The interior consists chiefly of the chestnut, mulberry, &c. only in the south. Apples, mountain masses of the Kölen and Dofrefelds; rising pears, and other garden fruits are grown in Gothland; in the north almost from the water's edge, and in the the gooseberry family even within the Arctic Circle. south spread out in plateaux or fjelds, intersected by

NORWAY,

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narrow valleys susceptible of a scanty culture, or by water lagoons, which communicate with the Baltic by steep ravines, down which impetuous rivers cleave their navigable openings; and the celebrated thermal springs way by rapids and waterfalls. The lowest tracts, and of Aix-la-Chapelle (143°). those to which cultivation is chiefly limited, occur The people of Prussia belong principally to the mund Christiana fiord, and the adjoining shores of the great Germanic and Sclavonic families--the Poles in Skager Rack, or to the south and east of the Bay of Pozen, West Prussia, &c. belonging to the latter, and Trondheim. The geology of the country is primary, the bulk of the inhabitants in the other provinces and yields, like the contiguous parts of Sweden, iron, to the former. German is the language of the court, copper, cobalt, zinc, marble, and slate.

as well as of the better-informed classes in all the The climate of a region, a large portion of which lies provinces. The Lithuanians in East Prussia, the within the Arctic Circle, cannot of course be brought Vandals in Pomerania, and the Jews in the principal under one general description. Suffice it to say that it cities, do not exceed perhaps 250,000. With regard to is milder, but more variable than that of Sweden under religion, all sects and creeds enjoy the amplest liberty; the same parallels. At Christiana, winter lasts from nearly three-fifths professing the evangelical faith, the middle of September to the middle of May, and two-fifths that of the Roman Catholic, the fraction summer is short and warm; in Lapland, winter endures being Jews, Mennonites, Rationalists, &c. In no from August till May, and for many weeks the sun is other country is the system of education so complete; invisible (the aurora borealis and stars being the only and in none is the instruction of all classes so carefully natural lights); while summer is short and fervid, the provided for. The law imposes upon parents the strict sun never sinking beneath the horizon.

obligation of sending their children to school, unless The inhabitants, with the exception of the Lap- they can prove that they are giving them a proper landers, are members of the Teutonic race, and imme- education at home; and care is everywhere taken to diately descended from the old Scandinavian Norse- furnish the poor with the means of complying with this men—& dialect of whose language they employ. In law, by providing their children with the things necesreligion they are Lutherans; but all other sects are sary, and even with clothes. Every parish is bound to tolerated save Jews, who are prohibited from settling have an elementary school, and every town one burghin the country. In educational matters, Norway is in school or more, according to the population, Above debted to her former connection with Denmark; in these are gymnasiums, and in these institutions classical every parish there is a school for elementary instruc- learning is pursued preparatory to admission into the tion, academies or laerde-skoles in thirteen of the prin- universities, of which there are seven-in the cities of cipal towns, and a university in the capital.

Berlin, Breslau, Halle, Bonn, Konigsberg, Munster, and The industry of Norway is chiefly limited to her Greifswald. Besides these there are normal schools for forests

, which yield excellent timber, bark, and tar; to the training of teachers, establishments for instruction her fisheries of cod, lubfish, herrings, lobsters, salmon, in particular arts, and collections of natural history, anchories, &c.; to her mines and foundries of iron, philosophical apparatus, and public libraries, accessible copper, and cobalt; and to shipping (2280 vessels, navi- to any person who chooses to avail himself of their gated by 11,400 men), much of which is employed in assistance. The whole of this admirable system is the carrying-trade of other countries. Agriculture is upheld partly by private fees, partly by the respective in very rude and primitive state; and the manufac- towns and provinces, and partly by the state; the tures are almost wholly domestic.

whole being under the strict and unremitting surWith respect to government, Norway was an appanage veillance of government functionaries. of the Danish crown until 1814, when, by the conven- The national industry has been already detailed under tion of Kiel, it was placed under that of Sweden. It that of the German Confederation. Prussia, however, still, however, retains its own representative body or is mainly an agricultural country—the Rhenish prostortking (which is essentially democratic); and is, in vinces, Saxony and Silesia, being as yet the only mareality, no more connected with Swedish rule than Dufacturing districts. Internal communication is conHanover was formerly with Britain. The executive is ducted by means of several good lines of road; by the rested in a viceroy and council at Christiana; and for great rivers, which are all less or more navigable; and administration, the country is divided into 5 dioceses, by the great German lines of railway. and these again into 17 amts or provinces. Aggregate Government, a hereditary monarchy, with a council of population of Norway and Sweden, 4,306,600; revenue, state ; and since 1824, provincial assemblies, to whom £155,600; debt, £651,000; army, 50,000.

laws are submitted for deliberation. For administra

tive purposes, the country is divided into ten provinces, PRUSSIA,

which are subdivided into regencies, and these again This is one of the great European powers, occupying into circles. National debt about £22,515,000; revenue, a large portion of northern and western Germany, part £8,650,000; expenditure, £8,700,000; standing army, of what was formerly Poland, some detached patches in 150,000—the war complement, 337,000 men. raiddle Germany, and to these may be added the Swiss canton of Neufchatel, which acknowledges the sovereignty of the Prussian king. The country has thus The Russian Empire comprises the whole northern an extensive and heterogeneous frontier, which weakens, region of the eastern hemisphere, from the frontiers of of at all events keeps in check, that power which, in Prussia and the Baltic on the west to the Pacific on less than a century, added to the original duchy of the east; crosses Behring's Straits, and includes a porBrandenburg the above-mentioned territories, and rose tion of North America in the western hemisphere; to the position of a first-rate kingdom. Its area, ex- together with a number of islands in the adjacent seas, dusire of Neufchatel, is 107,842 square miles.

Much of this vast territory--which amounts to nearly Its physical aspect, geology, climate, vegetation, and one-seventh of the terrestrial part of the globe—is

, animal productions, are identical with those described however,

uninhabited, and indeed unfit to be so; the under the north and west of Germany; the surface greater portion rude and ungenial, and but thinly being generally level, with the exception of the hilly, tenanted by semi-barbarous tribes; and

only that see mineral districts of Saxony and Silesia; the soil sandy, tion in central Europe entitled to be ranked with civi. and often covered with heaths ; defaced by large bogs lised nations. European Russia, to which

we now limit and morasses, particularly in the north-east ; present our description, is bounded on the north by the Arctic ing in most districts extensive forests of fir; and only Ocean; east by the Oural Mountains and the Caspian; The chief hydrographical features not already

adverted west by Turkey, Austria, Prussia, and the Baltic. The to are the Oder, with its large tributaries the Neisse, area is estimated at 2,045,000 square miles. Spree , Wartha, and Netz;

portions of the Russian Superficially, the territory may be regarded as one rifere Vistula and

Niemen ;' the curious haffs, or fresh- vast plain, with a slight elevation running diagonally

RUSSIA.

across the interior, and forming the great water-shed poppy, &c. The characteristic wild animals are which diverts the rivers to the Arctic Ocean on the one the polar bear, the black and brown bears of the forest, hand, and to the Caspian and Black Seas on the other. the reindeer, elk, urus, wild horse of the Ukraine, wolí, If we except the Ouralian Mountains on its eastern blue fox, lynx, beaver, sable, ermine, lemming, &c.; border, and a hilly tract in the Crimea, there is no por- game, but not abundantly; the sturgeon, salmon, trout, tion of the country which rises more than 1100 feet carp, pike, mackerel, and a variety of other fishes in above the sea, and that only near Valdai in the cen- the rivers; and the bee, whose honey and wax for tral plateau. « The northern section, which sensibly valuable products of consumption and export. declines,' says a native author, towards the White The population of the country, amounting to and Frozen Seas, is covered with vast forests, abounds 60,000,000, is composed of a vast variety of races, disin marshes and lakes, and is but little fit for cultiva- fering in language, religion, manners from the rudest tion. The other, and more southerly portion of the state of barbarisın to the highest point of European plain, includes the whole district along the Wolga, as civilisation. Laying aside minor distinctions, they may far as the sandy steppes or deserts between the Caspian be classed under the following stocks:-The Sclavonic, and the Sea of Azov, and constitutes the finest part of including the Russians Proper, the Poles, Bulgarians, Russia: generally, it has a fertile soil, the arable and and Servians; the Finns of Finland, Lapland, and pasture land preponderating over the woods and Esthonia ; the Lettish tribes of the Baltic provinces; marshes. That part of the country which extends to the Toorkees of the Caucasus, Astrakhan, Kazan, the wards Voronej, Tambov, Penza, and Simbirsk, as far Crimea, &c.; the Deutsch or Germans in Riga, Retel, as the deserts, is remarkable for the superior quality and St Petersburg; the Goths, including the Swedes oi of every kind of fruit and other produce. It has every. Finland ; and in lesser numbers Danes, Jews, Greeks where an excellent soil, consisting of black earth, French, and English. The settled inhabitants are strongly impregnated with saltpetre. But the tract ranked in four classes — nobles, clergy, citizens, and which commences between the Sea of Azov and the peasants; the peasants being either freemen with Caspian, and extends near the shores of the latter, and limited privileges, or serfs belonging to the soil, and between the Wolga and Oural, as far north as the transferable like any other species of property. Samara, is little better than a desert, being level, dry, All forms of religious faith are tolerated; but that high, barren, and full of salt lakes.'

of the orthodox Greek Church prevails, and is adhered The rock formations of Russia present much less to by the Russians, Servians, Cossacks, &c. The Roman variety than might be expected from the extent of the Catholic faith is professed by the Poles and Lithua. country, chiefly in consequence of the flat and unbroken nians; the Swedes, Danes, Finns, and most of the Ger. manner in which they lie. The chief economic minerals mans are Lutherans ; Calvinism reckons but a small are-gold, platina, silver, lead, and copper from the number of Poles and Germans ; Islamism is the creed Oural; copper and tin in Finland; iron from the cen- of the Toorkee or Tartars; and the Jews observe the tral elevation of Valdai, &c.; coal in Poland, Toula, Mosaic ritual. Educationally, the country is in a very and Ikatherinoslav, but of little impo ance; rock-salt depressed state, if we take into account only the peaand brine - springs in Poland, Taurida, Perm, and sants and lower orders; but among the citizens and other places; lime, alabaster, gypsum, and amber. higher classes there is a more general dissemination of

The climate of Russia is said to be much colder than knowledge than is generally believed. According to that of other European countries in the same latitude; an educational scheme drawn out in 1802, somewhat and the farther we proceed eastward, the temperature similar to that of Denmark, a certain number of unibecomes still lower, in consequence of the uncultivated versities, lyceums, and elementary schools were to be state of the surface, distance from the tempering in- erected, upheld, and conducted under government; bat fluences of the ocean, and the frequency of easterly only a few of these have as yet been established. and northerly winds from the icy regions of the Arctic The industrial operations of the country are as yet Ocean. In the northern section the winter is severe, conducted in a very primitive manner, and upon s and lasts from eight to nine months; all the rivers limited scale, considering the vastitude of the natural and seas are frozen, and the ground deeply covered resources. Agriculture is in its first stage, and yet, with snow : summer, on the other hand, is short and owing to the excellency of the soil and comparatively hot; and there is, generally speaking, neither spring small home demand, large supplies are annually ex. nor autumn. In the central region winter is also ported. Of late years, manufactures, under high presevere, but shorter; there is something like spring and tective duties, have risen to some consideration, and autumn, and summer is still warmer. In the south, the country now possesses a number of establishments winter continues only for about five months, freezing for the preparation of woollen goods, silk, cotton, linen, the rivers and shores; and summer is often fervid and and metal wares. The chief seats of these are the oppressive. The provinces bordering on the Baltic governinents of Moscow, Novgorod, Vladimir, Sarator, have a wet and variable climate, and this feature ex- | Toula, and St Petersburg. The Russians,' says Watertends to the elevated tract which borders the upper ston,' excel in the manufacture of leather; and from basin of the Wolga; but farther eastward, and in the their advantages in respect to raw material, their canvas, extreme north and south, the atmosphere is clear and strong linens, cordage, felt, mats, potash, soap, candles, dry—a circuinstance which materially modifies the caviar, and isinglas, are quite as good as those made effects of the winter's cold.

elsewhere ; but in all other branches their productions The vegetable and animal productions present less cannot compete with those of Western Europe, espe. variety than might be expected from a region lying cially Britain, as to finish, durability, and cheapness ; between the 45th and 70th parallels. The most re- and their existence is therefore dependent upon a promarkable feature in the former is the vast expanse of hibitory system of export duties.'. forest growth, covering about two-fifths of the entire The government is an absolute hereditary monarchy; superficies. As already hinted, these are most exten- all power emanates from the czar, emperor, or autocrat, sive in the north and central regions, especially between whose authority is without limit or control. He is the the 55th and 60th parallels, where it has been said central point of the administration, the head of the that a squirrel might travel between St Petersburg and church as well as of the state, and to his decision, or Moscow without touching the ground. Among the cul- for his sanction, all important measures must be subtivated plants we may notice rye all over the country, mitted. His authority is delegated to certain boards, barley to 67° north, oats to 62° north, wheat in the fer- the members of which are of his own appointment; and tile tracts along the southern rivers, millet along the to these respectively are committed the ordering and Don, hemp and flax in the west and centre, tobacco in execution of all legislative, judicial, civil, religious, the Ukraine, cranberries in the marshes of the north, financial, and other affairs. Population, 60,362,250; fruit in the south-east, the vine in the Crimea and Cau- revenue, £16,380,000; debt, £76,800,000; army 500,000. casian provinces; and variously, potatoes, rape, rhubarb, Capital, St Petersburg, with 476,000 inhabitants.

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ENGLAND AND WALES.

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| Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall, and terminating in the promontory of the Land's End-the highest point of which is Cawsand Beacon in Devon, 1792 feet; 2. The Cambrian Range, extending from the Bristol Channel, through Wales, the culminating point of which is

Snowdon, 3571 feet; 3. The Northern or Cumbrian Scarbsrength

Range, stretching from Derbyshire, through Cumber

land, and passing into Scotland, whose loftiest peak is Sheffield W

Skafell in Cumberland, 3166 feet.
IRISH SEA

In the central and eastern parts of the country (south of Yorkshire)

there are a few ill-defined ranges of swelling eminences; Liverpool

but none which exceed 1020 feet. The chalk-hills or

Downs of southern England are inconsiderable emi• Birmingham

nences, radiating in different directions from the table

land of Salisbury Plain in Hampshire, the highest *Cambritten

point of which is only 1001 feet. Besides Snowdon

and Skafell, the principal heights in England are Bristol, Oxford

David (3427 feet), and Llewellan (3469), both in Wales; Baltas ?

Skeddaw (3022), and Saddleback (2787), in CumberSalisbury

land; and Helvellyn (3055), in Westmoreland. Sordkamplona

In contradistinction to these mountain-ranges are the moors, vales, marshes, and other level tracts, which constitute no inconsiderable portion of the surface. The principal moorlands are those of Northumberland, extensive, open, solitary wastes, producing little except

heath, at an elevation of from 500 to 1000 feet above Gzernsey

the sea ; the moors of Durham, in the Lead - Mines district; those of Cumberland and Westmoreland,

inseparably blended with the mountains of those ENGLAND and the principality of Wales, which we shall counties; those of Yorkshire, forming a wide elevated treat as one incorporated country under the former of tract, ungenial in soil and climate; those of Staffordthese names, occupy the most southerly, and at the shire, at an elevation between 500 and 1154 feet; same time the largest and most fertile, portion of Great Dartmoor in Devonshire, covering upwards of 240,000 Britain-an island, the position of which is at once acres, at a mean elevation of 1700 feet, and of extreme favourable to commerce, to security, and to national ruggedness ; Exmoor, partly in Devon, and partly in independence. Placed in a medium latitude, it is Somerset, consisting of 20,000 acres, for the most part further preserved by the surrounding ocean from those bleak, waste, and irreclaimable; and the heathy upextremes of heat, and cold, and aridity, to which con- lands of Surrey, Hunts, and Dorset. tinental countries, both in higher and lower parallels, The vales or dales, traversed generally by the rivers, are frequently subjected. England, then, is bounded form an important feature in the geography of Engon the north by Scotland, from which it is chiefly land; their verdure, shelter, and fertility being unseparated by the Solway Firth and the Cheviot hills; surpassed by any other portion of Europe. The on the east by the German Ocean; on the south by principal are—the Vale of York, about 60 miles in the English Channel; and on the west by St George's length, and of variable breadth, occupying an area of Channel and the Irish Sea. The space thus included 640,000 acres; Holderness, lying between the Humber is rather irregular in form, and lies between lat. and the sea, in the south-eastern part of Yorkshire, 49° 57' and 55° 45' north, and between long. 5° 41' 270,000 acres; the vale in which Carlisle is situated, west, and 1° 46' east. Measuring along the second 300,000 acres; the Vale of the Severn, extending through meridian, from St Alban’s Head on the south to Ber- | Gloucester and Worcester for nearly 40 miles; the Vale wick on the north, its length is 362 miles; its breadth, of Exeter, 128,000 acres; the Vale of Taunton, 64,000; from Land's End to North Foreland in Kent, 330 the Wealds of Southern England; and the minor dales miles; from St David's Head in Pembroke to Lowes- of the Tyne, Wear, and Tees. The low marshy district toft in Suffolk, 300; from Lancaster Bay to Bridlington called the Pens, lying around the Wash, principally in Bay in Yorkshire, 110; and from the Solway Firth Cambridge and Lincoln, but partly also in Northampto Tynemouth, only 64 miles. Its area is estimated ton, Norfolk, Suffolk, &c. forms a level tract of not at 57,812 square miles, or nearly 37,000,000 acres, of less than 500,000 acres-apparently of recent elevation which 5,200,000 belong to Wales.

above the waters of the German Ocean. For the last two centuries much engineering skill and capital have

been expended on the drainage and reclaiming of these The superficial features of England, though not de- fens, and the result has been the acquirement of exvoid of variety and picturesque beauty, are, upon the tensive tracts of the richest and most fertile alluvium. whole, less diversified than those of Scotland and of the surface thus described, probably not above Ireland. Generally speaking, its western side—from one-ninth (Wales being included) is unsusceptible of Cumberland and Westmoreland, southwards through tillage, or at least of profitable improvement. Wales, into Devon and Cornwall—is hilly or mountainous; while the eastern side, sloping from these heights down to the German Ocean (as evidenced by Geologically, England exhibits traces of every formathe direction of the principal rivers), is of an undulat- tion; its western or hilly region being chiefly granitic ing, flat, and sometimes monotonous character. The and primary, and serving as a basis for the other forchief mountain-ranges which give character to the mations, which take on in succession, till we reach the country have been classed under three heads :-1. The chalk and tertiary beds in the south-eastern portion. Devonian Range, stretching from Gloucester, through The range or strike of these formations is in a north No. 64.

209

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SUPERFICIAL FEATURES.

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE.

and south direction, so that a geological map exhibits

HYDROGRAPHY, &c. them (not taking minor interruptions into account) like so many longitudinal bands overlapping each other, The gulfs, bays, straits, and other arms and indentafrom the slates of Cornwall and Wales, to the chalks tions of the oceans which surround England are, with and tertiary clays of Kent and Middlesex. These for- one or two exceptions, of limited dimensions. On the mations display most of the subordinate groups of the east coast are the estuary of the Humber, receiving geologist (see No. 2), with all their characteristic animal the waters of several rivers; the Wash, a large shallow and vegetable remains in great perfection.

inlet full of sandbanks and mud-shoals; Harwich HarThus, in Cornwall and Devon eminences of granite, bour; Blackwater Bay; and the estuary of the Thames, serpentine, and porphyry occur, while the slopes rest- also incumbered with numerous intricate shoals and ing on them are composed of different kinds of slate. sandbanks. On the south are the irregular expanse The granite of this district is extensively used for pav. formed by the Solent and Spithead roads, and Southing in London, though considered less hard and durable ampton water, the last of which runs inland for ten or than that brought from Scotland. The Welsh moun- | twelve miles, and is navigable to its extremity; Plytains are composed chiefly of varieties of slate, with mouth Sound, celebrated for the stupendous breakwater some intermixture of volcanic rocks, as basalt and which protects its water from the swell of the Atlantic; trap; while a rich coal-field, 100 miles in length, and Falmouth Harbour, and Mounts Bay, so called from from five to ten in breadth, rests upon their southern St Michael's Mount, a curious insulated rock a little verge, extending from Glamorgan into Pembrokeshire, off the mainland. On the west are-Barnstaple Bay; being the largest coal-field in Great Britain. The Bristol Channel, a deep gulf 25 miles wide at its northern range of mountains is also chiefly composed entrance, and about 8 where it joins the estuary of of slate rocks, there being only one mountain of granite the Severn; the bays of Swansea and Caermarthen; near Shap in Westmoreland. Between these ranges of Milford Haven, one of the safest and most capacious mountains, and a line drawn from Exmouth, through harbours of England; St Bride's Bay; the large bays of Bath, Gloucester, Leicester, Nottingham, and Tadcaster, Cardigan and Caernarvon; the estuaries of the Dee, to Stockton-upon-Tees, the surface is composed of the Mersey, and Ribble; and Morecambe Bay, a large lower secondary strata, including rich beds of coal, the inlet, so shallow that proposals were at one time made existence of which in this situation is mainly what has to reclaim it from the sea. The straits are those of enabled England to become the first manufacturing Dover, 21 miles across, and about 17 fathoms at its country in the world. The eastern parts of the coun- deepest part, supposed by geologists to be of recent ties of Durham and Northumberland, from the Tees excavation - England before that event having been northward to Berwick, form a peculiarly valuable coal- | attached to the main continent; and the Menai Strait, field, of numerous beds, from which the metropolis and separating the island of Anglesea from the mainland other cities in the east of England and elsewhere are of Wales, about 14 miles in length, and varying from supplied with this important mineral. Another coal- 2 miles to 200 yards across. This strait is crossed by field of great value, and that upon which the manufac- a magnificent suspension-bridge, erected by Telford in tures of Manchester depend, extends northwards from 1826; and is now in course of being spanned by a susMacclesfield to Oldham, and thence westwards to pension railway-tube or tunnel of still more gigantic Prescot near Liverpool. A coal-field near Wolver- proportions and curious construction. hampton, in Staffordshire, is the most valuable in the The principal capes are Flamborough Head, Spurn centre of England: upon it depend the extensive me. Head, North Foreland, and South Foreland on the tallic manufactures of Birmingham.

east; Dungeness, Beachy Head, St Alban's Head, PortTo the east of the line drawn from Exmouth to Bath, land Point, Start Point, Bolt Head, and Lizard Point and thence by Gloucester, Leicester, and Tadcaster, to on the south; Land's End, Hartland Point, St Goven's Stockton-upon-Tees, we find the upper rocks of the Head, St David's Ilead, Stumble Head, Holyhead, secondary formation, presenting in succession red sand- Ormes Head, and St Bee's Head on the west; and Air stone and red marl, lias limestone and clay, politic Point in the Isle of Man. All of those mentioned on limestone, green sand with clay, and finally chalk. the east and south, and the two last on the west, are Connected with the red marl, vast masses of rock-salt the sites of lighthouses, indispensable to the safety of are found; these are extensively dug in Cheshire and the immense coasting trade of the country, Worcestershire for domestic use. Lias, which extends The islands geographically connected with England from Lyme in Dorsetshire to Whitby in Yorkshire, is are, with one or two exceptions, small and unimportant, remarkable for the remains which it presents of the Off the east coast are-Holy Isle or Lindisfarne, conlarge saurian reptiles. Beds of oolitic limestone cover taining the remains of an abbey and castle; the Farns, the southern part of Gloucestershire, and a great part a dangerous group of small rocky islets; Foulness and of Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Rutlandshire, and Sheerness at the entrance of the Thames; and the Isle the eastern side of Lincolnshire. The chalk exists of Thanet, formed by two branches of the small river everywhere to the south-east of a line commencing near Stour. Off the south coast--the large, beautiful, and Dorchester, on the south coast, and passing through salubrious Isle of Wight, sometimes called “The GarWilts, Berks, Norfolk, and so on to Flamborough Head den of England ;' Purbeck and Portland Islands, noted -excepting in Sussex and Kent, where it has been for their quarries ; the Eddystone rock, with its celecarried off by denudation, exposing a peculiar formation brated lighthouse; and the Scilly Islandsmå group called the wealden, and in the bed of the Thames near consisting of seventeen rocky islets, thirty miles westLondon, and one or two other places, where tertiary south-west from the Land's End. Off the west coast beds of clay occur. To sum up—the economic mineral--the small islands of Lundy, Skomer, Bardsey, Holyproduce of England consists chiefly of granite, roofing- head, and the Skerries; the large island of Anglesea; slate, limestone, some marble, coal, both bituminous and the Isle of Man, which, legislatively and judicially, and anthracite, building-stones of various kinds, rock- forms a sort of independent territory. (For Jersey, salt, alum, potters' clay, fullers' earth, and siliceous Guernsey, &c. see No. 63, p. 193.) sands; the metallic of copper, tin, lead, silver, zinc, The lakes of England are few, and of very tiny dimenmanganese, iron, antimony, arsenic, and plumbago. sions; the largest scarcely covering an area of four The main depositories of the metals are the hills of square miles; but the beauty of their associated scenery Cornwall, Devon, Wales, and Cumberland, Iron, as a has conferred on them an almost universal reputation. clay carbonate, is chiefly obtained from the shales of We refer to the lakes of Cumberland, Westmoreland, the coal-measures. The principal coal-fields are those and the north of Lancashire;

the largest of which are of Durham and Northumberland, Lancaster, Stafford, Winandermere, Ulleswater, Thirlmere, Derwentwater, and South Wales. Rock-salt and brine springs are Bassenthwaite, Buttermere, and Crumnockwater. These found only in Cheshire and Worcester; and plumbago lie amid the vales and recesses of the Cumbrian range; almost solely in Borrowdale, Cumberland.

and it is the combination of Alpine wildness and gran

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